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PL
Zwiększone zapotrzebowanie na energię elektryczną spowodowane przewidywaną popularyzacją pojazdów elektrycznych może zagrozić bezpiecznej i ekonomicznej pracy sieci elektroenergetycznej. Z tego względu niezbędne są odpowiednie strategie ładowania pojazdów. Skoordynowane systemy ładowania pojazdów mogą być realizowane jako systemy scentralizowane, zdecentralizowane i hierarchiczne. W artykule skupiono się na celach i ograniczeniach dotyczących projektowania algorytmów sterowania ładowaniem.
EN
The increased demand for electricity due to the anticipated popularisation of electric vehicles (EVs) may threaten the safe and economic operation of the electrical grid. Therefore, appropriate EV charging strategies will be necessary. Coordinated EV charging systems might be implemented as centralized, decentralized and hierarchical systems. This paper focuses on the objectives and constraints for the design of charging control algorithms.
EN
The article presents the method of identifying surface damage by measuring changes in resistance in graphite-based sensing skin. The research focused on analysis of conductivity anomalies caused by surface damage. Sensitivity maps obtained with Finite Element Method (FEM) in conjunction with the analytical damage model were used to build the coating evaluation algorithm. The experiment confirmed the ability of this method to identify a single elliptical-shape damage. Eight electrodes were enough to locate the damage that covered about 0.1‰ of the examined area. The proposed algorithm can prove useful in simple applications for surface condition monitoring. It can be implemented wherever it is possible to apply a thin layer of conductor to a non-conductive surface.
EN
A collision avoidance algorithm applicable in simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) has been developed with a prospect of an on-line application for mobile platforms to search and map the operation area and avoid contact with obstacles. The algorithm, which was implemented in MATLAB software, is based on a linear discrete-time state transition model for determination of the platform position and orientation, and a ‘force’ points method for collision avoidance and definition of the next-step of platform motion. The proposed approach may be incorporated into real-time applications with limited on-board computational resources.
EN
The paper regards the urgency of creating small - sized systems for automated local sorting of household waste for modern residential complexes based on visual spectrometry. For this purpose, algorithms for system operation were developed and the procedure for designing a functional control scheme for the sorting process with the construction of the necessary contours of automated control was presented.
PL
Artykuł dotyczy pilną potrzebę stworzenia małogabarytowych systemów zautomatyzowanego lokalnego sortowania odpadów komunalnych dla nowoczesnych zespołów mieszkaniowych w oparciu o spektrometrię wizualną. W tym celu opracowano algorytmy pracy systemu oraz przedstawiono procedurę projektowania schematu funkcjonalnego sterowania procesem sortowania wraz z budową niezbędnych obwodów automatycznego sterowania. Przeprowadzono również analizę zastosowania modelu do oceny niezawodności zautomatyzowanego systemu sortowania odpadów.
EN
Using drones in groups in the military field is not a novel idea. A massive attack by a large amount of equipment is known to be very difficult to prevent. Therefore, it is a good tactic to sacrifice some of the relatively cheap drones to destroy special enemy targets in a massive attack. This raises the issue of joint control of the behaviour of a group of drones. This paper proposes a System of Systems ideology-based decision-making system that allows to individually control each drone in a group flight. An algorithm is developed that allows controlling drones by controlling their speed.
PL
W artykule opisano metodę analizy obszarów inwestycyjnych, mającą na celu prezentację docelowych wskaźników urbanistyczno-architektonicznych. Przedstawiono wiele statystyk ukazujących obecny stan inwestycji budowlanych w porównaniu do innych państw Unii Europejskiej oraz do wartości uśrednionych. Zaproponowano zmianę sposobu obliczenia parametrów z obecnej, bazującej na współczynnikach z powierzchni terenu, na obliczenia za podstawę obierające zagęszczenie planowanej liczby mieszkańców. Metodę przeanalizowano na podstawie obszaru Ogrodów Sukienniczych w Łodzi.
EN
The article describes the method of analyzing investment areas aimed at presenting the target urban and architectural parameters. A number of statistics were presented showing the current state of construction investments in comparison to other European Union countries and to averaged values. It was proposed to change the method of calculating the coefficients from the current one, based on the coefficients of the land surface, to the calculation based on the planned population density. The method was tested on the basis of the Ogrody Sukiennicze area in Łódź.
