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EN
The free vibration model of a steel-polymer concrete beam based on Timoshenko beam theory is presented in this paper. The results obtained on the basis of the model analysis, describing the values of the natural frequencies of the beam vibrations, were compared with the results obtained by the solution of the model formulated on the basis of the classical Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, the finite element model and the results of experimental studies. The developed model is characterized by high compliance with experimental data: the relative error in the case of natural vibration frequencies does not exceed 0.4%, on average 0.2%.
EN
During the air flow twisting process of jet vortex spinning, the moving characteristics of flexible free-end fiber are complex. In this paper, the finite element model of the fiber is established based on elastic thin rod element. According to the air pressure and velocity distribution in the airflow twisting chamber of jet vortex spinning, this paper analyzes the undetermined coefficients of the finite element kinetic differential equation of the free-end fiber following the principle of mechanical equilibrium, energy conservation, mass conservation and momentum conservation. Based on numerical simulation, this paper gets the trajectory of the free-end fiber. Finally, the theoretical result of the free-end fiber trajectory by finite element simulating is tested by an experimental method. This paper has proposed a new method to study the movement of the fiber and learn about the process and principle of jet vortex spinning.
EN
This paper presents the results of a dynamic response evaluation of a segmental bridge during two construction stages: before connecting the final segment of the bridge and after connecting the final segment of the bridge but prior to opening the bridge to traffic. The vibration signals obtained from Ambient Vibration Testing (AVT) campaigns were processed in order to obtain the modal parameters of the bridge during the two construction stages. Modal parameters experimentally obtained for the first stage were compared with those obtained from Finite Element (FE) models considering different construction loads scenarios. Finally, modal parameters experimentally obtained for the second stage were used to update its corresponding FE model considering two scenarios, before and after the installation of the asphalt pavement. The results presented in this paper demonstrated that a rigorous construction control is needed in order to effectively calibrate FE models during the construction process of segmental bridges.
EN
This paper concerns load testing of typical bridge structures performed prior to operation. In-situ tests of a two-span post-tensioned bridge loaded with three vehicles of 38-ton mass each formed the input of this study. On the basis of the results of these measurements an advanced FEM model of the structure was developed for which the sensitivity analysis was performed for chosen uncertainty sources. Three uncorrelated random variables representing material uncertainties, imperfections of positioning and total mass of loading vehicles were indicated. Afterwards, two alternative FE models were created based on a fully parametrised geometry of the bridge, differing by a chosen global parameter – the skew angle of the structure. All three solid models were subjected to probabilistic analyses with the use of second-order Response Surface Method in order to define the features of structural response of the models. It was observed that both the ranges of expected deflections and their corresponding mean values decreased with an increase of the skewness of the bridge models. Meanwhile, the coefficient of variation and relative difference between the mean value and boundary quantiles of the ranges remain insensitive to the changes in the skew angle. Owing to this, a procedure was formulated to simplify the process of load testing design of typical bridges differing by a chosen global parameter. The procedure allows - if certain conditions are fulfilled - to perform probabilistic calculations only once and use the indicated probabilistic parameters in the design of other bridges for which calculations can be performed deterministically.
