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EN
Ensuring the effectiveness of adaptive algorithms for advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) requires online recognition of driving styles. The article discusses studies carried out during real driving cycles based on the GPS parameters and OBD system data of a hybrid vehicle. The work focuses on the search for measures of the speed and acceleration signals of the car and the measures determined on their basis that best describe the driving style responsible for the vehicle traffic safety and ecological safety. Relations between the type of driver, driving dynamics, and fuel consumption were studied. The driver's categorization was based on a statistical analysis of input signals and mean tractive force (MTF) by clustering.
2
Content available remote Enhancing the fuel economy of a plug-in series hybrid vehicle system
EN
In this paper, the design and simulation of a hybrid vehicle with a fully functional driving model is presented. Actual velocities and desired velocities are compared and matched to get the optimum values of a vehicle. Fuel economy is calculated to get miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (MPGe). The MPGe for a hybrid vehicle is compared with the MPGe for a conventional vehicle to get the bestMPGe in a hybrid car. A higher performance of output power of a vehicle is obtained.
EN
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) have an increasing presence in passenger transport segment. They have been designed to minimize energy consumption and pollutant emission. However, the actual performance of HEVs depends on the dynamic conditions in which they are used, and vehicle speed is one of the key factors. A lot of excess emission and fuel consumption can be attributed to rapid changes of vehicle speed, i.e. accelerations and decelerations. On the other hand, dynamic driving favours energy recovery during braking. This study examines the relationship between HEVs speed, pollutant emission and fuel consumption. The considerations were based on the results of testing vehicles in WLTC and NEDC driving cycles, performed on a chassis dynamometer. The test objects were two light-duty passenger vehicles, one with series-parallel, gasoline-electric hybrid system and the other, used as a reference, with conventional spark-ignition engine. Both vehicles had similar technical parameters and combustion engines supplied with gasoline. The driving cycles were divided into several parts according to the speed range. For each part, pollutant emission and fuel consumption were determined and appropriate values of selected parameters of driving pattern were calculated. Combining the results of empirical research and calculated parameters allowed to obtain characteristics. Their analysis provided valuable insight into the impact of driving pattern on actual emission and fuel consumption of HEV.
EN
The life cycle cost (LCC) methodology provides understanding of economic aspects of urban buses equipped with different types of propulsion. The LCC analysis delivers the sum of costs related to the acquisition, operation, repair and maintenance disposal as well as the costs for the each bus power train technology. The method allows to take into account all costs for the whole vehicle’s life cycle and creates a precondition for precise information database for decision making. In addition to the economic factors LCC can be extended to environmental aspects such as greenhouse gases emissions. The environmental impacts of the vehicle lifetime may be presented in monetary values. The paper presents the Life Cycle Cost analysis undertaken for urban buses fitted with conventional, series hybrid and parallel hybrid drives. Provided LCC analysis includes the economic and environmental aspects. The paper also delivers the evaluation of the total air pollutant emissions for all stages of lifetime of the each analysed urban bus. The results show that the hybrids have slightly lower life cycle cost than conventional bus. Moreover, hybrid buses were found to have lower life cycle environmental impacts.
EN
Due to limited resources of fossil fuels and overproduction of greenhouse gases, a need for alternative means for vehicle communication appeared. Because of that hybrid electric vehicles, as well as battery electric vehicles, were proposed to replace some of conventional vehicles based on internal combustion engine [3]. To their advantages over conventional cars belong environmental friendliness and better performance (in case of hybrid electric vehicles), but they also suffer from greater purchase costs and limited range (in case of most battery electric vehicles) [4, 6]. Presented work briefly characterizes four types of vehicles equipped with electric motor (mild hybrid, full hybrid, plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicles) along with generalised presentation of their battery requirements [4, 6]. Further in this work, the lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery working principle was explained, along with characterisation of its limitations due to its design and requirements for inactive components e.g. 4-fold drop in specific capacity and energy density while moving from pure electrode material level to battery level [20]. Next, present Li-ion active components, such as LiCoO2, LiMnO2 and LiFePO4 cathodes and graphite anode along with their capacities and energy densities as well as other characteristic regarding (e.g. environmental friendliness, safety and cost) are shown. Moreover electrode materials e.g. nanocomposite anodes and cathodes, multi-electron cathodes (e.g. Li2MnSiO4), as well as Li-metal and Li4Ti5O12 anodes, with their advantages and disadvantages were described [15, 20]. Presented article was summarized by gathered opinions of battery electric vehicles users, who share their experience regarding their electric cars in a survey. One can tell that they are fairly satisfied with their purchase and that improvement in range of battery electric vehicles along with predictable government policy regarding electrification of cars are the most important factors when considering purchase of electric vehicle [36].