EN
The study presents long-term variability in satellite retrieved phytoplankton size classes (PSC) at two coastal sites, off Gopalpur and Visakhapatnam, in the north-western Bay of Bengal. The abundance-based models by Brewin et al. (2010) (B10) and Sahay et al. (2017) (S17), for retrieval of PSC (micro, nano, and picophytoplankton), from satellite data, were validated. Both the models performed well in the retrieval of nano and microphytoplankton. However, B10 performed poorly in retrieving picophytoplankton. The statistical analysis indicated better performance of the S17 model and hence was applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer onboard Aqua satellite (MODISA) data to understand the temporal (at monthly climatology) and spatial variability (from nearshore to offshore). The spatial distribution indicated nearshore dominance of micro and offshore dominance of picophytoplankton. In nearshore waters off Gopalpur, microphytoplankton dominated throughout the year except for months of south-west monsoon (June and July) where the dominance of picophytoplankton was observed. All PSC exhibited similar distribution at an annual scale with a primary peak during pre-monsoon (March and April) and a secondary peak during post-monsoon (September-November). However, microphytoplankton concentration during post-monsoon was higher off Gopalpur in comparison to Visakhapatnam. The higher microphytoplankton concentration during pre-monsoon was attributed to recurrent phytoplankton blooms. Whereas, post-monsoon increment could be attributed to enhanced phytoplankton growth by availing nutrients sourced from monsoonal precipitation induced terrigenous influx. The outcome of the present study recommends the use of the S17 model for satellite retrieval of PSC from the north-western Bay of Bengal.
EN
In machining applications predominantly for automated machining cells, tool life is often not used to its full extend and cutting tools are exchanged prematurely to avoid tool breakage and thus machine downtime or even damage at work piece or machine. Both effective process monitoring and adequate process control require reliable data from sensors and derived indicators that enable meaningful evaluation. Acceleration measurement by the instrumented tool holder provides signals with high quality from close to the cutting zone. Using the monitoring system, the gained data of the instrumented tool holder can be analyzed especially for the use case of unexpected tool wear, chipping of the cutting edge or breakouts at end mills. This paper describes the data analysis based on the rotational sensor and the corresponding effects on the measurement, an advanced assessment of the spectral distribution in the frequency domain and the experimental results of a test series.
EN
Purpose: Diabetes is a chronic disease that pays for a large proportion of the nation's healthcare expenses when people with diabetes want medical care continuously. Several complications will occur if the polymer disorder is not treated and unrecognizable. The prescribed condition leads to a diagnostic center and a doctor's intention. One of the real-world subjects essential is to find the first phase of the polytechnic. In this work, basically a survey that has been analyzed in several parameters within the poly-infected disorder diagnosis. It resembles the classification algorithms of data collection that plays an important role in the data collection method. Automation of polygenic disorder analysis, as well as another machine learning algorithm. Design/methodology/approach: This paper provides extensive surveys of different analogies which have been used for the analysis of medical data, For the purpose of early detection of polygenic disorder. This paper takes into consideration methods such as J48, CART, SVMs and KNN square, this paper also conducts a formal surveying of all the studies, and provides a conclusion at the end. Findings: This surveying has been analyzed on several parameters within the poly-infected disorder diagnosis. It resembles that the classification algorithms of data collection plays an important role in the data collection method in Automation of polygenic disorder analysis, as well as another machine learning algorithm. Practical implications: This paper will help future researchers in the field of Healthcare, specifically in the domain of diabetes, to understand differences between classification algorithms. Originality/value: This paper will help in comparing machine learning algorithms by going through results and selecting the appropriate approach based on requirements.
PL
Przedstawiono algorytm oznaczania grubości warstw nawierzchni drogowych metodą georadarową, zapewniający uzyskanie możliwie największej dokładności przy minimalizacji liczby odwiertów koniecznych do wykonania. Zastosowanie algorytmu umożliwia zredukowanie błędów oznaczeń grubości bez wykonywania odwiertów z ±30 do ±10% rzeczywistej grubości, tj. do mieszczących się w zakresie tolerancji pomiarowej metody georadarowej.
EN
The article presents an algorithm for determining the thickness of road pavement layers using GPR method which allows to obtain the highest possible accuracy while minimizing the number of drillings required. Presented algorithm allows to reduce errors in road pavement layers thickness determination using the GPR method without drilling from ± 30% to ± 10% of the actual thickness, i.e. to the GPR method tolerance range.