PL
Pracę otwiera przegląd najnowszej literatury fachowej o zasięgu międzynarodowym, dotyczącej próbnych obciążeń obiektów mostowych. W licznych publikacjach badawczych jednoznacznie stwierdzono, iż zasadne jest, by często stosowane w tym zakresie metody deterministyczne uzupełniać lub zastępować analizami probabilistycznymi. Niniejsza praca stanowi zatem rozwinięcie dotychczasowych osiągnięć i spostrzeżeń. Przedmiotem pracy jest analiza możliwości zwiększenia efektywności procesu przygotowania probabilistycznych projektów próbnych obciążeń typowych konstrukcji mostowych, różniących się wybranym parametrem geometrycznym (w tym przypadku – kątem ukosu konstrukcji „α”) przed ich dopuszczeniem do eksploatacji w zakresie pomiarów statycznych. Punktem wyjściowym przedstawionej analizy jest próbne obciążenie in-situ typowego, drogowego mostu sprężonego. Jednym z podstawowych kryteriów dopuszczenia obiektu mostowego do użytkowania w niektórych krajach, jest wykazanie, iż ugięcia dźwigarów głównych obiektu mostowego wywołane statycznym obciążeniem próbnym są mniejsze niż te określone teoretycznie w modelu MES obiektu. W pierwszej kolejności zatem, wyniki pochodzące z rzeczywistych badań próbnego obciążenia zostały zestawione z ich teoretycznymi odpowiednikami, pochodzącymi z prostego modelu rusztowego mostu. Ten przykład ogranicza się do analizy maksymalnych ugięć jednego z dźwigarów głównych obiektu. Wykazano, iż ugięcia z pomiarów in-situ (pomierzone przemieszczenia zostały odpowiednio przeliczone na ugięcia, aby uwzględnić wpływ osiadania podpór i zgniotów łożysk) były mniejsze niż te określone teoretycznie. Nie było zatem podstaw do niedopuszczenia mostu do użytkowania ze względu na niespełnienie kryterium ugięć. Jednakże, w rezultacie analizy wykazano, iż wyniki odpowiedzi konstrukcji z prostego modelu deterministycznego różniły się znacznie od wyników pomiarów. W związku z tym, w celu opracowania procedury zwiększenia efektywności procesu przygotowywania probabilistycznych projektów próbnych obciążeń obiektów typowych, do dalszych analiz porównawczych i probabilistycznych wygenerowany został znacząco bardziej zaawansowany model bryłowy MES.
EN
Experimental and numerical study on the mechanical performance of curved steel–concrete composite box girders is reported in this research. First, this research establishes a theoretical model for curved composite girders with 11° of freedoms (DOFs) for each node. The DOFs include the longitudinal displacement, transverse displacement, deflection, torsion angle, warping angle, and interface biaxial slip between steel and concrete. Based on the virtual work theorem, the equilibrium function, the stiffness matrix, the node displacement matrix and the external load matrix are proposed for the curved composite girders using the FE spatial discretization. Second, the authors conduct an experimental program on three large-scale curved composite girders with various interface shear connectors and central angles. The comparison between the developed finite beam element, the elaborate FE model and the test results indicates the developed finite beam element has an adequate level of accuracy in predicting the deflection, the torsion angle and the axial strain distribution of test specimens. Third, based on the developed finite beam element model, the effect of initial curvature, number of diaphragms, and the interface connector stiffness on the curved composite girder is examined. The simulation results showed that the initial curvature significantly contributes to the displacement and stress of composite girders. Applying more diaphragms can notably reduce the distortion angle and distortion displacement. The interface shear connector stiffness has a significant influence on the curved composite girder. With the increasing shear connector stiffness, the displacement and stress of curved composite girders decrease notably. Based on the parametric analyses, it is recommended to limit the central angle of simply supported composite girder below 45°, to apply an adequate number of diaphragms, and to design curved composite girders as fully shear connection specimens.
EN
Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) possess superior mechanical, thermal and electrical properties and are also suitable for biocomposites. These properties make them a favorable reinforcement for nanocomposites. Since experimental studies on nanocomposites are timeconsuming, costly, and require accurate implementation, finite element analysis is used for nanocomposite modeling. In this work, a representative volume element (RVE) of epoxy/BNNT nanocomposites based on multi-scale modeling is considered. The bonds of BNNT are modeled by 3D beam elements. Also non-linear spring elements are employed to simulate the van der Waals bonds between the nanotube and matrix based on the Lennard- -Jones potential. Young’s and shear modulus of BNNTs are in ranges of 1.039-1.041 TPa and 0.44-0.52 TPa, respectively. Three fracture modes (opening, shearing, and tearing) have been simulated and stress intensity factors have been determined for a pure matrix and nanocomposite by J integral. Numerical results indicate that by incorporation of BNNT in the epoxy matrix, stress intensity factors of three modes decrease. Also, by increasing the chirality of BNNT, crack resistance of shearing and tearing modes are enhanced, and stress intensity factor of opening mode reduced. BNNTs bridge the crack surface and prevent crack propagation.
