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PL
W pracy przedstawiono badania zawartości chloru w betonie i proces korozji, w oparciu o pomiary oporu przewodnictwa elektrycznego i potencjału półogniwa próbek betonowych. Te analizy opierały się na doświadczalnych pomiarach próbek w funkcji czasu zanurzenia w 3,5% roztworze NaCl w wodzie, w temperaturze pokojowej, przez 18 miesięcy, zgodnie z europejskimi normami. Przygotowano mieszanki betonowe o różnym składzie, do których dodawano inhibitor, jakim był azotan wapnia i dwa rodzaje superplastyfikatorów. Wyniki doświadczeń pokazały, że po sześciu miesiącach zanurzenia próbki miały dużą zawartość jonów chlorkowych. Próbki C4 z dodatkiem 3% inhibitora i superplastyfikatora w formie Oxydtronu, jak również C3 z tym samym dodatkiem inhibitora i superplastyfikatora MAPEI Dynamon SR 31, wykazały dobrą odporność na korozję, w stosowanym roztworze NaCl. Znalazło to również potwierdzenie w serii pomiarów przewodnictwa elektrycznego i potencjału półogniwa, przeprowadzonych po doświadczalnym okresie 18 miesięcy.
EN
This work presents a study of the total chloride contents in concrete and the corrosion process by testing electrical resistivity and half-cell potential of concrete samples. The analysis was based on an experimental investigation of the samples with the time of immersion in 3.5% mass NaCl aqueous solution at room temperature for 18 months, according to European Standards. For this study, different mixtures of concrete were prepared by adding two types of superplasticizers and calcium nitrate inhibitor, in different concentrations. The results of the Cl- ions test showed that all the samples, after an immersion testing period of six months, contained high concentrations of Cl- ions. Samples C4 with 3% calcium nitrate inhibitor and Oxydtron superplasticizer as well as C3 with 3% calcium nitrate inhibitor and Mapei Dynamon SR 31 superplasticizer, showed good resistance to corrosion, in the tested environment. It was also proved by the results of several sets of measurements of the electrical resistivity and half-cell potentials carried on the concrete test samples, to the end of the 18 months testing period.
EN
In this study, two groups of the cement-matrix nanocomposites (CMNC) were produced. The first group was reinforced with either carbon nanotubes (CNT) or graphene oxide (GO), where the equivalent weight% of cement equaled 0.05, 0.1, and 0.15. The second group was reinforced with the hybrid CNT–GO, where the equivalent weight% of cement equaled 0.05 CNT–0.1 GO and 0.1 CNT–0.05 GO. Before producing nanocomposites, the distribution of the nanoreinforcement in water had been investigated using spectrophotometric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The physical and mechanical behaviors of different samples of the produced nanocomposites were evaluated by electrical resistivity and compressive strength tests. The effects of the types and the percentages of the nanoreinforcements on the electrical and mechanical properties of the produced nanocomposites were measured. The results showed that the electrical resistivity of the produced composites decreased with increasing the percentage of CNT, whereas the compressive strength of the cement paste initially increased and then decreased. Also, with increasing the percentage of GO, the compressive strength of the produced composites increased, while the electrical resistivity decreased. Moreover, in comparison with the composites reinforced with either CNT or GO, by using the hybrid reinforcement (CNT/GO), the compression strength increased, while the electrical resistivity decreased.
EN
Wider application of silicon carbide (SiC) is anticipated for increasing the durability of various structural facilities. For this study, SiC was fabricated with decreased electrical resistivity for precision electrical discharge machining. Two-step reaction sintering by infiltration of molten Fe-Si alloy was applied for SiC fabrication. The procedure included first sintering at 973 K in Ar gas atmosphere and second sintering by spontaneous infiltration of molten Fe-75%Si alloy at 1693 K in vacuum. The sintered structure porosity became very low, forming 3C-type SiC. Results confirmed that molten Fe-75%Si alloy infiltration occurred because of reaction sintering. The electrical resistivity of the sintered SiC infiltrated by molten Fe-75%Si alloy can be improved to be two orders of magnitude lower than that by molten Si, consequently maintaining the high performance of SiC.
