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1
Content available remote Highest efficiency and ultra low emission - internal combustion engine 4.0
EN
In the future, the simultaneous reduction of pollutant and CO2 emissions will require significantly enhanced powertrain functionalities that cannot only be adequately represented by the ICE (internal combustion engine) alone. Both automated transmissions and especially powertrain electrification can help to meet efficiently those extended requirements. The extended functionalities are no longer applied exclusively with the ICE itself ("Fully Flexible Internal Combustion Engine"), but distributed across the entire powertrain ("Fully Flexible Powertrain"). In addition, the powertrain will be fully networked with the vehicle environment and thus will utilize all data that are useful for emission and consumption-optimized operation of the ICE. Combustion engine and electrification often complement each other in a synergetic way. This makes it extremely sensible for the combustion engine to evolve in future from a "single fighter" to a "team player". If one compares the requirements of such an ICE with the definition of Industry 4.0, then there are extensive correspondences. Thus, it seems quite opportune to call such a fully networked combustion engine designed to meet future needs as “Internal Combustion Engine 4.0 (ICE 4.0)”. This even more so, as such a name can also be derived from the history: e.g. ICE 1.0 describes the combustion engines of the first mass-produced vehicles, ICE 2.0 the combustion engines emission-optimized since the 1960s and ICE 3.0 the highly optimized "Fully Flexible Combustion Engine", which currently offers a high torque and performance potential combined with low fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. In addition to further improvements in fuel consumption, the "Combustion Engine 4.0" offers such a low level of pollutant emissions that can best be described as "Zero Impact Emission". This means that such future ICE´s will no longer have a negative impact on the imission situation in urban areas. With the e-fuels topic, the ICE also has the potential to become both CO2- and pollutant-neutral in the medium and long term. This means that the ICE - also in passenger cars - will continue to be an essential and necessary cornerstone for future powertrain portfolios for the next decades.
EN
Fuels that do not meet the requirements of quality standards cannot be used to power vehicle engines. The work involved physico-chemical analyses of non-normative fuel and its effect on the operational properties of the powered vehicle. The research fuels were two gasolines, characterized by a reduced resistance to oxidation processes due to their long-term storage. The results were compared to the properties of conventional fuels that met all normative requirements. The studies have shown that the fuel slightly deviating from the standard parameters does not noticeably affect the useful properties of the vehicle.
EN
The article presents results of work aimed at determining the influence of hydrocarbon gasoline used to composed E85 ethanol fuel on the properties of engine oil used in spark ignition Flex Fuel automobile engine. For this purpose, two ethanol fuels were composed which consisting of 85% (V/V) ethanol and 15% (V/V) conventional hydrocarbon gasoline, which was obtained from two producers. As an object of the study, an engine oil was recommended for this type of engine lubrication, the SAE 5W-30 viscosity grades and ACEA A5/B5 quality grade engine oil was selected. Monitoring of the properties of the subjected oil was carried out before and after 300 hours of engine operation. Test samples of engine oil retained their rheological properties at levels corresponding to their viscosity grade.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki prac, których celem było określenie wypływu zastosowanej benzyny węglowodorowej do komponowania paliwa etanolowego E85 na właściwości oleju silnikowego eksploatowanego w silniku typu flex fuel. W tym celu zestawiono dwa paliwa etanolowe E85 w skład, których wchodziło 85% (V/V) etanolu oraz 15% (V/V) benzyny bezołowiowej, którą pozyskano od dwóch producentów. Obiekt badań stanowił olej silnikowy zalecany do smarowania tego rodzaju silników, o klasie lepkości SAE 5W-30 i klasie jakości ACEA A5/B5. Monitorowanie właściwości przedmiotowego oleju prowadzone było przed i po 300 godzinach rzeczywistej pracy silnika. Badane próbki olejów silnikowych zachowały swoje właściwości reologiczne na poziomach odpowiadających ich klasie lepkości.