EN
The strength of concrete elements can be greatly affected by elevated temperature as in fires, and so a great concern must be taken regarding its behavior under such condition. In this paper, a finite element model was built up using ABAQUS software to investigate the flexural behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams subjected to service load under elevated temperature. The beam was simply supported and was loaded at one-third and two-third of span length. The study consisted of three RC beams models; the first model simulated a control beam specimen at ambient temperature 20 °C, while the other two models demonstrated damaged beams specimens according to two high temperatures 400 °C and 800 °C, respectively. Each RC beam had 2 m span length, 300 mm height and 200 mm width. The steel reinforcement configuration was 3ϕ16 mm (Grade 60) main bars at the positive moment region in the beam bottom, 2ϕ14 mm (Grade 60) secondary bars at the beam top, and ϕ10 mm /150 mm closed stirrups. The model was validated by comparing its results with the theoretical results from ACI code and literature. Several mechanical properties were investigated including concrete compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, and reinforcing steel yielding strength. The test results showed a reduction in the flexural capacity of the RC beams, tested at 400 °C and 800 °C, of 17.6% and 88.2%, respectively, with respect to the control beam. The maximum service load carried by the beam, at one-third and two-third of the span length, decreased by 17.1% and 88.1% for the 400 ℃ and 800 ℃ high temperature, respectively. The results also showed an increase in deflection when the temperature increased due to the loss in stiffness.
8
Content available remote Prototyping an MR damper system
EN
Magnetorheological (MR) shock absorbers are semi-active devices based on smart fluids. The fluid when exposed to magnetic field undergoes a transition from a liquid to a pseudo-solid. The change is reversible and fast and it has made the material attractive for use in semi-active real-time systems for vibration reduction. At the same time designing a shock absorber is a complex process due to the multi-physics involved. In this paper the author shows an approach that can be used for virtual prototyping studies of MR flow-mode devices. Magnetostatic calculations are followed by time-harmonics analyses of the circuit of the valve. The analysis is then complemented by a parametric study of the controller-damper system subjected to regulated (commanded) current step inputs using a lumped parameter model of the MR valve.
PL
Tłumiki magnetoreologiczne (MR) należą do grupy semi-aktywnych urządzeń wykorzystującyc tzw. ciecze inteligentne. Ciecz magnetoreologiczna jest zawiesiną cząstek ferromagnetycznych I nalezy do grupy materiałów o sterowalnych właściwościach reologicznych. Ciecz MR umieszczona w polu magnetycznym zmianie zmienia lepkość pozorną. Zmiana ta jest szybka i odwracalna, a końcowy stan materiału zależy od natężenia pola magnetycznego. Dzięki temu materiały te znalazły zastosowanie w semi-aktywnych układach redukcji drgań. Zaprojektowanie tłumika MR o odpowiednich osiągach jest jednak zadaniem złożonym. W niniejszym artykule autor przedstawia koncepcję budowy modelu systemu MR obejmującego tłumik i regulator PWM. Na wybranym przykładzie przedstawiono wyniki obliczeń polowych magnetostatycznych i harmonicznych obwodu tłumika. Wyniki obliczeń posłużyły m.in. do budowy modelu obwodu sterującego tłumika o parametrach skupionych z regulatorem.
EN
A finite element model based upon the density functional theory is developed to investigate the vibrational characteristics of armchair phosphorene nanotubes. To this end, the PP bonds are simulated by beam elements whose elastic properties are obtained from the analogy of molecular and structural mechanics. The effects of nanotube length, diameter and boundary conditions on the frequencies of armchair phosphorene nanotubes are evaluated. It is shown that the effect of nanotube radius on its natural frequency is weakened by increasing the nanotube aspect ratio. Comparing the first ten frequencies of armchair phosphorene nanotubes with different diameters, it is observed that the effect of diameter on the vibrational behavior of phosphorene nanotubes is more pronounced at higher modes.
