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Content available remote A new brain dedicated PET scanner with 4D detector information
In this article, we present the geometrical design and preliminary results of a high sensitivity organspecific Positron Emission Tomography (PET) system dedicated to the study of the human brain. The system, called 4D-PET, will allow accurate imaging of brain studies due to its expected high sensitivity, high 3D spatial resolution and, by including precise photon time of flight (TOF) information, a boosted signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The 4D-PET system incorporates an innovative detector design based on crystal slabs (semi-monolithic) that enables accurate 3D photon impact positioning (including photon Depth of Interaction (DOI) measurement), while providing a precise determination of the photon arrival time to the detector. The detector includes a novel readout system that reduces the number of detector signals in a ratio of 4:1 thus, alleviating complexity and cost. The analog output signals are fed to the TOFPET2 ASIC (PETsys) for scalability purposes. The present manuscript reports the evaluation of the 4D-PET detector, achieving best values 3D resolution values of < 1,6 mm (pixelated axis), 2.7±0.5 mm (monolithic axis) and 3.4±1.1 (DOI axis) mm; 359 ± 7 ps coincidence time resolution (CTR); 10.2±1.5 % energy resolution; and sensitivity of 16.2% at the center of the scanner (simulated). Moreover, a comprehensive description of the 4D-PET architecture (that includes 320 detectors), some pictures of its mechanical assembly, and simulations on the expected image quality are provided.
In March of 2014 at ruins of the 14th century castle, situated at the top of Mount Żar in Małopolska region, Poland, geophysical surveys were performed. Surveys were planned to investigate remains of the castle that could remain in the ground. Electrical Resistivity Tomography method was used there. In the paper 4 sections have been presented. During interpretation, as the supporting method, maps of Depth-of-Investigation (DOI) index have been used. Results of the surveys can point out potential remains of the castle walls and ruins of buildings that were situated in the stronghold.
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