EN
The paper describes the influence of graphite shape, size and amount to electrical properties of different cast irons. Experiments of electrical resistivity measurements were conducted during solidification of four different melts in different time intervals from melt treatment by inoculation and nodularization. Metallographic analyses were made in order to determine the shape, size, distribution and amount of graphite and correlate results with electrical resistivity measurements. It was found out that nodular graphite is giving the lowest electrical resistivity and is decreased during solidification. Electrical resistivity of lamellar cast iron is increased during solidification since lamellas interrupt metal matrix severely. There is no significant difference in resistivity of vermicular cast iron from nodular cast iron. Smaller size of graphite and lower amount of graphite and higher amount of metal matrix also decrease resistivity.
EN
The effect of MgB2 addition on the Eu1Ba2Cu3O7 (EBCO) ceramics was systematically studied. Series of Eu1Ba2Cu3O7 + x(MgB2) samples (x = 0 wt.%, 0.05 wt.%, 0.1 wt.%, 1 wt.%, 3 wt.%) were prepared using traditional solid state method. X-ray powder diffraction measurements were used for phase identification. The lattice parameters and orthorombicity decreased with MgB2 addition. A standard four point measurement method was used to determine transition temperatures Tc of superconducting samples. Tc values of the samples were decreasing with MgB2 concentration. TGA results indicate thermal stability of doped samples.
EN
This study examined the feasibility of using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in cement paste for piezoresistive sensors. Two types of MWCNTs with different carbon content (>90% and >99%) were incorporated into cement paste at 1% by weight of binder (1 wt%). Plain cement paste and cement composites including 1 wt% graphite nanofiber (GNF) and graphene (G) were also considered for comparisons of the electrical conductivity. The test results indicate that the MWCNTs more effectively improved the conductivity of the cement paste than GNF and G. In addition, composites with MWCNTs with lower flowability had less resistivity than those with higher flowability. The size effect in electrical resistivity was observed in the cement pastes with and without the carbon-based nanomaterials, but it was mitigated by incorporating MWCNTs in the cement paste. The stresses and strains under cyclic compression and monotonic tension were well simulated by the measured fraction change in the resistivity of the composites with 1 wt% MWCNTs. The gauge factor (GF) for the composites with 1 wt% MWCNTs was higher than that of commercially available strain gauges, and it was affected by the loading condition: a higher GF obtained under compression than under tension.
EN
Cementitious composites with 0–1.5 wt.% Nano-SiO2 (NS), nano-TiO2 (NT), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and carbon microfibers (CFs) are fabricated and tested. The enhancing effects of different fillers on the compressive strength and electrical resistivity of composites are compared, and the underlying modification mechanisms of fillers to composites are investigated by analyzing the difference in the morphology of fillers and rheology of composites. The compressive strength of composites containing 0.1% NS, 0.5% NT, 0.1% CNTs and 0.5% CFs by weight of cement presents approximately 12.5%, 20.8%, 16.8% and 21.4% higher than that of control sample, respectively. It is revealed that CFs also have improving effect on the compressive strength of composites besides flexural strength. When the composites with nano-fillers cannot be processed to ideal state, the reinforcing effect of nano-fillers is no better but even worse than that of micro-fillers. Composites with CNTs, CNFs and CFs possess good electrical conductivity. Composites with CNFs and CFs have a percolation threshold of electrical resistivity below 0.5%, while the percolation threshold of electrical resistivity of composites with CNTs is about 1%. Although CNFs do not have significant effect on compressive strength of composites, they have the best improvement to electrical resistivity.
EN
This paper presents the study of the relationship between electrical properties and physical characteristics of the soil. Measures of apparent electrical resistivity of the soil were made for different types of soil, varying moisture content gradually while maintaining a constant compaction, and then varying the compaction and relating it to a constant humidity. Development of a correlation surface is proposed in order to identify granulometry of the soil from moisture and compaction measurements. For the study of spatial variability, two areas were chosen to allow the change of moisture content and compaction in order to verify the measurement capacity of apparent electrical resistivity of the soil as methodology to identify change in soil dynamics. Results obtained show correlations among apparent electrical resistivity of the soil, moisture, soil compaction and clay content.
