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EN
This article focuses on issues related to risk assessment when maneuvering a loaded bulk carrier in close proximity to a vessel performing underwater work at the time. It is based on a detailed analysis of an incident that took place in the Gulf of Gdansk. The write-up explains real turns of events, conditions and factors that contributed to the incident, but also its consequences are explained. Some other aspects of this article focuses on, are the processes of examination of the direct causes of the incident and identification not compliance with regulations, requirements, or procedures that help to find out the human, technical, and organizational errors. The authors of this text indicate the safety guards that have failed, give the reasons for their failure and, where it was possible, point out the safety guards that should or must be established. The article does not take into account theoretical models for the described accidents, but only practical aspects, human errors and applicable local and international laws and regulations. Particular attention was devoted to the analysis of human errors made by officers maneuvering the surface vessel in the close vicinity of divers performing underwater works.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono praktyczne aspekty implementacji dyrektywy Parlamentu Europejskiego i Rady (UE) 2020/2184 z dnia 16 grudnia 2020 r. w sprawie jakości wody przeznaczonej do spożycia przez ludzi (DWD) do polskiego prawa. Omówiono znaczenie oceny ryzyka i zarządzania ryzykiem w systemie zaopatrzenia w wodę. Wskazano znaczenie planów bezpieczeństwa wody jako narzędzia zarządzania ryzykiem oraz zasady ich tworzenia. Podkreślono rolę projektantów i wykonawców wewnętrznych systemów wodociągowych w zapewnieniu właściwej jakości wody i spełnieniu wymagań DWD.
EN
The paper focuses on practical aspects of implementing Directive (EU) 2020/2184 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2020 on the quality of water intended for human consumption (DWD) to Polish law. The significance of risk assessment and risk management in the supply system is discussed. The importance of water safety plans as a risk management tool and the principles of their formation are indicated. The role of designers and contractors of domestic distribution systems to ensure proper water quality and to meet DWD requirements is emphasized.
EN
One of the basic stages of mining operations is development work. During them there can occur the events that affect the process of development work as well as the safety of workers. This article conducts a process risk assessment using the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) method to identify events that disrupt the development work process, along with the causes of the occurrence of these events. The study covered the process of development work i.e. the execution of the M-2 roadway in seam 502/1 realized at a depth of about 550 m with an assumed length of about 500 m. As a result of the study, those risks for which countermeasures should be applied were identified, and measures were proposed to minimize the risks involved. As part of the research, an FMEA evaluation form was created to assess process risks in the execution of similar work. The highest process risk was identified for the drivage of the excavation with a road header, and is related to the possibility of frequent failure of hydraulic systems. Similar process risk results were obtained for the risk associated with improper execution of mining with explosives and the need to perform additional blasting work in the excavated roadway. The results can contribute to reducing the time of coal face stoppage during development work, and thus improve the process of them and reduce the costs incurred during this process.
EN
This article explores the development of a new business strategy in the Republic of Lithuania that focuses on the processing of waste tires into fuel. An innovative approach has been adopted, which incorporates three interdependent components: managerial, legal, and financial/economic factors. This approach ensures the integration of different levels and functions of management for the inclusive development of this business in the Republic of Lithuania. A set of indicators has been proposed, which were used to conduct a comparative analysis of alternative types of energy used for heating, such as diesel fuel, pyrolysis, wood pellets, electricity, and natural gas. A mathematical model has been constructed to formalize the financial and economic results of the tire recycling business, and it can be used to determine the results with any number of recycled tires. The investment analysis of the tire recycling business in the Republic of Lithuania confirms the economic feasibility of the proposed strategy. The risk assessment of the proposed strategy was also conducted, taking into account the technical and possible initial volumes of processing. Based on these economic and mathematical tools, managerial decisions can be made regarding the strategic alternatives for implementation. Additionally, the implementation of this strategy can lead to multiple positive environmental and social outcomes such as reduction of waste tires in landfills and decrease in dependence on fossil fuels. The results of this research provide a valuable basis for decision-makers in the government and private sector to consider the implementation of this innovative strategy and contribute to the sustainable development of the country.