EN
At the beginning of the work on the effects of global warming and climate change in the international area, there are efforts to reduce exhaust emissions. Because fossil fuel is depleting and exhaust emission gases emitted to the atmosphere are rising rapidly, energy efficiency is on the agenda in transportation. Therefore, automotive developers and scientists have undertaken new research in the automotive sector. Hybrid electric vehicle technology is one of the important studies that these researchers continue. In the hybrid electric vehicle technology, the hybrid engine is aimed to give the best results in terms of exhaust emission, fuel consumption and maintenance costs compared to other internal combustion engines, and at the same time the hybrid engine is aimed to perform better than other internal combustion engines. General information about the hybrid electric vehicle technology as one of the new and alternative technologies in these study is provided. In addition, information was given about exhaust emission, emission standards and fuel consumption. Comparisons were made between the hybrid engine and other internal combustion engines.
EN
The current legislation pushes for the increasing level of vehicle powertrain electrification. A series hybrid electric vehicle powertrain with a small Range Extender (REx) unit – comprised of an internal combustion engine and an electric generator – has the technical potential to overcome the main limitations of a pure battery electric vehicle: driving range, heating, and air-conditioning demands. A typical REx ICE operates only in one or few steady-states operating points, leading to different initial priorities for its design. These design priorities, compared to the conventional ICE, are mainly NVH, package, weight, and overall concept functional simplicity – hence the costeffectiveness. The design approach of the OEMs is usually rather conservative: parting from an already-existing ICE or components and adapting it for the REx application. The fuel efficiency potential of a one-point operation of the REx ICE is therefore not fully exploited. This article presents a multi-parametric and multi-objective optimization study of a REx ICE. The studied ICE concept uses a well-known and proven technology with a favourable production and development costs: it is a two-cylinder, natural aspirated, port injected, four-stroke SI engine. The goal of our study is to find its thermodynamic optimum and fuel efficiency potential for different feasible brake power outputs. Our optimization tool-chain combines a parametric GT-Suite ICE simulation model and modeFRONTIER optimization software with various optimization strategies, such as genetic algorithms, gradient based methods or various hybrid methods. The optimization results show a great fuel efficiency improvement potential by applying this multi-parametric and multi-objective method, converging to interesting short-stroke designs with Miller valve timings.
EN
Vehicles with electric propulsion systems are increasingly more often equipped with solutions that improve their drive system’s efficiency. The latest vehicle model with a fuel cell hybrid system – Toyota Mirai was used in this experiment. The design of this vehicle is similar to that of hybrid vehicles in many aspects. However, new fuel cell technologies are being developed for automotive use, including compressed hydrogen tanks and control systems. The article presents an analysis of a fuel cell operation during vehicle start-up and driving, with particular emphasis on the hydrogen injection strategy of the three fuel injectors used in the fuel cell. The fuel cell interaction with the high-voltage battery has also been characterized. It has been shown that increase in the electrical supply voltage of the vehicle’s electric motor can be observed at high torque values of the electric motor. The maximum voltage gain – approximately three times (up to about 650 V) – allows for double the torque of the drive system compared to the standard value.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono budowę i zasadę działania układu konstrukcyjnego wykorzystywanego do transmisji momentu obrotowego silników. Zaprezentowano również relacje opisujące podstawowe parametry pracy przekładni planetarnej zastosowanej w pojeździe toyota prius.
EN
In the article it was presented construction and operation of torque transmission drive system. There were displayed the relations that describes basic operational parameters of planetary gear used in toyota prius vehicle.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono badania niezawodnościowe szeregowego hybrydowego układu napędowego (S–HEV) w prostym cyklu jezdnym. W wyniku symulacji uzyskano przebiegi wrażliwości statystycznej i istotności statystycznej elementów układu S–HEV w fazach przyspieszania, ruchu ustalonego oraz rekuperacji. Praca przedstawia podejście do analizy niezawodnościowej układów hybrydowych odniesionej do zadanych przedziałów czasowych. W celu dokładnego określenia niezawodności układu oraz jego średni czas do wystąpienia uszkodzenia należy uwzględnić dane o każdym z elementów układu na podstawie reprezentatywnych danych statystycznych (np:100 sztuk).
EN
The paper presents reliability research of Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle (S-HEV) during simple driving cycle. As a result of the research: statistic sensitivity factor and statistic importance factor of the elements of S–HEV during acceleration, constant speed and regenerative breaking were obtained. This paper presents an approach to reliability analysis of hybrid systems referenced to the selected intervals. In order to accurately determine the reliability of the system and its MTTF analysis should include data of each of the elements of the system in of adequate statistical amount (eg. examination of 100 units).
PL
W artykule przedstawiono koncepcję oraz model fizyczny wielofunkcyjnej maszyny elektromechanicznej dla cywilnych i wojskowych pojazdów hybrydowo-elektrycznych. Rozpatrywana maszyna jest podwójną maszyną elektryczną ze wzbudzeniem elektromagnetycznym na wspólnym wale. W artykule zamieszczono krótki opis mechatronicznego systemu sterowania tej maszyny, działającej zarówno jako silnik elektromechaniczny, jak i prądnica mechanoelektryczna, oraz przedstawiono oscylogramy z badań laboratoryjnych prototypu tej maszyny Dzięki zastosowaniu innowacyjnego prostownika uzyskano poprawę sprawności energetycznej i niezawodności tej maszyny.