9
Content available remote Enhanced thermal conductivity of graphene nanoplatelets epoxy composites
EN
Efficient heat dissipation from modern electronic devices is a key issue for their proper performance. An important role in the assembly of electronic devices is played by polymers, due to their simple application and easiness of processing. The thermal conductivity of pure polymers is relatively low and addition of thermally conductive particles into polymer matrix is the method to enhance the overall thermal conductivity of the composite. The aim of the presented work is to examine a possibility of increasing the thermal conductivity of the filled epoxy resin systems, applicable for electrical insulation, by the use of composites filled with graphene nanoplatelets. It is remarkable that the addition of only 4 wt.% of graphene could lead to 132 % increase in thermal conductivity. In this study, several new aspects of graphene composites such as sedimentation effects or temperature dependence of thermal conductivity have been presented. The thermal conductivity results were also compared with the newest model. The obtained results show potential for application of the graphene nanocomposites for electrical insulation with enhanced thermal conductivity. This paper also presents and discusses the unique temperature dependencies of thermal conductivity in a wide temperature range, significant for full understanding thermal transport mechanisms.
EN
In this paper, electrostatic self-assembled carbon nanotube (CNT)/nanocarbon black (NCB) composite is employed as filler for developing multifunctional cement-based composites. The performances of the composites with different content of filler are investigated. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and equivalent circuit are used to explore the conductive and mechanical mechanisms of the composites. Experimental results indicate that the compressive strength and elasticity modulus of the composites sharply decrease when the filler content exceeds 0.77 vol.%. The percolation threshold zone of the electrical conductivity of the composites ranges from 0.39 vol.% to 1.52 vol.%. The piezoresistive properties of the composites with 2.40 vol.% filler are stable and sensitive, and the maximum fractional change of electrical resistivity is 25.4% when the stress amplitude is 10 MPa. The composites feature sensitive and linear thermal resistance effect when the filler content is 0.77 vol.%. Electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of the composites with 2.40 vol.% filler at 18 GHz is 5.0 dB, which is 2.2 times of that of the control samples. The composites exhibit high absorbing electromagnetic wave performances in the frequency range of 2–18 GHz, and the minimum reflectivity reaches −23.08 dB with 0.77 vol.% filler.
EN
Complex studies were carried out to recognize the fen structure and peat properties in the Całowanie Fen area, belonging to the Natura 2000 network. The studies were conducted in two study areas that differ significantly in terms of peat thickness. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) was used to identify the properties of the peat and its substrate, such as thickness and electrical resistivity. Comparison of the field studies with the laboratory tests has shown that the ash content rises electrical resistivity in peat. In addition, the study has shown that the application of non-invasive geophysical methods in protected areas is justified. The fen, as a medium containing mostly water, was a proper test area for the ERI measurements.
PL
Do rozpoznania warunków geotechnicznych podłoża budowli i do oceny oddziaływania na środowisko projektowanych budowli rutynowe metody badań mogą być niewystarczające lub wręcz nieodpowiednie. Bardzo pomocne mogą być metody geofizyczne, które zweryfikowane innymi metodami badawczymi znajdują w ostatnich latach szerokie zastosowanie w praktyce inżynierskiej, zarówno w geotechnice, jak i w badaniach środowiskowych. Do zalet metod geofizycznych zaliczyć można nieniszczący i nieinwazyjny charakter, niskie koszty i szybkie uzyskanie wyników, możliwość ich stosowania w różnorodnych materiałach, w tym w gruntach, skałach litych, materiałach odpadowych i utworach antropogenicznych. W artykule przedstawione zostaną wyniki badań przeprowadzonych metodą tomografii elektrooporowej ERT oraz badania sondą RCPT, która stanowi połączenie w jednym urządzeniu pomiarowym sondy statycznej CPTU powszechnie stosowanej w badaniach geotechnicznych z modułem do pomiaru oporności elektrycznej ośrodka gruntowego. Zaprezentowane w artykule wyniki pomiarów elektrooporowych wykorzystano do oceny stanu technicznego obiektów hydrotechnicznych, rozpoznania przebiegu stropu iłów w podłożu budowli, rozpoznania głębokości i budowy podłoża oraz oceny zanieczyszczenia gruntów w sąsiedztwie składowisk odpadów. Ponadto, w artykule przestawiono wyniki badań RCPT w celu szczegółowego rozpoznania budowy geologicznej podłoża oraz do oszacowania porowatości iłów plioceńskich z terenu Warszawy. Z zaprezentowanych w pracy wyników można wywnioskować, że badania te mogą być użyteczne do oceny jakościowej budowli inżynierskich i rozpoznania budowy ich podłoża. Ocena ilościowa np. porowatości gruntów wymaga natomiast znajomości oporności elektrycznej wody gruntowej a zależność przedstawiona w artykule ma zastosowanie lokalne ze względu na różnorodność czynników wpływających na otrzymywane wyniki.