EN
The article discusses the construction and functionality of a modular line for the production of low-emission composite fuel, which was developed as part of a project cofinanced by European Funds, the aim of which was to develop an ecological, composite solid fuel intended for low and medium power boilers. The designed and built innovative production line has been tested in terms of safety requirements in accordance with the Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC. Based on the harmonized standards, the risk estimation algorithm was selected. The assessment covered, inter alia, mechanical, electrical and thermal hazards, hazards related to noise and processed material, and those related to control systems that perform safety functions. In order to eliminate non-conformities, technical and organizational measures increasing the safety of service were proposed.
PL
W artykule omówiono budowę i funkcjonalność modułowej linii do wytwarzania niskoemisyjnego paliwa kompozytowego, która została opracowana w ramach projektu dofinansowanego z Funduszy Europejskich, którego celem było opracowanie ekologicznego, kompozytowego paliwa stałego przeznaczonego do kotłów małej i średniej mocy. Zaprojektowana i zbudowana innowacyjna linia produkcyjna została sprawdzona pod kątem wymagań bezpieczeństwa według Dyrektywy Maszynowej 2006/42/WE. Na podstawie norm zharmonizowanych dokonano wyboru algorytmu szacowania ryzyka. Ocenie podlegały m.in. zagrożenia mechaniczne, elektryczne, termiczne, zagrożenia związane z hałasem i przetwarzanym materiałem oraz dotyczące systemów sterowania realizujących funkcje bezpieczeństwa. W celu eliminacji niezgodności zaproponowane zostały techniczne i organizacyjne środki podnoszące bezpieczeństwo obsługi.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono nowe wymagania jakie zostały określone w dyrektywie Parlamentu Europejskiego i Rady Europy w sprawie jakości wody przeznaczonej do spożycia przez ludzi w związku z zagrożeniami zdrowotnymi ze strony bakterii z rodzaju Legionella, wiązanymi z wewnętrznymi systemami wodociągowymi. Omówiono znaczenie i zakres istotnych zmian dotyczących wdrożenia opartego na ryzyku podejścia do bezpieczeństwa wody przeznaczonej do spożycia przez ludzi, w tym nowych obowiązków dla właścicieli i zarządzających instalacjami wodnymi wewnątrz budynków.
EN
This article presents the new requirements that have been set out in the European Parliament and Council Directive on the quality of water intended for human consumption in relation to health risks from bacteria of the genus Legionella associated with domestic distribution systems. It discusses the relevance and scope of the significant changes regarding the implementation of a risk-based approach to the safety of water intended for human consumption including new responsibilities of owners and managers of domestic distribution systems in buildings.
EN
Ecological and geochemical indicators have been widely accepted as tools with the potential for rapid risk assessment of metal contamination of bottom sediments. In this study we propose a selection of such indicators to characterize the potential ecological risks stemming from metal contamination of the bottom sediments of the Chechło reservoir (S Poland). The Chechło reservoir is located in an area formerly occupied by zinc and lead ore mining and processing industry. High amounts of metals, especially zinc (39.37–4772.00 mg/kg d.m.), cadmium (0.37–21.13 mg/kg d.m.) and lead (4.50–434.49 mg/kg d.m.) have been found in the bottom sediments. Both geochemical (CD – contamination degree) and ecological indices (mean PECQ) were indicative of bottom sediment contamination and their potential toxicity to living organisms. Most of the bottom sediment samples (71%) examined were toxic for Heterocypris incongruens, while only 9% of the samples were toxic to Sinapis alba. However, no significant correlations between the metal content and the response of the test organisms were observed. Correlation and principal component analyses (PCA) showed that silt and clay fractions were the key factors influencing the metal content in the sediments. Our study makes a contribution to building evidence of the need to integrate several indices for the assessment of environmental risks related to the presence of metals in bottom sediments rather than relying on a single one.