EN
The inhomogeneous deformation which appears in hot rough rolling of aluminum alloy plate, reduces rolling output and negatively affects the rolling process. To study the formation mechanism of the inhomogeneous deformation, a finite element model for the five-pass hot rough rolling process of aluminum alloy plate is built. Results show that inhomogeneous deformation distribution in thickness direction causes two bulges at head and tail ends, as indicated by the analysis of the equivalent plastic strain distribution and deformation. However, formation mechanism of the inhomogeneous deformation at head end differs from that at tail end. Changing the end shape and angular rolling are adopted for decreasing the length and width of the crocodile mouth. It can be found that the crocodile mouth can be improved effectively by increasing the central bump length and the rotation angles through simulation and experiments. Then, the combination effect of two methods is simulated and results show that the combination effect is better than respectively using of each method. In addition, combination of two methods can avoid the restricted conditions for respectively using of each method.
EN
The Warsaw Institute of Aviation major role in the RASTAS Spear project was to design an energy absorption system for the space probe lander. As the system was meant to be unmanned, the main requirement was to use no active solutions like parachute or rocket propulsion (less complexity in application and thus more reliability). A group of various materials was chosen to be tested. Tests campaign was divided into three stages: static compression tests, low speed dynamic tests and high speed dynamic tests. The high-speed dynamic tests were divided into two substages. In the first one simple cube specimens were tested to obtain data necessary for second substage in which full-scale object was tested. Having valuable data from experiments, numerical simulations in LS-DYNA software were carried out and then the results were compared. Based on experimental data several iterations during finite element model developing process were made. That process allowed setting up properly simulation by changing and adjusting properties such: material models, contact types, element formulation and other important constants. The finite element simulation results showed a good correlation with experimental data. The knowledge gained from numerical model optimization in connection with experimental data allowed for creating faster and more accurate energy absorbing material selection methodology. This methodology was successfully used in subsequent projects in which Institute of Aviation took part and also can be used in other future applications.
12
Content available remote Stability characteristics of single-walled boron nitride nanotubes
EN
Boron nitride nanotubes, like carbon nanotubes, possess extraordinary mechanical properties. Herein, a three-dimensional finite element model is proposed in which the nanotubes are modeled using the principles of structural mechanics. To obtain the properties of this model, a linkage between the molecular mechanics and the density functional theory is constructed. The model is utilized to study the buckling behavior of single-walled boron nitride nanotubes with different geometries and boundary conditions. It is shown that at the same radius, longer nanotubes are less stable. However, for sufficiently long nanotubes the effect of side length decreases.
EN
With the aim to study disc degeneration and the risk of injury during occupational activities, a new finite element (FE) model of the L4-L5-S1 segment of the human spine was developed based on the anthropometry of a typical Colombian worker. Beginning with medical images, the programs CATIA and SOLIDWORKS were used to generate and assemble the vertebrae and create the soft structures of the segment. The software ABAQUS was used to run the analyses, which included a detailed model calibration using the experimental step-wise reduction data for the L4-L5 component, while the L5-S1 segment was calibrated in the intact condition. The range of motion curves, the intradiscal pressure and the lateral bulging under pure moments were considered for the calibration. As opposed to other FE models that include the L5-S1 disc, the model developed in this study considered the regional variations and anisotropy of the annulus as well as a realistic description of the nucleus geometry, which allowed an improved representation of experimental data during the validation process. Hence, the model can be used to analyze the stress and strain distributions in the L4-L5 and L5-S1 discs of workers performing activities such as lifting and carrying tasks.
