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EN
The distortion of air gap magnetic field caused by the rotor eccentricity contributes to the electromechanical coupling vibration of the brushless DC (BLDC) permanent magnet in-wheel motor (PMIWM) in electric vehicles (EV). The comfort of the BLDC in-wheel motor drive (IWMD) EV is seriously affected. To deeply investigate the electromechanical coupling vibration of the PMIWM under air gap eccentricity, the PMIWM, tyre and road excitation are analyzed first. The influence of air gap eccentricity on air gap magnetic density is investigated. The coupling law of the air gap and the unbalanced magnetic force (UMF) is studied. The coupling characteristics of eccentricity rate, air gap magnetic density, UMF, phase current and vibration acceleration are verified on the test bench in the laboratory. The mechanism of the electro-mechanical coupling vibration of the BLDC PMIWM under air gap static eccentricity (SE), dynamic eccentricity (DE) and hybrid eccentricity (HE) is revealed. DE and HE deteriorate the vibration acceleration amplitude, which contributes the electromechanical coupling vibration of the PMIWM. The research results provide a solid foundation for the vibration and noise suppression of the PMIWM in distributed drive EV.
EN
This paper studies the characteristics of marine water quality monitoring data monitored by photoelectric sensor network, mines the potential information from the massive data. on account of the continuous accumulation of monitoring data, this paper focuses on the study of database with numerical attribute and proposes a rule updating algorithm for solving the rule maintenance issues caused by changes in the database. according to the rule, the algorithm forms a new database from part of the original data and the new data, and searches the new database by random search, thus can avoid creating a large number of redundant rules and can quickly mine effective rules at the same time. experimental results show that this method not only can avoid mining in the whole original massive data, but also can improve work efficiency, and can quickly and effectively find new data and find useful rules in the data with high practicability.
EN
A method for measuring the quality parameters of image intensifier based on projecting phase-shifting gratings is proposed. A set of designed phase-shifting gratings are projected into the measuring system orderly to obtain the magnification parameter of the measured image intensifier, and the phase caused by the measured image intensifier. After obtaining the referential phase caused by only the magnification of the measured image intensifier, the phase caused by the distortion of the measured image intensifier is extracted by phase calculating and phase unwrapping. Both the global distortion and the partial distortion of the measured image intensifier can be measured by phase-to-distortion matching at the same time. The experimental results show that the proposed method can measure the multiple quality parameters of image intensifier effectively.
EN
This paper presents a novel sideslip angle estimator based on the pseudo-multi-sensor fusion method. The kinematics-based and dynamics-based sideslip angle estimators are designed for sideslip angle estimation. Also, considering the influence of ill-conditioned matrix and model uncertainty, a novel sideslip angle estimator is proposed based on the wheel speed coupling relationship using a modified recursive least squares algorithm. In order to integrate the advantages of above three sideslip angle estimators, drawing lessons from the multisensory information fusion technology, a novel thinking of sideslip angle estimator design is presented through information fusion of pseudo-multi-sensors. Simulations and experiments were carried out, and effectiveness of the proposed estimation method was verified.
EN
The permanent magnet in-wheel motor (PMIWM) is a nonlinear, multivariable, strongly coupled and highly complex system. The key to the development and application of the PMIWM consists in the improvement of its control accuracy and dynamic performance. In order to effectively decouple the PMIWM, this paper presents a novel internal model control (IMC) approach based on the back-propagation neural network inverse (BPNNI) control method. First, theoretical analysis is conducted to show the existence of the PMIWM inverse system, to be modeled mathematically. The inverse system approximated and identified by the back-propagation neural network (BPNN) constitutes the back-propagation neural network inverse (BPNNI) system. Then, by cascading the BPNNI system on the left side of the original PMIWM system, a new decoupling, pseudo-linear system is established. Moreover, the 2-DOF internal model control (IMC) method is employed to design the extra closed-loop controller that further improves disturbance rejection and robustness of the whole system. Consequently, the proposed decoupling control approach incorporates the advantages of both the BPNNI and the IMC. Effectiveness of thus proposed control approach is verified by means of simulation and real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) experiments.
EN
An efficient and convenient reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method has been developed and validated for the quantitative determination of cholic acid bulk drugs and their related impurities. Chromatographic separation was performed on a YMC-Pack ODS-AQ column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, S-5 μm, 12 nm), and the mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile, methanol, and diluted formic acid solution (pH 2.5) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The analytes were monitored using a refractive index detector at 30 °C, and the column temperature was 30 °C. Under the above chromatographic conditions, the method has good specificity and specified impurities can be effectively separated. The proposed method is found to have linearity in the 2.0–80.0 μg/mL concentration range with correlation coefficients of not less than 0.9999. The compounds analyzed in the solutions are stable for at least 7 days, and spike recoveries for all specified impurities range from 91.3% to 109.3% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) not more than 7.3%. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification for the analytes are 0.060 μg/mL and 2.0 μg/mL, respectively. The proposed method can be applied in the quality control assay of cholic acid bulk drugs, with the advantages of simplicity, accuracy, robustness, good selectivity, and high sensitivity.