EN
Standard test methods may not be suitable or sufficient to determine the geotechnical conditions of the structure’s subbase and the effects of the designed structures on the environment. Geophysical test methods, validated with other methods, may prove useful and have, in the recent years, found many new applications in engineering practice, both in geotechnical engineering and environmental surveys. The advantages of the geophysical methods include a non-destructive and non-invasive nature of the test, low costs and quick results, as well as compatibility with different materials, including soils, solid rocks, wastes and anthropogenic formations. The article presents the results of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and resistivity cone penetration test (RCPT), which is a combination of a static CPTU probe, commonly used in geotechnical surveys with a module for soil resistivity tests. The results of electric resistivity tests were used to rate the condition of hydro-engineering structures, determine the profile of the upper surface of clay deposits in the subbase, investigate the subbase and ground contamination near a landfill. The article also presents the RCPT results for a detailed determination of the geological structure of the subbase and the porosity of the Pliocene clay deposits in the Warsaw area. The results show that the tests can be used in a qualitative analysis of contamination of the ground and water subbase, condition rating of the hydro-engineering structures and investigation of the structure’s subbase. The electrical resistivity tests can also be used in a quantitative analysis, e.g. to determine the soil porosity, however they require a known value for the electrical resistivity of water and the relationships are limited to local use due to the variety of factors affecting the results.
13
Content available Młody beton
PL
Beton, niedługo po zabudowaniu w wielkoprzestrzenny fundament, masywny przyczółek itp., jest narażony na samouszkodzenie (głównie – rozległe spękania), spowodowane ekspansją ciepła hydratacji cementu. Zapobiec temu można poprzez selekcję i odpowiednią proporcję składników w zestawieniu receptury, a także – prowadząc specjalną pielęgnację betonu. W artykule porównano pogląd na problematykę „młodego betonu” – obecny i sprzed niespełna 40 lat.
EN
Concrete, shortly after being embedded in a spatially large foundation, massive abutments etc., is exposed to self-mutilation (mainly – spatially expansive cracks) caused by the expansion of heat created during the cement hydration. The above phenomenon can be avoided by selecting proper composition and proportions in the concrete mix, and through implementation of special care for the concrete. The article compares the “young concrete” problem area, taking into account the current state of research and the views present around 40 years ago.
EN
In this paper an attempt to determine the relationship between the electrical resistivity and the tensile strength and hardness of cast iron of carbon equivalent in the range from 3.93% to 4.48%. Tests were performed on the gray cast iron for 12 different melts with different chemical composition. From one melt poured 6 samples. Based on the study of mechanical and electro-resistive determined variation characteristics of tensile strength, hardness and resistivity as a function of the carbon equivalent. Then, regression equations were developed as power functions describing the relationship between the resistivity of castings and their tensile strength and hardness. It was found a high level of regression equations to measuring points, particularly with regard to the relationship Rm=f(ρ). The obtained preliminary results indicate the possibility of application of the method of the resistance to rapid diagnostic casts on the production line, when we are dealing with repeatable production, in this case non variable geometry of the product for which it has been determinated before a regression equation.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wyniki pomiarów rezystancji skrośnej, kompozytów o osnowie epoksydowej napełnianych stopami niskotopliwymi. W badaniach wykorzystano stop Lipowitz’a i stop Wood’a oraz żywicę epoksydową (Epidian 6) sieciowaną tri-etyleno-tetra-aminą (utwardzacz Z1). Wykonane kompozyty zawierały odpowiednio 20, 40, 60 i 80 % wagowo wymienionych stopów. Ideą przedstawionych w pracy badań, jest sprawdzenie możliwości wykorzystania ciekłego napełniacza metalicznego do modyfikacji właściwości elektrycznych materiałów polimerowych. Uzyskane wyniki badań eksperymentalnych potwierdzają taką możliwość.