EN
Natural gas has a higher knock suppression effect than gasoline which makes it possible to operate at higher compression ratio and higher loads resulting in increased thermal efficiency in a spark ignition engine However, using port fuel injected natural gas instead of gasoline reduces the volumetric efficiency from the standpoints of the charge displacement of the gaseous fuel and the charge cooling that occurs from liquid fuels. This article investigates the combustion and engine performance characteristics by utilizing experimental and simulation methods varying the natural gas-gasoline blending ratio at constant engine speed, load, and knock level. The experimental tests were conducted on a single cylinder prototype spark ignited engine equipped with two fuel systems: (i) a Direct Injection system for gasoline and (ii) a Port Fuel Injection (PFI) system for compressed natural gas. For the fuels, gasoline with 10% ethanol by volume (commercially known as E10) with a research octane number of 91.7 is used for gasoline via the DI system, while methane is injected through PFI system. The knock suppression tests were conducted at 1500 rpm, 12 bar net indicated mean effective pressure wherein the engine was boosted using compressed air. At 60% of blending methane with E10 gasoline, the results show high knock suppression. The net indicated specific fuel consumption is 7% lower, but the volumetric efficiency is 7% lower compared to E10 gasoline only condition. A knock prediction model was calibrated in the 1-D simulation software GT-Power by Gamma Technologies. The calibration was conducted by correlating the simulated engine knock onset with the experimental results. The simulation results show its capability to predict knock onset at various fuel blending ratios.
5
EN
Environmental emission of road transport is a key problem. Periodic environmental test are designed to ensure minimum emission. Periodic checks are based on measurements. In this emission measurements fuel type plays an important role. The Brettschneider equation is a method used to compare the idealized and actual air fuel ratio. Brettschneider established a method to calculate ratio of oxygen to fuel by comparing the ratio of oxygen molecules to carbon and hydrogen molecules in the exhaust. In this article, authors have investigated blended ethanol effect on idealized and actual air fuel ratio based on Brettschneider equation. The main result of the article that blended ethanol has insignificant effect on air-fuel ratio. The article presents inter alia difference in stoichiometric air fuel ratios in case of different fuels, changes in λ due to blending ethanol and comparison of influence of emissions of different types of transport. In the article authors focus particularly on periodic checks and gasoline driven cars. The main research question was if ethanol blends have effect on idealized and actual air fuel ratio based on Brettschneider equation
EN
Paper presents results of experimental investigation of combustion process of diesel-gasoline blend in compression ignition direct injection engine. The researches were conducted for constant load of engine at constant rotational speed. Operating parameters of engine powered with diesel-gasoline blend were at the same level as for engine powered by pure diesel fuel. The preliminary study was conducted using CFD modelling. Based on encouraging modelling results preliminary experimental research was carried out. It turned out that it is possible to co-burning diesel with the gasoline as a blend. A mixture of 20, 40 and 60% of gasoline with diesel was used. It was concluded that an increase in gasoline fraction in blend causes delay of start of the combustion process. The homogeneity of the fuel-air mixture was improved due to longer ignition delay, which is accompanied by higher values of pressure rise rate. With 20 and 40% of gasoline fraction causes higher peak pressure compared to reference fuel-burning ware obtained. Up to 40% of gasoline fraction, the BSFC was kept at the same level as for reference fuel. It was observed that with the increase in gasoline fraction up to 40% NOx emission increased as well. Based on the carried out tests it can be stated that it is possible to co-burn gasoline with diesel in a compression ignition engine while maintaining the invariable engine operating parameters and exhaust emissions.
PL
Paliwa alternatywne stanowią coraz większą część paliw na rynku motoryzacyjnym. Wśród paliw alternatywnych bardzo istotnymi są paliwa odnawialne, umożliwiające zmniejszenie globalnej emisji dwutlenku węgla. Jednym z pomysłów w tym zakresie jest wykorzystanie etanolu (EtOH, C2H5OH) w postaci paliwa etanolowego E85, czyli mieszanki etanolu oraz benzyny silnikowej w stosunku 85:15. W związku z możliwością szerszego wykorzystania tego paliwa, niektórzy producenci pojazdów stworzyli odmiany swoich pojazdów o nazwie FlexiFuel. Ten skrót oznacza możliwość zasilania silnika pojazdu etanolem czy bioetanolem. Aby ocenić emisyjność samochodu zasilanego tego typu paliwem przeprowadzone zostały badania w rzeczywistych warunkach ruchu drogowego na samochodzie osobowym przystosowanym do zasilania ww. paliwem. Do badań wykorzystano paliwo etanolowe E85. Badania zostały przeprowadzone w rzeczywistych warunkach ruchu drogowego, w centrum Warszawy. Wybór trasy badawczej w centrum dużego miasta był uzasadniony faktem intensywniejszego wykorzystywania samochodów osobowych w warunkach miejskich, w tym samochodów typu FlexiFuel. Natomiast sama trasa przejazdowa została wybrana tak, aby była w miarę reprezentatywna dla ruchu samochodów w Warszawie.