EN
Under the new normal of China’s economy, the competition among the port enterprises is not only the competition of the core competence of the port, the port industry chain or the port supply chain, but also the competition of the port service ecosystem. In this paper, the concept and characteristics of the port service ecosystem is discussed, a hierarchical model of the port service ecosystem is constructed. As an extended logistic model, Lotka-Volterra model is applied to study the competitive co-evolution and mutually beneficial co-evolution of enterprises in the port service ecosystem. This paper simulates the co-evolution of enterprises in the port service ecosystem by using MATLAB programming. The simulation results show that the breadth of the niche of the enterprises is changing with the change of the competition coefficient and the coefficient of mutual benefit in the port service ecosystem. Based on that, some proposals are put forward to ensure the healthy and orderly development of the port service ecosystem.
EN
Digital image correlation is a well-known optical measurement method for full-field deformation and strain measurements. The quality of speckle images used in digital image correlation calculation can directly affect the measurement accuracy of digital image correlation. In most practical measurement circumstances, a uniform illumination environment is usually required to illuminate the detected object in order to capture speckle images upon different deformed states with uniform background intensity. However, the tested object becomes so large that the adopted light source cannot cover all the interested area with uniform illumination, and the speckle images acquired by CCD camera may have non-uniform background intensity distributions. In this paper, the influence of non-uniform illumination is first analyzed in detail by means of a comparison of experimental results of digital image correlation using speckle patterns with both uniform and non-uniform intensity distributions. Then, a new correctional method based on the combination of the basic retinex theory and the illumination formulae of a point light source is proposed. Finally, a real experiment with non-uniform illumination is implemented to verify the effectiveness of this method.
EN
An abnormal phase removing method in phase measuring profilometry is proposed. In the five equal shifting phase steps algorithm, the shifting phase might be extracted from the deformed patterns captured by CCD camera. But there may be some errors introduced by a digital fringe projector and CCD camera in these deformed patterns. The impurity of the deformed patterns may lead to four classes of abnormalities when extracting the shifting phase. These abnormalities may cause the wrong shifting phase extraction by which the reconstructed object might be misshapen or anamorphic, or even in failure. By this proposed method, the above abnormalities can be removed, and the shifting phase can be auto-extracted precisely from the impure deformed patterns without knowing its value. Experimental results verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.
EN
Due to the separation of magnetic field, electrical isolation and thermal isolation, motor drives possess a high fault-tolerance characteristic. In this paper, comparative study of mutual inductance between the proposed segmented rotor switched reluctance motor (SSRM) and the conventional switched reluctance motor (SRM) is carried out first, illustrating that the proposed SSRM has less mutual inductance between phases than the conventional SRM. In addition, if winding faults or power converter faults lead to phase failure, a comparative analysis on fault-tolerant performance under phase failure condition between the proposed SSRM and the conventional SRM is simulated in detail using the finite element method (FEM). Simulation results reveal that dynamic performance of the proposed SSRM, including output torque and phase current, is better than that of the conventional SRM. That is, the capacity of operating with the fault under phase failure condition in the proposed SSRM is superior to that in the conventional SRM.
EN
Ship collision risk index is the basic and important concept in the domain of ship collision avoidance. In this paper, the advantages and deficiencies of the various calculation methods of ship collision risk index are pointed out. Then the ship collision risk model based on complex plane, which can well make up for the deficiencies of the widely-used evaluation model proposed by Kearon.J and Liu ruru is proposed. On this basis, the calculation method of collision risk index under the encountering situation of multi-ships is constructed, then the three-dimensional image and spatial curve of the risk index are figured out. Finally, single chip microcomputer is used to realize the model. And attaching this single chip microcomputer to ARPA is helpful to the decision-making of the marine navigators.
EN
We present a new dual-wavelength quantitative measurement approach that can be employed for simultaneously measuring both the refractive index and the thickness of the homogenous specimen. This method is realized by dual-wavelength in-line phase-shifting digital holography, and then the phase images are obtained by using four-phase step algorithm for each wavelength separately. Based on computer simulation technology, the feasibility and the effectiveness of our proposed method are demonstrated by comparing our simulation results with the experimental results of the spherical silica bead and the red blood cell, respectively. Our work will provide some guidance in the experimental research for transparent phase objects.
EN
Calcination is considered to increase the hardness of composite material and prevent its breakage for the effective applications in environmental remediation. In this study, magnetic biochar amended with silicon dioxide was calcined at high temperature under nitrogen environment and characterized using various techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed elimination of Fe3O4 peaks under nitrogen calcination and formation of Fe3Si and iron as major constituents of magnetic biochar-SiO2 composite, which demonstrated its superparamagnetic behavior (>80 Am2·kg-1·) comparable to magnetic biochar. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that both calcined samples generated higher residual mass (>96 %) and demonstrated better thermal stability. The presence of various bands in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was more obvious and the elimination of H–O–H bonding was observed at high temperature calcination. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images revealed certain morphological variation among the samples and the presence of more prominent internal and external pores, which then judged the surface area and pore volume of samples. Findings from this study suggests that the selective calcination process could cause useful changes in the material composites and can be effectively employed in environmental remediation measures.