EN
The paper presents the results of measurements of volume resistivity of epoxy matrix composites filled low melting point alloys. In the research, Lipowitz and Wood’s alloys were used and an epoxy resin (Epidian 6) cured with tri-ethylene-tetra amine (Z1 hardener). Composites were made with 20, 40, 60 and 80% by weight contents of the alloy. The idea of the presented research was to check the possibility of using molten metal fillers to modify the electric properties of polymeric materials. The research results confirm such possibilities.
PL
W pracy przeanalizowano możliwość wykorzystania nowoczesnych metod geofizycznych W ocenie stanu technicznego wałów przeciwpowodziowych. Omówiono pokrótce podstawy teoretyczne pomiarów georadarowych, metody elektrooporowej oraz badań sejsmicznych. Zaprezentowano i przeanalizowano otrzymane wyniki pomiarów. Na podstawie zgromadzonych danych przeprowadzono obliczenia numeryczne rozpatrywanych przekrojów obwałowań w oprogramowaniu Z_Soil.PC, pod kątem zjawisk filtracyjnych i stateczności konstrukcji. We wnioskach końcowych podsumowano wady i zalety poszczególnych metod badawczych. Przedstawiono istniejące ograniczenia i możliwości zastosowania w praktyce.
EN
The paper gives an example of using modern geophysical methods to evaluate the technical condition of levees. The theoretical bases of GPR measurements, electrical resistivity and seismic methods are briefly discussed. Test results for two embankments are presented. Based on the collected data, numerical calculations of the analyzed embankment sections were performed with the Z_SoiI.PC programme. The phenomena of filtration conditions and constructiori stability were examined. In the conclusions section, advantages and disadvantages of each method are given, along with existing limitations and possibilities of practical applicability.
EN
The aim of this work was to study the effects of Ag and Cu on the thermal properties and microstructure of Sn-Zn-Ag-Cu cast alloys. Solders based on eutectic Sn-Zn containing 0.5 to 1.0 at.% of Ag and Cu were developed for wave soldering. DSC measurements were performed to determine the melting temperatures of the alloys. TMA and electrical resistivity measurements were performed between -50 and 150°C and between 30 and 150°C, respectively. Small precipitates of Cu5Zn8, CuZn4, and AgZn3 were observed in the microstructures, and their presence was confirmed by XRD measurements. The inclusion of Ag and Cu improved the electrical resistivity and increased the melting temperature, as well as the CTE, of the alloys. However, tests performed to measure the mechanical properties of the alloys demonstratedthat the addition of Ag and Cu caused the mechanical properties to decrease.