EN
The accurate assessment of aircraft structure damage risk is the premise of establishing reasonable, economic and reliable maintenance intervals. While many studies have proposed damage risk assessment methods for aircraft structures, these methods lack the quantification of risk. This paper proposed a risk assessment method of aircraft structure damage maintenance interval considering fatigue crack growth rate and crack detection rate. The damage process of aircraft structure was simulated by Monte Carlo simulation to realize the quantitative assessment of aircraft structure damage risk and maintenance interval. Taking an aircraft fleet as an example, the damage risk of its wing structure was simulated and analyzed. The results show that if the risk is controlled within a reasonable range, the maintenance interval should be shortened to 16 flight hours. At the same time, through the analysis of the risk classification standard and the crack detection rate, the quantitative evaluation of the risk classification standard was realized.
9
Content available remote Bezpieczna praca w laboratorium mikrobiologicznym
PL
Prace laboratoryjne, podczas których dochodzi do kontaktu ze szkodliwymi czynnikami biologicznymi, stanowią potencjalne zagrożenie dla pracowników i środowiska. Bezpieczna praca w laboratorium mikrobiologicznym opiera się na połączeniu takich elementów, jak: prawidłowo przeprowadzona ocena ryzyka zawodowego, odpowiednio zaplanowane pomieszczenia (wyposażone w prawidłowo funkcjonujące aparaturę i sprzęt), adekwatne kwalifikacje personelu, właściwie dobrane i użytkowane środki ochrony indywidualnej oraz przestrzeganie zasad bezpiecznej pracy z mikroorganizmami, będącymi potencjalnym źródłem zakażenia.
EN
Laboratory work involving contact with harmful biological agents is a potential threat to both workers and the environment. Safe work in a microbiological laboratory is based on a combination of such elements as: properly conducted occupational risk assessment, correctly designed lab spaces (equipped with functioning apparatus and equipment), appropriate personnel qualifications, well selected personal protective equipment, and compliance with the principles of safe work with microorganisms that are a potential source of infection.
10
Content available Risk assessment in railway rolling stock planning
EN
Rolling stock planning is one of the steps in the traffic planning process considered from the railway undertaking's point of view. It is directly related to the efficiency of rolling stock utilisation, which should be ensured at the highest possible level in the case of rail transport. The planning work stage is subject to certain risks (threats and opportunities), which, if they materialise, will impact it. It, therefore, makes sense to carry out analyses that can anticipate specific events in good time and introduce appropriate countermeasures in advance. This article aims to conduct a risk assessment process concerning rolling stock planning. It was assumed that the considerations were carried out based on the M_o_R (Management of Risk) methodology. Based on this methodology, risk identification and risk analysis (estimation of risk impact) were carried out. Risk assessment was carried out using the Monte Carlo simulation method. The work identified sixteen risks that represent threats. The principle of risk description was used to identify risks. It requires indicating for each risk the reason for its occurrence and the effect it may have. As a part of risk estimation, variables were selected to assess each risk's impact on the objectives of the stage. Publicly available statistical data were used to define the variables. The variables were expressed in monetary units. The work identified five variables describing impact, which were assigned to the individual risks. As a triangular probability distribution was used for the variability of impact description, the variable's minimum, most likely, and maximum value was identified. A risk assessment was carried out for only two impact description variables (for those variables used to describe the impact of the most significant number of risks). For each variable, statistical parameters were indicated and analysed. The resulting value of the variable describing the impact was then read out for each percentile, and the expected value of the risk was calculated. A detailed risk assessment was made for the lower, middle and upper quartiles. A histogram of the incidence of each variable value was presented, and an assessment was made.
EN
The implementation of processes comprising the overall project management consists in the use of various tools, methods and techniques depending on the type of the project. The knowledge of the industry and the characteristics of construction projects make it possible to select those which, on the one hand, will not cause difficulties for the contractors and on the other, will, in fact, constitute a necessary complement to the technical skills of the project manager. Construction companies face situations that have a profound impact on the failure of projects. Such occurrences include a large number of simultaneously implemented projects, the appointment of a person who knows the project mainly from the implementation side as the project manager, a failure to perform risk analysis and procedures that become irrelevant when deadlines are approaching. After reviewing the available construction projects, analysing the literature, consulting experts and making observations, the authors determined that the majority of difficulties and failures result from omissions or errors that take place during the project planning and implementation stages. The following paper outlines the selected elements of project management, whose application in construction projects may significantly affect their final success and the results obtained. It also includes an example of the use of modern management methods, which certainly include risk management methods. A utilitarian tool addressing the effects of risk analysis is a contingency plan. Contingency may be translated as eventuality, possibility and sometimes also as coincidence.