EN
Buckling behavior of cylindrical shells subjected to combined pressure, torsion and axial compression is presented by employing a symplectic method. Both symmetric and non- -symmetric boundary conditions are considered. Hamiltonian canonical equations are established by introducing four pairs of dual variables. Then, solution of fundamental equations is converted into a symplectic eigenvalue problem. It is concluded that the influence of pressure on buckling solutions is more significant than that due to compressive load, in particular for a longer external pressured cylindrical shell. Besides, buckling loads and circumferential wavenumbers can be reduced greatly by relaxed in-plane axial constraints.
EN
Incremental localization algorithm is a distributed localization method with excellent characteristics for wireless network. However, its estimated result is generally influenced by the heteroscedasticity arising from cumulative errors and the collineation among anchor nodes. We have proposed a novel incremental localization algorithm with consideration to cumulative errors and collinearity among anchors. Using iteratively reweighted and regularized method, the algorithm reduces the influences of errors accumulation and avoids collinearity problem between anchors. Simulation experiment results show that compared with the previous incremental localization algorithms, the proposed algorithm obtains a localization solution which not only has high accuracy but also high stability. Therefore, the proposed algorithm is suitable for different deployment environments and has high adaptability.
EN
The effect of application of attapulgite on the structure and composition of a dynamic membrane (DM) of a bioreactor was investigated by means of the electron microscopy, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). A significant increase of microbial floc size in the bioreactors upon attapulgite application was observed. The content of cake layer in the hybrid dynamic membrane (HDM) and in the dynamic membrane (DM) in the corresponding bioreactor systems were 44.73 g/m2 and 38.12 g/m2 respectively, while the contents of mineral – 6.09 g/m2 and 5.34 g/m2, respectively. Further, with addition of attapulgite, the concentration of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the HDM bioreactor system decreased, whereas the content of suspended particulate matter increased. Self-DM has a porous structure with high porosity. Mineral sub-stance, including O, Ka, Ca, P, S, Cl, Mg and Si, are the main elements in DM, but the main elements content exhibited an increase trend in DM with attapulgite administration. These results showed a positive correlation between the quantity of bacterial populations and biological removal improvement, which indicated that application of attapulgite could optimize the structure of self-DM in bioreactors.
17
EN
A two-line element set (TLE) is a data format encoding orbital elements of an Earth-orbiting object for a given epoch. Using suitable prediction formula, the motion state of the object can be obtained at any time. The TLE data representation is specific to the simplified perturbations models, so any algorithm using a TLE as a data source must implement one of these models to correctly compute the state at a specific time. Accurately adjustment of antenna direction on the earth station is the key to satellite communications. With the TLE set topocentric elevation and azimuth direction angles can be calculated. The accuracy of perturbations models directly affect communication signal quality. Therefore, finding the error variations of the satellite orbits is really meaningful. In this present paper, the authors investigate the accuracy of the Geostationary-Earth-Orbit (GEO) with simplified perturbations models. The coordinate residuals of the simplified perturbations models in this paper can give references for engineers to predict the satellite orbits with TLE.
EN
Support vector machine and artificial neural network are widely used in classification applications. Extreme learning machine (ELM) is a novel and efficient learning algorithm based on the generalized single hidden layer feed forward networks, which performs well in classification applications. The research results have shown the superiority of ELM with the existing classical algorithms: support vector machine (SVM) and back propagation neural network. In this study, we firstly propose a novel nonnegative matrix factorization extreme learning machine (NMFELM) to improve the performance of standard ELM method. Then we propose a novel near-infrared palmprint recognition approach based on NMFELM classifier. As the test data, we use the near-infrared palmprint database provided by Hong Kong Polytechnic University. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed NMFELM method outperforms the standard ELM- and SVM-based methods.
EN
In this article, the elastic buckling behavior of cylindrical shells under external pressure is studied by using a symplectic method. Based on Donnell’s shell theory, the governing equations which are expressed in stress function and radial displacement are re-arranged into the Hamiltonian canonical equations. The critical loads and buckling modes are reduced to solving for symplectic eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The buckling solutions are mainly grouped into four categories according to the natures of the buckling modes. The effects of geometrical parameters and boundary conditions on the buckling loads and modes are examined in detail.
EN
Firstly, carry on numerical simulations for thermal deformation field of studied worktable by using software ANSYS WORKBENCH; then take study of the reasons why it will produce such thermal deformation by analyzing simulation results; finally, bring forward the measure of adding circumferential reinforcing plates, which could improve the homogenization of temperature field, decrease thermal deformation and increase processing precision.
PL
W artykule opisano badania dotyczące deformacji termicznej stołu roboczego. Symulacje przeprowadzono przy pomocy programu ANSYS WORKBENCH. Na podstawie analiz, wyznaczono rozwiązanie problemu, w postaci płytek wzmacniających, dzięki którym następuje ujednorodnienie rozkładu temperatury i zmniejszenie deformacji.
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