EN
Alternative fuels represent an increasing share of fuel in the automotive market. Alternative fuels are very important for renewable fuels to reduce the global emission of CO2. One of the ideas in this regard is the use of ethanol (EtOH, C2H5OH) as ethanol fuel E85 is ethanol and engine gasoline in 85:15. As a result of the increased use of this fuel, some vehicle manufacturers have created variants of their vehicles called FlexiFuel. This acronym stands for the ethanol engine or bioethanol engine. In order to assess the emissivity of a car powered by this type of fuel, real road traffic conditions were tested on a passenger car adapted to the above mentioned fuel. Ethanol E85 fuel was used. The research was conducted in real traffic conditions, in the center of Warsaw. The selection of a research route in the center of a large city was justified by the increased use of passenger cars in urban areas such as FlexiFuel vehicle. On the other hand, the route itself was chosen so that it was as representative of the car traffic in Warsaw.
EN
Glycerol is a major by-product of biodiesel production. Per one tone of produced biodiesel, one hundred kilograms of glycerol is produced. Production of glycerol is increasing due to increase of demand for biodiesel. One of methods of glycerol utilization is combustion. Recent experimental studies with use of a diesel engine and a constant volume combustion chamber show that utilization of glycerol as a fuel results in lower NOx emissions in exhaust gases. It combusts slower than light fuel oil, what is explained by higher viscosity and density of glycerol. Glycerol has low cetane number, so to make combustion in a diesel engine possible at least one of the following conditions need to be fulfilled: a pilot injection, high temperature or high compression ratio. The aim of the paper is to compare glycerol to diesel and to assess influence of glycerol doping on gasoline and diesel fuel in dependence of pressure, temperature and equivalence ratio. The subject of this study is analysis of basic properties of flammable mixtures, such as ignition delay times and laminar burning velocities of primary reference fuels (diesel: n-heptane and gasoline: iso-octane). Calculations are performed with use of Cantera tool in Matlab and Python environments. Analyses of influence of glycerol on ignition delay times of n-heptane/air and iso-octane/air mixtures covered wide range of conditions: temperatures from 600 to 1600 K, pressure 10-200 bar, equivalence ratio 0.3 to 14, molar fraction of glycerol in fuel 0-1 in air. Simulations of LBV in air cover temperatures: 300 K and 500 K, pressures: 10, 40, 100, 200 bar and equivalence ratio from 0.3 to 1.9. Physicochemical properties of gasoline, diesel and glycerol are compared.
EN
The Cooperative Fuels Research (CFR) engine is the long-established standard for characterization of fuel knock resistance in spark-ignition internal combustion engines. Despite its measurements of RON and MON being widely used, there is little understanding of what governs the CFR octane rating for fuels of various chemical compositions compared to primary reference fuels (iso-octane and n-heptane). Detailed combustion characteristics were measured on a highly instrumented CFR F1/F2 engine during RON testing of fuels with significantly different chemical composition. The results revealed differences in the cylinder pressure and temperature conditions, as well as knocking characteristics.
EN
In order to adapt to new and more rigorous requirements and to satisfy higher environmental expectations, specifications on sulfur content in gasoline demands a reduction of its level to 10 ppm. Sulfur in gasoline is a considerable source of sulfur oxides emissions. SOx, which are formed during the combustion of sulfur-containing fuels, are sulfates precursors, which contributes to the formation of acid rains and further acidification of soils and surface water. Since sulfur is present in gasoline in a form of different compounds (such as thiophene and its derivatives, mercaptans and sulfides) and different sulfur species show different affinity with membrane materials, it is very important to investigate the efficiency of their removal separately. The aim of this research was to recognize the influence of typical chosen sulfur compounds present in gasoline on membrane pervaporation behavior and the efficiency of sulfur species separation. The influence of process parameters such as feed temperature, feed concentration and downstream pressure on the efficiency of thiophenes removal from model n-octane/sulfur compound mixtures by means of vacuum pervaporation method was also examined. During the test, the hydrophobic PDMS-based composite membrane were applied. Binary mixtures of thiophene/n-octane and 2-methylthiophene/n-octane were used as a model gasoline. The content of sulfur from thiophenes varied from 0.05 to 0.13 mas. %. Feed temperature was ranged from 30 to 50ºC. The feed flow rate (80 dm3/h) was kept at constant level.