PL
W realizacji procesów składających się na całościowe zarządzanie projektem możemy zidentyfikować różne narzędzia, metody i techniki uzależnione od rodzaju prowadzonego projektu. Znajomość branży oraz charakterystyki przedsięwzięć budowlanych pozwala na wybranie tych, które z jednej strony nie przysporzą trudności realizatorom a z drugiej strony będą wręcz niezbędnym uzupełnieniem do technicznych umiejętności kierownika projektu. W przedsiębiorstwach budowlanych możemy zidentyfikować sytuacje, które mają ogromny wpływ na finalne niepowodzenie projektów. Wśród takich zdarzeń obserwujemy dużą liczbę realizowanych jednocześnie projektów, wybór na kierownika projektu osoby, które zna projekt głównie od strony realizacji, brak analizy ryzyka czy procedury, które przy nadchodzących deadlinach schodzą na drugi plan. Po zweryfikowaniu dostępnych projektów budowlanych, analizie literatury, przeprowadzeniu konsultacji z ekspertami oraz obserwacji, zespół autorski określił, iż większość trudności i niepowodzeń jest efektem zaniechań lub błędów na etapie planowania i realizacji projektów. W pracy przedstawiono wybrane elementy zarządzania projektami, których zastosowanie w projektach budowlanych może wpłynąć w znacznym stopniu na finalne powodzenie projektu i osiągane wyniki. Podano także przykład wykorzystania nowoczesnych metod zarządzania. Do nowoczesnych metod zarządzania możemy z pewnością zaliczyć metody służące do zarządzania ryzykiem. Utylitarnym narzędziem odnoszącym się do efektów analizy ryzyka są plany kontyngencji. Kontyngencje możemy tłumaczyć jako: ewentualność, możliwość, a czasami także jako przypadek.
EN
The article shows that in crisis management, risks can be effectively analysed and managed by rational use of mathematical and technical methods. It presents two quantitative methods for risk assessment and a procedure for transferring the results to logistical social networks (LSNs). The need to use social logistical networks, where modern techniques can be applied, including the Internet of Things (IoT) or Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication, enabling the collection of any amount of data to logistical social networks, is indicated. The article stresses that research on public crisis management must be interdisciplinary in nature, taking into account all aspects of security management, including social, technical and economic issues. Modern methods of assessing the state and risk of a crisis situation of individual elements of the systems generate an increasing number of data, the collection, collection, processing and sharing of which requires ensuring information security and protecting the personal freedom of the individual.
EN
As one of the objectives of the CASCADE project is to carry out a cost-benefit analysis to enhance resilience, in order to develop the CCRA (Climate Change Risk Assessment) methodology, the guidelines include a capacity analysis. The ability to adapt to change or to respond in the event of a disaster, as well as the ability to recover from damage within a specified timeframe, are key elements of resilience. Because changes are inevitable, the investment in these three elements is necessary. This is due to the fact that disaster scenarios are uncertain and the question arises as to how to invest in risk reduction to reach a satisfactory goal. The proposal comprised by the CCRA guidelines is to use the game theory. Actually, this proposal is a part of game theory, namely Game with Nature where Nature is not interested in benefit and probability of Nature State in future is unknown. As there are many possibilities of Nature State a probability that a correct investment decision would be made is low. To a much greater extent the decision will be wrong or almost wrong in the case of an optimised decision. The only thing the decision maker can do is randomly select investments or apply the game theory to minimise his sense of loss.