EN
In this paper, the elastic moduli of elliptic single walled carbon nanotubes (ESWCNTs) are described. A three-dimensional finite element (FE) model for such carbon nanotubes is proposed. The covalent bonds are simulated by beam elements in the FE model. The elastic moduli of beam elements are ascertained from a linkage between molecular and continuum mechanics. The deformations of the FE model are subsequently used to predict the elastic moduli of ESWCNTs. In order to demonstrate the FE performance, the influence of length, chirality, diameter and cross sectional aspect ratios on the elastic moduli (Young’s modulus and shear modulus) of ESWCNTs is investigated. It is found that the cross sectional aspect ratio of ESWCNTs significantly affects the elastic moduli. With increasing cross sectional aspect ratio, the Young’s modulus and shear modulus decrease. As a result, every change in geometry operates as a defect and decreases the elastic moduli. With increasing the length, Young’s modulus increases and the shear modulus decreases.
EN
The industrial hot rolling mills are equipped with systems for controlled cooling of hot steel products. In the case of strip rolling mills the main cooling system is situated at run-out table to ensure the required strip temperature before coiling. One of the most important system is laminar jets cooling. In this system water is falling down on the upper strip surface. The proper cooling rate affects the final mechanical properties of steel which strongly dependent on microstructure evolution processes. Numerical simulations can be used to determine the water flux which should be applied in order to control strip temperature. The heat transfer boundary condition in case of laminar jets cooling is defined by the heat transfer coefficient, cooling water temperature and strip surface temperature. Due to the complex nature of the cooling process the existing heat transfer models are not accurate enough. The heat transfer coefficient cannot be measured directly and the boundary inverse heat conduction problem should be formulated in order to determine the heat transfer coefficient as a function of cooling parameters and strip surface temperature. In inverse algorithm various heat conduction models and boundary condition models can be implemented. In the present study two three dimensional finite element models based on linear and non-linear shape functions have been tested in the inverse algorithm. Further, two heat transfer boundary condition models have been employed in order to determine the heat transfer coefficient distribution at the hot plate cooled by laminar jets. In the first model heat transfer coefficient distribution over the cooled surface has been approximated by the witch of Agnesi type function with the expansion in time of the approximation parameters. In the second model heat transfer coefficient distribution over the cooled plate surface has been approximated by the surface elements serendipity family with parabolic shape functions. The heat transfer coefficient values at surface element nodes have been expanded in time by the cubic-spline functions. The numerical tests have shown that in the case of heat conduction model based on linear shape functions inverse solution differs significantly from the searched boundary condition. The dedicated finite element heat conduction model based on non-linear shape functions has been developed to ensure inverse determination of heat transfer coefficient distribution over the cooled surface in the time of cooling. The heat transfer coefficient model based on surface elements serendipity family is not limited to a particular form of the heat flux distribution. The solution has been achieved for measured temperatures of the steel plate cooled by 9 laminar jets.