PL
Ze względu na rosnącą świadomość ekologiczną dużą uwagę poświęca się jakości paliw transportowych, w tym zawartości siarki. Spalanie związków siarki obecnych w benzynie stanowi źródło emisji SOx. Co więcej, obecność tlenków siarki w spalinach przyczynia się do zwiększonej emisji NOx i lotnych związków organicznych (VOC), spowodowanej obniżeniem się niskotemperaturowej aktywności katalizatorów. Dlatego regulacje prawne wprowadzone w krajach UE wymagają redukcji poziomu siarki w benzynie do 10 ppm. Jako że siarka występuje w benzynie w postaci różnych związków (takich jak tiofen i jego pochodne, merkaptany i siarczki) oraz różne związki siarki wykazują różne powinowactwo względem materiału membrany, bardzo ważne jest, aby zbadać efektywność ich usuwania oddzielnie. Celem badań było określenie wpływu typowych wybranych związków siarki obecnych w benzynie na selektywność membrany oraz wydajność separacji związków siarki w procesie perwaporacji próżniowej. Zbadano również wpływ parametrów procesu, takich jak temperatura nadawy, stężenie usuwanych zanieczyszczeń i ciśnienie po stronie odbioru permeatu na skuteczność usuwania tiofenów z modelowych mieszanin n-oktan/związek siarki. W czasie badań stosowano hydrofobowe membrany kompozytowe na bazie poli(dimetylosiloksanu). Nadawę stanowiły dwuskładnikowe mieszaniny n-oktan/tiofen i n-oktan/2-metylotiofen. Zawartość siarki obecnej w tiofenach wahała się granicach od 0,05 do 0,13% mas. Wpływ temperatury nadawy zbadano w zakresie 30-50°C. Przepływ nadawy (75 dm3/h) utrzymywano na stałym poziomie.
PL
Celem pracy było określenie zmian aktywności dehydrogenaz w glebie zanieczyszczonej benzyną (1% wagi gleby), poddanej biostymulacji dwoma czynnikami: siarczanem (VI) amonu w dawkach 0,15; 1,50 i 15,00 mmol·kg-1, który w założeniu był podstawowym źródłem siarki, a ponadto wzbogacał glebę w azot, oraz selenem na dwóch stopniach utlenienia (IV i VI), w ilości 0,05 mmol·kg-1. Jest to pierwiastek tworzący analogi związków siarki, jak również czynnik wpływający na aktywność niektórych enzymów oksydoredukcyjnych. Proporcje zostały dobrane tak, by stosunek S:Se wyniósł 3:1; 30:1 i 300:1. Analizowano zmianę aktywności dehydrogenaz glebowych oraz pHKCI. Pomiary wykonano w 1., 7., 14., 28. i 56. dniu doświadczenia. Analizy wykazały stymulujący wpływ benzyny na aktywność dehydrogenaz w 1. dniu doświadczenia. Efekt ten zwiększał się ze wzrostem ilości wprowadzonego siarczanu (VI) amonu. W kolejnych terminach pomiarów wprowadzenie dużych dawek (15 mmol·kg-1) siarczanu (VI) amonu wraz z selenem niekorzystnie wpływało na aktywność dehydrogenaz w glebie zawierającej benzynę, natomiast mniejsze dawki (NH4)2SO4 miały głównie stymulujący wpływ. Ponadto zaobserwowano, że aktywność dehydrogenaz w większości terminów analiz stymulowała jednoczesna obecność w glebie (NH4)2SO4 i Se na stopniu utlenienia (IV). Wynika z tego, że zastosowanie biostymulacji siarczanem (VI) amonu wraz z selenem (IV), w odpowiednich proporcjach może być wykorzystane do rekultywacji gleb zanieczyszczonych związkami ropopochodnymi.