PL
Ze względu na fakt, że jednym z celów projektu CASCADE jest przeprowadzenie analizy kosztów i korzyści w celu wzmocnienia odporności, w celu opracowania metodologii CCRA (Climate Change Risk Assessment) w wytycznych uwzględniono analizę zdolności. Zdolność do przysto sowania się do zmian lub do reagowania w przypadku wystąpienia katastrofy, a także zdolność do odbudowy zniszczeń w określonym czasie stanowią główny element odporności. Ponieważ zmiany są nieuniknione, konieczne jest inwestowanie w te trzy elementy. Wynika to z faktu, że scenariusze katastrof są niepewne i pojawia się pytanie, jak inwestować w zmniejszenie ryzyka, aby osiągnąć zadowalający cel. Propozycja zawarta w wytycznych CCRA polega na wykorzystaniu teorii gier. W rzeczywistości propozycja ta jest częścią teorii gier, a mianowicie Gry z Naturą, w której Natura nie jest zainteresowana korzyściami, a prawdopodobieństwo wystąpienia Stanu Natury w przyszłości jest nieznane. Ponieważ istnieje wiele możliwości wystąpienia Stanu Natury, prawdopodobieństwo podjęcia prawidłowej decyzji inwestycyjnej jest niewielkie. W znacznie większym stopniu decyzja będzie nietrafiona lub prawie nietrafiona w przypadku decyzji zoptymalizowanej. Jedyne, co może zrobić decydent, to losowy wybór inwestycji lub zastosowanie teorii gier w celu zminimalizowania swojego poczucia straty.
EN
Purpose: reasons for writing the paper is to present, the optimal procedure to manage of risk and Risk Assessment procedures in shipping companies and on-board sea going vessels. Design/methodology/approach: an analysis of various shipping companies approaches to management of risk and requirements and methodology to perform Risk Assessment. Findings: found that approach to Risk Management and requirements to perform Risk Assessment are varied between shipping companies. Research limitations/implications: management of risk based on Risk Assessment to be simplify and unified. Practical implications: suggestion is given to unify procedures for Risk Assessment. Social implications: reduction of risk to happen undesired events and mitigations of hazards associated with day to day operation of sea-going vessels. Originality/value: recommendation to shipping companies for modification of Risk Assessments procedures where is necessary to improve safety on board.
EN
Purpose: reasons for writing the paper is to present, the optimal procedure to manage of risk and Risk Assessment procedures on board sea-going vessels. Design/methodology/approach: an analysis of implemented Risk Assessment procedures on board sea-going vessels various shipping companies. Findings: found that approach to risk management and requirements to perform Risk Assessment are varied between shipping companies and sometime varied between vessels in the same shipping company. Research limitations/implications: management of risk based on Risk Assessment to be simplify and unified. Practical implications: suggestion is given to unify procedures for Risk Assessment. Social implications: reduction of risk to happen undesired events and mitigations of hazards associated with day to day operation of sea-going vessels. Originality/value: recommendation to shipping companies for modification of Risk Assessments procedures where is necessary to improve safety on board.
EN
Hazard identification and occupational risk assessment, defined as the probability of occurrence of unfavorable work-related events, is one of the areas of activity for employers in relation to current legislation and standards. Using occupational risk assessment it is possible to design and use workstations properly, respecting workers’ health. This article presents an issue related to the use of workstations with laser equipment, which describes the nature of work of lasers and the specific impact of the laser beam on the material. The subject of the analysis is the workstations with a CO2 laser for cutting polymers and a workstation with a fiber laser for marking and engraving. For the above-mentioned workstations, using a designed checklist, the features of lasers are verified, hazards are identified, and occupational risk is estimated using the risk graph method. The estimated risk at selected workplaces with lasers clearly indicated that special attention should be paid not only to the device, and the negative impact of their laser beam on the human body, but also on the treated materials. The article also draws attention to protective measures, which should be applied at laser workstations to ensure the safety of employees.
EN
The production and use of chemicals are continuously increasing worldwide. For example, the global output of chemicals increased approximately 12 times between 1970 and 2020. The burden of disease attributable to exposure to chemicals is significant. World Health Organization estimates that globally, about 5 million deaths and 90 million disability - adjusted life years are attributable to occupational, environmental exposure and management. Public authorities and employers need access to reliable information on chemicals and practical, widely-accepted risk assessment methods in order to effectively control and minimize this threat. To support the management of chemical substances in small and mediumsized enterprises, the UK Health and Safety Executive developed the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Essentials (COSHH Essentials), a control banding technique that determines the management method by assigning the qualitative work environment characteristics of the enterprises to a hazard and exposure prediction band. Qualitative tools were used for assessing the risk of these chemicals, creating solutions, and implementing control measures in various industrial fields. The present paper synthesizes the results of an extensive research study, dedicated to the evaluation of chemical risks within a Romanian company which has as object of activity the mechanical processing of steel laminates and their treatment by methods of electrochemical deposition of hard chromium / electrochemical nickel plating. The application of the simplified health, safety and environmental risk assessment methodology developed by the French National Security Research Institute (INRS) was considered to be the most appropriate in the preliminary phase of identifying and prioritizing the risks associated with chemicals used in technological processes in selected company. Based on the obtained results, the prevention and protection plan regarding the chemical risks was elaborated, the implementation of which led to the reduction of the workers' exposure and to the minimization of the probability and severity of the potential consequences.