PL
Nowoczesne linie walcowania blach na gorąco posiadają instalacje do wymuszonego chłodzenia. Jego celem jest kontrolowanie szybkości zmian temperatury blachy w całej objętości zapewniając tym wymaganą strukturę i własności mechaniczne. Chłodzenie jest prowadzone w końcowej części linii technologicznej, w której nad górną i pod dolną powierzchnią gorącego pasma umieszczone są urządzenia dostarczające wodę chłodzącą. Z uwagi na sposób podawania wody chłodzącej można je podzielić na trzy główne systemy: chłodzenie laminarne, chłodzenie z użyciem kurtyn wodnych oraz chłodzenie natryskiem wodnym. W istniejących liniach walcowniczych można spotkać kombinacje poszczególnych systemów. Projektowanie systemów chłodniczych jest trudne i musi być wspomagane przez modele matematyczne i numeryczne wymiany ciepła między gorącą powierzchnią blachy a wodą i otoczeniem. Podstawowe znaczenie dla symulacji procesu ma przyjęcie poprawnych wartości współczynników wymiany ciepła, których znajomość w dużej mierze determinuje dokładność obliczeń. Współczynnik wymiany ciepła nie może być zmierzony bezpośrednio i konieczne jest zastosowanie rozwiązań odwrotnych zagadnienia przewodzenia ciepła. W algorytmach odwrotnych możliwe jest użycie różnych modeli do rozwiązania równania przewodzenia ciepła. Zastosowane modele w istotnym stopniu wpływają na jakość rozwiązania odwrotnego. W pracy przedstawiono wyniki testów dwóch modeli przewodzenia ciepła opartych na liniowych i nieliniowych funkcjach kształtu w algorytmie metody elementów skończonych. Testowano również dwa modele aproksymacji warunku brzegowego. Wybrany model warunku brzegowego i model metody elementów skończonych wykorzystujący nieliniowe funkcje kształtu zastosowano do wyznaczenia współczynnika wymiany ciepła w procesie chłodzenia gorącej płyty stalowej 9 strumieniami wody swobodnie opadającej na jej powierzchnie. Uzyskano rozwiązanie przedstawiajace rozkład współczynnika wymiany ciepła i gęstości strumienia ciepła na powierzchni płyty w czasie jej chodzenia.
EN
The transient thermal model of the permanent magnet linear actuator (PMLA) has been considered. The characteristics of heating have been calculated including the main subdomains of the actuator. The carcasses from various materials have also been considered. The calculations have been verified experimentally and a good conformity was obtained.
EN
This paper presents a composite programmable graph grammar model of the three dimensional self-adaptive hp Finite Element Method (hp-FEM) algorithms. The computational mesh composed of hexahedral finite elements is represented by a composite graph. The operations performed over the mesh are expressed by composite graph grammar productions. The three dimensional model is based on the extension of the two dimensional model for rectangular finite elements. This paper is concluded with numerical examples, presenting the generation of the optimal mesh for simulation of the Step-and-Flash Imprint Lithography (SFIL), the modern patterning process.
EN
A method of detecting honeycombing damage in a reinforced concrete beam using the finite element model updating technique was proposed. A control beam and two finite element models representing different severity of damage were constructed using available software and the defect parameters were updated. Analyses were performed on the finite element models to approximate the modal parameters. A datum and a control finite element model to match the datum test beams with honeycombs were prepared. Results from the finite element model were corrected by updating the Young’s modulus and the damage parameters. There was a loss of stiffness of 3% for one case, and a loss of 7% for another. The more severe the damage, the higher the loss of stiffness. There was no significant loss of stiffness by doubling the volume of the honeycombs.
EN
The present paper addresses the analysis of structural vibration transmission in the presence of struc- tural joints. The problem is tackled from a numerical point of view, analyzing some scenarios by using finite element models. The numerical results obtained making use of this process are then compared with those evaluated using the EN 12354 standard vibration reduction index concept. It is shown that, even for the simplest cases, the behavior of a structural joint is complex and evidences the frequency dependence. Comparison with results obtained by empirical formulas reveals that those of the standards cannot accurately reproduce the expected behavior, and thus indicate that alternative complementary calculation procedures are required. A simple methodology to estimate the difference between numerical and standard predictions is here proposed allowing the calculation of an adaptation term that makes both approaches converge. This term was found to be solution-dependent, and thus should be evaluated for each structure.
EN
In the study a free transverse vibration analysis of the simply supported Timoshenko beam on an arbitrary variable Winkler foundation is presented. The analysis is based on the use of the analytical method compared with numerical simulation. The elastic foundation is composed of two arbitrary variable, massless, regions of the Winkler type. At first the general solution of free vibration is derived by the separation of variable method. The natural frequencies of the system under consideration are determined. Then the models of the system formulated by using finite element technique are prepared and eigenvalue problem is solved. Achieved results of calculation are discussed and compared for these models. All needed finite element models are formulated by using ANSYS FE code. It is important to note that the data presented in the article is yielded the practical advice to design engineers.
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