PL
Celem pracy było zbadanie wpływu dodatku Ag i Cu na właściwości termiczne i mikrostrukturę stopów Sn-Zn-Ag-Cu. Stopy lutownicze na bazie eutektyki Sn-Zn zawierające od 0,5 do 1,0 % at. Ag oraz Cu zostały opracowane do lutowania falowego. Pomiary DSC wykonywano w celu określenia temperatury topnienia stopów. Badania współczynnika rozszerzalności liniowej przeprowadzono w temperaturach -50 i 150 °C, a oporu elektrycznego od 30 do 150 °C. W mikrostrukturze zaobserwowano drobne wydzielenia Cu5Zn8, CuZn4 i AgZn3, a ich obecność potwierdzono pomiarami XRD. Dodatek Ag i Cu do eutektyki SnZn obniża rezystywność elektryczną, a podnosi temperaturę topnienia oraz współczynnik rozszerzalności liniowej stopów. Przeprowadzone badania mechaniczne odlanych stopów wykazały, że dodanie Ag oraz Cu spowodowało obniżenie właściwości mechanicznych.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono rezultaty badań struktury, własności mechanicznych i elektrycznych drutów Al 99,7 % (AA1070) wyciskanych metodą KoBo „na zimno”. Jako wsad zastosowano laboratoryjnie odlane wlewki, a proces wyciskania prowadzono w jednej lub dwu operacjach ze sumarycznym stopniem przerobu λ = 100. Stwierdzono, że zastosowana liczba operacji wyciskania ma istotny wpływ na własności wytrzymałościowe i oporność elektryczną wyrobów. W szczególności wyciskanie dwuoperacyjne prowadzi do uzyskania wyższej granicy plastyczności i wytrzymałości na rozciąganie, odpowiednio: 180 i 220 MPa i oporności elektrycznej równej 30 nΩ m. Obserwacje struktury, badania mechaniczne, oraz rezultaty pomiarów oporności elektrycznej sugerują, że zróżnicowanie cech mechanicznych wyrobów Al może być przypisane prezentowanemu w literaturze efektowi generacji nadmiarowych defektów punktowych w procesie wyciskania KoBo.
EN
The paper presents the results of study on the structure, mechanical and electrical properties of Al 99.7 % (AA1070) wires extruded by KoBo method. As the billet used in laboratory cast ingots and extrusion process is carried out in one-step or two-step extrusion with a total extrusion ratio λ = 100. It was found that the number of used extrusion operation has a significant influence on the mechanical properties and electrical resistivity of products. In particular two-step extrusion leads to a higher yield strength and tensile strength, respectively, 180 and 220 MPa, and electrical resistivity of 30 nΩ m. Structure observations and results of electrical resistivity measurements suggest that the variation in mechanical properties of KOBO-extruded Al wires may result from the presence of overbalance point defects generated in the extrusion process as it was reported in literature.
EN
Graphene, a single atom thick sheet is considered a key candidate for the future nanotechnology, due to its unique extraordinary properties. Researchers are trying to synthesize bulk graphene via chemical route from graphene oxide precursor. In the present work, we investigated a safe and efficient way of monolayer graphene oxide synthesis. To get a high degree of oxidation, we sonicated the graphite flakes before oxidation. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results confirmed graphene oxide formation and high degree of oxidation. Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) results revealed a monolayer of graphene oxide (GO) flakes. The sheet like morphology of the GO flakes was further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Hall effect measurements were performed on the GO film on a silica substrate to investigate its electrical properties. The results obtained, revealed that the GO film is perfectly insulating, having electrical resistivity up to 8.4 × 108 (W_cm) at room temperature.
EN
Polyaniline (PANI) is a potential filler in polymer composites with antistatic properties. As an intrinsic conducting polymer, PANI may be an alternative for carbons and metals. It is lighter than metals and shows better chemical affinity to traditional polymers than carbon allotropes. After modification, it may be incorporated into the matrix and thus helps to avoid the accumulation of static electricity in insulating polymers. In this research, insulating epoxy resin was filled with chemically-modified polyaniline and compared with classical fillers. Measurements of resistivity, thermal analysis and SEM observations were also conducted.
PL
Polianilina to (PANI) to potencjalny wypełniacz do kompozytów polimerowych o właściwościach elektrostatycznych. PANI, jako samoistnie przewodzący polimer, może stanowić alternatywę dla wypełniaczy węglowych i metalicznych. Jako polimer, polianilina jest lżejsza niż metale i wykazuje lepsze powinowactwo chemiczne do tradycyjnych polimerów niż węglowe. Po odpowiedniej modyfikacji, może być wprowadzona w matrycę w celu zapobiegania akumulacji ładunku w dielektrykach polimerowych. W poniższej pracy, wykorzystano chemicznie modyfikowaną polianilinę jako wypełniacz do żywicy epoksydowej i porównano jej działanie z tradycyjnymi dodatkami. Przedstawiono wyniki pomiarów rezystywności,analizy termicznej i obserwacji SEM.
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