11
Content available remote A Soft Interval Based Decision Making Method and Its Computer Application
EN
In today’s society, decision making is becoming more important and complicated with increasing and complex data. Decision making by using soft set theory, herein, we firstly report the comparison of soft intervals (SI) as the generalization of interval soft sets (ISS). The results showed that SIs are more effective and more general than the ISSs, for solving decision making problems due to allowing the ranking of parameters. Tabular form of SIs were used to construct a mathematical algorithm to make a decision for problems that involves uncertainties. Since these kinds of problems have huge data, constructing new and effective methods solving these problems and transforming them into the machine learning methods is very important. An important advance of our presented method is being a more general method than the Decision-Making methods based on special situations of soft set theory. The presented method in this study can be used for all of them, while the others can only work in special cases. The structures obtained from the results of soft intervals were subjected to test with examples. The designed algorithm was written in recently used functional programing language C# and applied to the problems that have been published in earlier studies. This is a pioneering study, where this type of mathematical algorithm was converted into a code and applied successfully.
EN
In this paper, we introduce a new method to analyze the convergence of the standard finite element method for Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation with noncoercive operators with nonlinear source terms with the mixed boundary conditions. The method consists of combining Bensoussan-Lions algorithm with the characterization of the solution, in both the continuous and discrete contexts, as fixed point of contraction. Optimal error estimates are then derived, first between the continuous algorithm and its finite element counterpart and then between the continuous solution and the approximate solution.
PL
Utrzymanie budynków wielorodzinnych zrealizowanych z elementów prefabrykowanych to szczególne wyzwanie dla zarządców ze względu na skalę, jaką stanowią one w Polsce. Tym bardziej istotna wydaje się wiedza, w jakim aktualnie stanie termicznym znajdują się takie zasoby mieszkaniowe w Polsce po wielokrotnym podejmowaniu działań termomodernizacyjnych i ewentualnie pozostawionych lub nowo powstałych potrzebach działań naprawczych ukierunkowanych na oszczędzanie energii cieplnej. W tym celu wykorzystano powszechnie znane możliwości nieniszczącej metody badań w podczerwieni, dzięki której możliwe było podanie algorytmu mającego na celu sprawdzenie skuteczności działań termomodernizacyjnych za pomocą podanego w artykule schematu postępowania. Celem podjętego monitorowania było sprawdzenie skuteczności szczelności wielorodzinnych budynków poddanych już wielokrotnej termomodernizacji lub będących przed tym procesem. Wykorzystano nieniszczącą autorską metodę oceny diagnostycznej termomodernizacji z użyciem termowizji na dwóch poziomach (z powietrza – lotnicza i z lądu – naziemna). Otrzymane wyniki badań, uzyskane z wykorzystaniem obrazu w podczerwieni, będą mogły stanowić podstawę do poszerzenia wiedzy na temat dobrych przykładów we współczesnych tendencjach termomodernizacyjnych. Zaproponowany algorytm wydaje się odpowiedni do zastosowania również w innych obszarach i obiektach budowlanych znajdujących się w Europie.
EN
This paper proposes the use of a non-destructive infrared diagnostic evaluation method for thermo-modernisation, with particular reference to multi-family buildings. The proposed algorithm seems to be suitable for application also in different areas and building structures located in Europe.
EN
Difficult understanding of gravity effects on the 2D vertical and inclined faults for the delineation of subsurface structure for gravity exploration is slow and cumbersome. Hence, a fast and efficient algorithm is established for the interpretation of gravity anomaly over 2D inclined and vertical fault. The method can simultaneously determine all parameters such as the depth to the top (z) and base (h), dip angle (α), amplitude coefficient (k), and location of the fault plane on the surface (x0) of a hidden thin faulted slab from the observed gravity data. The developed algorithm can effectively interpret all parameters for dipping and vertical fault even though there is no subsurface drilling information. Interpretation of all the parameters suggests that there is no uncertainty for 2D inclined and vertical fault. However, if the detachment tip of the fault is at a larger depth, then the dip of the fault shows some uncertainty. The present code has been applied to non-noisy synthetic anomaly data and Gaussian noisy anomaly. Furthermore, the algorithm was also verified on three field examples from Egypt, and the USA for exploration. The appraised value of all the parameters is found to be in decent agreement with earlier published works and borehole information wherever available.
EN
Task planning involves automating the creation of the routes for vessels with known coordinates in a confined space. The management of vessel release in a given area affects the time required for a vessel to complete its voyage, and maximizing vessel performance involves identifying the shortest route. A key issue in automating the generation of the optimal (shortest) routes is selecting the appropriate mathematical apparatus. This paper considers an optimization method based on a recursive algorithm using Bellman-Ford routing tasks for large dimensions. Unlike other optimization techniques, the proposed method enables the shortest path to be assessed in a network model with a complex topology, even if there are arcs with negative weights. The practical implementation of the modified Floyd algorithm was demonstrated using a sample automated build and using it to calculate a network model with a complex topology, using an iterative procedure for a program prepared in MATLAB. Implementation of the computer model is simple, and unlike existing models, it eliminates restrictions associated with the presence of negative weights and cycles on a network and automates search shortcuts in ground branch functional means in MATLAB. To confirm the accuracy of the obtained results, we performed an example calculation using the network. The proposed algorithm and recursive procedure are recommended for finding energy-efficient solutions during the management of mobile objects on waterways.