EN
The aim of the study was to determine changes in enzyme activity in soil contaminated with gasoline (1% by weight of soil) subjected to biostimulation by two factors. The first factor was ammonium sulfate in doses of 0.15 mmol·kg-1, 1.50 mmol·kg-1 and 15.00 mmol·kg-1. Mineral fertilizer was the main source of sulfur in soil, furthermore it enriched soil with nitrogen. The second factor was selenium IV and VI (0.05 mmol·kg-1) as a sulfur analog and element, which can stimulate the activity of some oxidoreductases. The proportions were chosen to provide the ratio of S to Se equal 3:1, 30:1 and 300:1 (regardless of selenium oxidation state IV and VI). During the experiment, soil dehydro122 genase activity and changes in soil pH in 1 M KCl were analyzed. Measurements were made independently on day 1, 7, 14, 28 and 56. Analyses showed stimulating effect of gasoline on the dehydrogenase activity on day 1. The observed effect increased with increasing amounts of introduced ammonium sulfate (VI). Subsequent measurements revealed that the introduction of high doses of ammonium sulfate (VI) (15 mmol·kg-1) and selenium negatively affected the dehydrogenase activity in soil contaminated with gasoline. In contrast, lower doses of (NH4)2SO4 had mainly a stimulating effect on the dehydrogenase activity in soil with gasoline. Furthermore, it was observed that the soil dehydrogenase activity on most days of experiment increased in the presence of (NH4)2SO4 and selenium at the oxidation state IV. Therefore, the use of biostimulation with ammonium sulphate (VI) together with selenium (IV) in appropriate proportions can be used for the remediation of soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.
PL
Przedstawiono wyniki badań dotyczące zmian w składzie chemicznym benzyn poddanych długookresowemu przechowywaniu. Obecność produktów autoutleniania w benzynach określano za pomocą techniki FTIR. Równolegle sprawdzano stabilność chemiczną paliw wyrażoną poprzez okres indukcyjny. Stwierdzono, że wyniki tych badań wzajemnie się uzupełniają i mogą być wykorzystywane do oceny stanu paliwa podczas długookresowego przechowywania.
EN
Samples of EtOCMe₃ (EETB) or EtOH-contg. gasolines with a res. octane no. 95 and EETB-contg. gasoline with a res. octane no. 98 were stored for 6 months and studied every 30 days for changes in the chem. compn. The presence of autooxidn. products and chem. stability, expressed as induction period were detd. by std. methods. During the 6 months long storage, the changes in the chem. compn. resulted in the appearance of IR bands characteristic for the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups or in an increase in the intensity of the bands.
EN
Alcohols represent a viable replacement for gasoline> with the advantages of providing improved energy security as well as reduced environmental impact. Compared to ethanol, which holds the majority of the alternative fuels market share in transportation, n-butanol features higher energy density and better compatibility with existing fuel systems designed for gasoline. Given this background, the present study investigated the use of pure n-butanol fuelling of a wall guided direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine with optical accessibility through the piston crown. Different injection timings were considered, and variations of soot emissions were evaluated based on smoke measurements. Besides thermodynamic investigations through the analysis in-cylinder pressure traces, flame chemiluminescence was applied for a more detailed view of the chemical processes during combustion. All conditions were benchmarked to gasoline fuelling, thus giving comprehensive information on the effect of fuel properties. It was found that the change in injection timing, even by a relatively reduced crank angle, had a significant effect on the smoke at the exhaust, for both fuel types. Early fuel delivery resulted in high soot emissions, while late injection had the opposite effect. No soot- nitrogen oxides trade-off point, specific for diesel power units, could be identified, but the optimum injection strategy resulted in high engine output and low particulate emissions. The alcohol featured increased sensitivity not only to changes in the start of injection, but also showed the potential for very low smoke. The investigations further emphasize the importance of air-fuel mixture formation and also identified ways to minimize the environmental impact of DISI engines through the development of optimized control strategies.
PL
Omówiono problem stosowania dodatków detergentowo-dyspergujących w benzynach węglowodorowych z niewielką zawartością etanolu i benzynach wysokoetanolowych. Zaprezentowano wyniki oceny właściwości detergentowych benzyny z wysoką zawartością etanolu (E85) uszlachetnionej opracowanymi w Instytucie Nafty i Gazu - Państwowym Instytucie Badawczym formulacjami pakietów dodatków. Badania wykonano w ramach projektu finansowanego ze środków funduszy norweskich będącego częścią programu Polsko-Norweska Współpraca Badawcza, realizowanego przez Narodowe Centrum Badań i Rozwoju.
EN
The problem of the application of detergent-dispersant additives for gasolines with the low and high content of ethanol were discussed. The results of the detergent properties assessment of high ethanol content gasoline (E85) treated by evaluated in Oil and Gas Institute - National Research Institute additive package formulations had been presented. The research was financed by Norwegian founds and carried out in the frame of the Polish-Norwegian Research Programme realized by the National Center for Research and Development.