EN
About half of European workers believe that stress is common in their workplace and that it is the cause of about half of all lost working days. In Europe, 25% of workers report suffering from work stress all the time or most of their working time, with a similar percentage reporting that stress adversely affects their health. Estimates of costs borne by employers and society are considerable, amounting to tens of billions of euros at European level. Considering the exponential increase in the last decade of the impact of occupational stress and the direct implications on the health and well-being of workers, coupled with the low level of attention paid to this risk by employers and labor inspectorates in Romania, this paper aimed at developing a company-level research to validate the applicability of a specific psychosocial risk assessment tool. The preliminary results obtained confirmed the need to increase the real attention paid to this component of the health status of workers - and implicitly of enterprises - allowing the substantiation of a plan of measures designed to minimize psychosocial risks in the investigated company.
19
Content available Analiza zagrożenia powodziowego Kazimierza Dolnego
PL
Powodzie to jedna z najczęstszych i najbardziej niszczycielskich klęsk żywiołowych na świecie, które mają negatywny wpływ na ludzi, środowisko i gospodarkę. Artykuł ma na celu modelowanie i ocenę ryzyka powodziowego wykorzystując jednowymiarowy model HEC-RAS oraz otwarte dane udostępniane przez Główny Urzędu Geodezji i Kartografii. Obszar badań obejmuje Kazimierz Dolny położony nad Wisłą. Badania przeprowadzono w trzech etapach. Po pozyskaniu danych z numerycznego modelu terenu i elementów doliny rzecznej (np. przekrojów poprzecznych doliny) oraz opracowaniu warstwy szorstkości na podstawie wskaźników Manninga, wymodelowano wody wezbraniowe dla powodzi dziesięcio-, stu- i pięćset letniej. Analiza ryzyka wykazała, że powódź 100-letnia powoduje już dość znaczne szkody w dobrach ludzkich i kulturowych, a powódź 500-letnia znacznie je powiększa, niszcząc 2016 budynków i zalewając obszar o powierzchni niemalże 207 ha.
EN
Flooding is one of the most frequent and devastating natural disasters in the world, generating negative impact to people, environment and economy. The paper aims in flood risk modelling and risk assessment based on one-dimensional HEC-RAS model and open data derived form the Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography. The research area covers the small historic city Kazimierz Dolny located on the Vistula River. The research was carried out in three stages. After digital elevation model and river valley elements (e.g. valley cross sections) data acquisition, as well as elaborating a roughness layer based on Manning's indicators, the ten-, one-hundred- and five-hundred-year floods water were modelled. The risk analysis showed that the 100-year flood is already causing quite significant damage to human and cultural assets, and the 500-year flood significantly increases it, destroying 2,016 buildings and flooding an area of almost 207 hectares.
EN
The article aims to assess risk for substantiating the economic and organizational efficiency of construction in the context of ecologic safety. A quantitative risk estimation was made through the Monte Carlo way for negative and positive choices to avoid ecological harm. The simulation algorithm imitated the distribution obtained from the evidence-based fit. The outcomes of a sensitivity investigation are also prepared to verify the suggestion. This risk analysis technique has a digital computer implementation. The simulation data outputs demonstrate the alternative of the general norm of validation and the acceptance of the solution, which is not harmful to the environment. In situations of uncertainty, the decision to select the optimistic flavor with high spending (to retain the reliability of the technics) but less risk pretends to be a decisive factor in the eco-friendly protection strategies of the construction project.
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