EN
In dynamic positioning systems, nonlinear cost functions, as well as nonlinear equality and inequality constraints within optimal thrust allocation procedures cannot be handled directly by means of the solvers like industry-standardized quadratic programing (QP), at least not without appropriate linearization technique applied, which can be computationally very expensive. Thus, if optimization requirements are strict, and problem should be solved for nonlinear objective function with nonlinear equality and inequality constraints, than one should use some appropriate nonlinear optimization technique. The current state-of-the-art in nonlinear optimization for gradient-based algorithms is surely the sequential quadratic programing (SQP), both for general applications and specific thrust allocation problems. On the other hand, in recent time, one can also notice the increased applications of gradient-free optimization methods in various engineering problems. In this context, the implementation of selected derivative free direct search algorithms in optimal thrust allocation is proposed and discussed in this paper, and avenues for future research are provided.
EN
An algorithm to transform n-levels labeled binary rooted trees into elements from Sylow 2-subgroups of symmetric groups of degree 2n is described. The inverse algorithm that on input permutation from a Sylow 2-subgroup of symmetric groups of degree 2n finds a labeled tree is presented. An algorithm for multiplication of labeled trees that correspond to the multiplication of permutations from the Sylow 2-subgroup is introduced. The complexity and correctness of these algorithms are studied.
18
EN
In this paper the results of the development of voltage and reactive power regulation algorithm based on the particle swarm method, optimizing the electric power system mode by the level of losses, are presented. To provide an integration of this algorithm into a real system of an automated dispatching control system, the algorithm is implemented using programs, which are used in the System Operator of the Unified Power System of Russia, as well as standard communication protocols and a software platform. The analysis and comparison of the optimization results obtained by the particle swarm method and standard optimization method (gradient descent method), realized in RastrWin, confirm the correctness and reliability of the obtained results and the developed algorithm. At the same time, the algorithm does not depend on the initial conditions (setpoints), set on the control objects, which allows it to be used to optimize the modes of complex power network, finding the balance in which is a time-consuming task. In the future, it is planned to develop an algorithm for optimizing the mode, taking into account the increased stability of the electric power system.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono metodę sterowania napięciem I moca bierną bazującą na algorytmach rojowych. Algorytm zaadaptowano do rzeczywistych warunków sieci dystrybucyjnej w Rosji. Sprawdzono praće algorytmu badając stabilność I niezawodność systemu. W dalszym etapie planuje się zastosowanie metody do optymalizacji sieci zasilania.
PL
Artykuł stanowi kontynuację pracy będącej przedmiotem sympozjonu z roku ubiegłego [6]. Obejmuje szczegółowy opis zrealizowanego systemu do zarządzania procesem obróbki termicznej (w skrócie SZOT). Obszarem działania jest dział kontroli jakości w przedsiębiorstwie produkcyjnym, a czynności podlegające automatyzacji to obróbka termiczna składników poprodukcyjnych (pianki polietylenowej i nici poliestrowych) oraz wykończenie haftu. Automatyzacja będzie odbywać się na podstawie przygotowanych bibliotek widm absorpcyjnych w bliskiej podczerwieni (NIR), budowy komory termicznej oraz zaimplementowaniu algorytmu integrującego bibliotekę widm z komorą termiczną.
EN
This article is a continuation of the work that was subject of the previous Symposia’s edition (58th). It includes a detailed description of the implemented system for the thermal treatment process management (shortly SZOT). The area of activity is the ąuality control department in the production company. Activities of automation are: heat treatment of post-production components (polyethylene foam and polyester threads) and embroidery completion from ąuality perspective. Automation process will be based on the library of near-infrared absorption spectra (NIR) preparation, build of thermal box and algorithm implementation that integrates library with thermal box.
EN
The load factor is the determining factor for airlines in economic terms and the prediction of the future development of the flight route. The combination of load factor and break-even point provides the airline with a comprehensive picture of the business of the flight route and the optimization of pricing for the flight route. The purpose of the article is to propose and adapt the development of air transport prices on a given line using maximally recalculated values and maximize profit. The optimized calculation algorithm then facilitates the understanding of the individual steps of the load factor calculation and the monitoring of price development by means of the chi-square mathematical method by which we observed the interconnection of the ticket price and the load factor. To describe the problem, we chose the Bratislava – Larnaca route.
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