EN
This paper presents a concept and physical model of the multifunctional electromechanical machine for hybrid-electric vehicles. The machine under consideration is a dual electromechanical machine with an electromagnetic excitation and a common shaft. In the paper is given a brief description of mechatronic control system for this machine, acting both as an electromechanical motor and/or as a mechanoelectrical generator Furthermore, waveforms of the laboratory experimental research of a prototype of this machine are presented. Due to the application of an innovative AC-DC rectifier, an improvement of not only energy efficiency, but also the reliability of the machine was achieved.
12
Content available remote Renewable Energy Technologies and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Challenges
EN
This paper introduces the utilization of selected renewable energy technologies such as solar cell, battery, proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) and super-capacitors (SCs) in the electrical vehicle industry. Combination of multiple energy resources is imperative to balance the different characteristic of each resource. Concomitantly, the need of an efficient energy management system arises within the industry. Thus, existing system from past and present undergoing research papers are summarized to give a compact overview on the technology and know-how technique to readers.
PL
W artykule zaprezentowano wykorzystanie różnych źródeł energii odnawialnej – baterii słonecznych, baterii z protonową membraną i superkondensatorów w przemyśle motoryzacyjnym. Rozważano możliwość stosowania równocześnie różnych źródeł w celu zrównoważenia ich charakterystyk.
EN
Slip ratio control of a ground vehicle is an important concern for the development of antilock braking system (ABS) to avoid skidding when there is a transition of road surfaces. In the past, the slip ratio models of such vehicles were derived to implement ABS. It is found that the dynamics of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is nonlinear, time varying and uncertain as the tire-road dynamics is a nonlinear function of road adhesion coefficient and wheel slip. Sliding mode control (SMC) is a robust control paradigm which has been extensively used successfully in the development of ABS of a HEV. But the SMC performance is influenced by the choice of sliding surface. This is due to the discontinuous switching of control force arising in the vicinity of the sliding surface that produces chattering. This paper presents a detailed study on the effects of different sliding surfaces on the performances of sliding mode based adaptive slip ratio control applied to a HEV.
14
Content available remote The Design and Simulation Research of Mazda6 Hybrid Electric Vehicle
EN
Based on power system of the designed Mazda6, this paper presents a model of hybrid electric vehicle transmission system and control system in Matlab/Simulink environment. It was described the vehicle performance simulation research in CYC_UDDS circulation conditions when the component have been selected and matched .The results have shown that the design can meet the requirement of Hybrid Electric Vehicle which provides a new way of thinking and research methods for the development of electric vehicles.
PL
Bazując na projekcie samochodu Mazda6 przedstawiono model hybrydowego elektrycznego układu napędowego z symulacją w środowisku Matlab/Simulink.
EN
This paper highlights some of the legal and safety requirements, which concern the development, control system design and optimisation of regenerative braking modalities in H/EVs. Moreover, some early stage investigation within regenerative braking strategies especially during an active driving safety systems event will be introduced. The paper also includes simulation results, as well as road tests results for H/EV, which are highlighted with a view to the desirable characteristics for regenerative braking technology.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wybrane aspekty dotyczące przepisów homologacyjnych oraz bezpieczeństwa, które wpływają na kierunek rozwoju oraz sterowania hamowania regeneracyjnego w pojazdach o napędzie hybrydowym i elektrycznym. Omówiono wstępne badania dotyczące strategii hamowania regeneracyjnego, szczególnie podczas działania aktywnych układów bezpieczeństwa ruchu. Zaprezentowano również wyniki symulacji oraz badań drogowych hamowania regeneracyjnego pojazdu o napędzie hybrydowym.
EN
Two generic types of hybrid drive fitted with Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) have been considered. The first type is a serial one. The second type is a parallel drive system represented by two subtypes: a compact hybrid drive with two degrees of freedom planetary transmission and a split-sectional drive. Based on example hybrid drives for city buses, a computer simulation is an appropriate method as a design tool. Special stress has been put on the compact hybrid drive with a planetary transmission, which seems to be the most advantageous. A serial hybrid drive has also been discussed in detail because currently this solution is the most common one applied in contemporary hybrid buses.
PL
W artykule zanalizowano podstawowe typy napędów hybrydowych z silnikami spalinowymi: szeregowy oraz równoległy, reprezentowany przez układ z przekładnią planetarną o dwóch stopniach swobody. Analizę przeprowadzono na przykładzie napędu autobusu miejskiego. Symulację komputerową wybrano jako najlepszą metodę projektowania. Szczególną uwagę zwrócono na napęd z przekładnią planetarną, ponieważ takie rozwiązanie wydaje się najbardziej efektywne energetycznie. Omówiono również napęd szeregowy, gdyż jest on stosowany w istniejących autobusach miejskich.
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