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EN
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between somatotype, muscular strength, power output measured in maximal cycle ergometer exercise bouts, and maximal power output and height of rise of the body mass centre (jump height) measured in akimbo counter movement jump (ACMJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and spike jump (SPJ), in male basketball players. Methods: Thirteen male basketball players (second division, age 19.4±0.8 years, body height 192.9±5.6 cm, body mass 88.8±8.6 kg, training experience 9.3±0.8 years) participated in the study. Somatotype was determined using the Heath-Carter method. Maximal joint torques were measured under static conditions. Power output was measured in 2 maximal cycle ergometer exercise bouts, 10 s each, with increasing external loads equal to 7.5 and 10.0% of the body weight (BW). All jump trials (ACMJ, CMJ and SPJ) were performed on a force plate. Results: The mean somatotype of basketball players amounted to: 2.8-4.2-3.2. Sum of the joint torques for left and right lower extremities (0.613), trunk (0.631) and all six measured muscle groups (0.647) were significantly correlated (p<0.05) with mesomorphy and ectomorphy. Conclusion: It can be assumed that basketball players’ anthropometric characteristics can influence their level of performance but it is not a decisive factor.
EN
Measuring, monitoring and analysis of dynamic movements in sports is becoming more important than ever. Many methods used currently may only be applied in the artificial environment of a laboratory. Other methods require too much processing to be used during a real-time competition. To overcome these difficulties acceleration measurements and a simple method to process them have been proposed. Data processing is based on search and recognition of the characteristic points in the tridimensional representation of acceleration measurements. Three different dynamic movements have been measured: run, jump and punch. The presented results show that the measurements of acceleration and proposed processing may be used to extract movement parameters of a sportsman and monitor the level of his tiredness.
EN
Figure skating is considered a highly technical discipline. Coaches and researchers are constantly looking for the most effective and safest movement model for jumps, especially Axel Paulsen, which is the hardest kind of all jumps. This research was taken to verify the usefulness of performing double Axel under off- ice conditions as a part of general figure skating training. Research was based on video analysis made in APAS 2000 programme. Parameters taken into account were: joints and take off angle, displacement of centre body mass, horizontal and vertical velocity. Results helped in finding out parameters which are trained during off-ice session.
EN
Purpose: Body balance, as one of the coordination abilities,is a desirable variable for basketball players as regards the necessity of efficient responses in constantly changing situations on a basketball court. The aim of this study was to check whether physical activity in the form of running and jumping influences variables characterizing the process of keeping body balance of a basketball player in the standing position. Methods: The research was conducted on 11 young basketball players. The measurements were taken with a Kistler force plate. Apart from commonly registered COP displacements, an additional variable describing the process of keeping body balance by a basketball player was ankle joint stiffness on the basis of which an “Index of Balance–Stiffness” (IB-S) was created. Results: Statistically significant differences were obtained for the maximum COP displacements and ankle joint stiffness between measurements of balance in the standing position before and after the employed movement tasks whereas there were no statistically significant differences for the aforementioned variables describing the process of keeping balance between measurements after running and after jumping. Conclusions: The research results indicate that the employed movement activities brought about significant changes in the process of keeping balance of basketball player in the standing position which, after the run performed, remain on a similar level to the series of jumps being performed. The authors attempted to establish an index based on the stiffness which yields a possibility to perceive each basketball player as an individual person in the process of keeping balance.
EN
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between somatotype, muscle torque, maximal power output and height of rise of the body mass centre measured in akimbo counter movement jump (ACMJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and spike jump (SPJ), and power output measured in maximal cycle ergometer exercise bouts in female volleyball players. Fourteen players participated in the study. Somatotype was determined using the Heath–Carter method. Maximal muscle torque was measured under static conditions. Power output was measured in 5 maximal cycle ergometer exercise bouts, 10 s each, at increasing external loads equal to 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5% of body weight (BW). All jump trials (ACMJ, SPJ and CMJ) were performed on a force plate. The mean somatotype of volleyball players was: 4.9-3.5-2.5. The value of the sum of muscle torque of the left upper extremities was significantly correlated only with mesomorphic component. Mesomorphic and ectomorphic components correlated significantly with values of maximal power measured during ACMJ and CMJ. Power output measured in maximal cycle ergometer exercise bouts at increasing external loads equal to 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5% of BW was significantly correlated with endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy.
6
Content available remote Relative power of the lower limbs in drop jump
EN
The purpose of this paper was to determine the power produced by the lower limbs in the take-off phase in drop jumps (DJ) and the correlation between the power and load measured by dropping height after take-off. The research group (N = 17) contained students practicing football, volleyball, basketball, athletics, high jump, swimming and fencing. The individual characteristics "power-load" of the players and the observation of the changes during the training process enable the coaches to choose precise loads and at the same time to improve the training. The criterion of choosing loads in the plyometric training may be relative power output of lower limbs referred to the DJ height. While the condition allowing player to perform this type of training may depend on obtaining greater power in drop jump than in counter movement jump.
7
Content available remote Effect of increased load on vertical jump mechanical characteristics in acrobats
EN
In this study, we attempt to answer the following question: To what degree the higher muscular activity determined by increased load in the extension phase (eccentric muscle action) of vertical jump affects its efficiency? Ten high performance acrobats participated in this investigation. The acrobats performed tests that consisted of five single “maximal” standing vertical jumps (counter movement jump – CMJ) and five single vertical jumps, in which the task was to touch a bar placed over the jumping acrobats (special counter movement jump – SCMJ). Subsequently, they performed five single drop jumps from an elevation of 0.40 m (DJ). Ground reaction forces were registered using the KISTLER 9182C force platform. MVJ software was used for signal processing [1] and enabling calculations of kinematic and kinetic parameters of the subject’s jumping movements (on-line system). The results obtained show that the height of jump (h), the mean power (Pmean) and the maximum power (Pmax) are statistically significant, and higher in DJ. The results prove fine adaptation of the nervous system in acrobats to muscle extension and workload, due to the 40 cm high drop jump. Presumably, this height is closest to that which acrobats experience during landing, after performing flic-flacs or round-off.
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