EN
As a summary of work in the project "Influence of bioethanol fuels treatment for operational performance, ecological properties and GHG emissions of spark ignition engines (Biotreth)'; evolving around the effects from bioethanol blending, this paper summarizes the findings from the 3-year long project. These are I) attributional life cycle assessment (LCA) of the environmental impact connected with the blended fuels, and 2) molecular dynamics simulations of exhaust from the blended fuels. Bioethanol has been increasingly applied as a renewable energy component in combination with gasoline for the reduction of emissions and to reduce the release of climate gases into the atmosphere. Here the environmental and health impacts resulting from introducing bioethanol blended into fossil fuels are assessed. This bio-blended fuel is an alternative to fossil fuels, and their multivariate results are presented with the potential environmental impacts of the production (well-to-tank) of certain multifunctional detergent additive packages (MDAPs) combined with different ethanol-gasoline blends. Moreover the effect of feedstock for ethanol in Switzerland and Poland on end-point modelling results is explored. The resulting combustion products, as a result of adding these new MDAP to the ethanol-gasoline blends, are measured and added to the well-to-wheel LCA focused on GWP100, Cumulative Energy Demand and Eco-indicator'99. MDAP production eco-environmental impacts are estimated based on their chemical structure. To assess the potentials for new types of emission compounds we have used molecular dynamics simulations. The combination of bioethanol and gasoline introduces two leading toxic components in the urban atmosphere as potentially toxic mixtures: acetaldehyde and poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were established. The PAHs are found in combusted gasoline and are virtually absent in emissions of bioethanol. Bioethanol however, contributes with acetaldehyde, which is a potential carcinogen. In this study, we have studied the dynamics of particle formation between acetaldehyde and phenanthrene, which is a PAH found at high concentrations in generic fossil fuel emissions. Our analysis resolves the interaction of these two main emission toxic components at the molecular level in virtual chambers of 300 to 700K, under standard atmospheric conditions and under high pressure and temperature from the engine and exhaust pipe and also reveals their interaction with environmental humidity, modelled as single-point charged water molecules. The results show so far that PAHs and phenanthrene can combine in the water phase and form aqueous nanoparticles, which can be easily absorbed in the lungs through respiration. Water droplets in moisture become potential carriers of PAHs to the exposed subjects by forming non-covalent bonds with acetaldehyde, which in turn binds phenanthrene via its hydrophobic group.
16
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań nieaddytywnych właściwości biopaliwa o zawartości etanolu wynoszącej 20÷25% (V/V ). Oceniono również skłonność biopaliwa E20–E25 do tworzenia osadów oraz jego odporność na utlenianie. Jako paliwo odniesienia badano benzynę bezołowiową E10 w zakresie tych samych parametrów jakościowych.
EN
The article presents the results of non-additive properties of gasoline containing 20% to 25% ethanol. The E20–E25 tendency to form deposits and oxidation stability were also tested. As a reference, E10 was examined.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań mających na celu określenie zmian wybranych parametrów fizykochemicznych paliw zachodzących w procesach ich utleniania. W badaniach własnych wykorzystano handlowe oleje napędowe i benzyny, które poddano procesom przyśpieszonego utleniania. Analizowano zmiany takich parametrów, jak: gęstość, współczynnik załamania światła, stabilność oksydacyjna, okres indukcyjny, zawartość żywic i tendencja do blokowania filtra (FBT).
EN
The article presents results of research aimed at identifying changes in selected physico-chemical parameters of fuels occurring in the process of their oxidation. In own research, commercial diesel fuels and gasolines, which undergone accelerated oxidation processes, were used. The changes of parameters such as density, refractive index, oxidation stability, induction period, the content of gum, and filter blocking tendency (FBT) were analysed.
EN
Liquid products produced from two different types of waste pyrolysismunicipal wastes and spent tyre wastes are investigated using gas chromatography—mass spectrometry. This method has been applied for detailed identification of composition of the samples. The components were characterized in terms of their Kováts retention indices on a PONA capillary column. The obtained analytical data were successfully used for the characterization of the samples. More than three hundred compounds were detected. The liquid products were complex mixtures, composed mainly of C4—C12 compounds. The examination of the selected m/z values very clearly indicates the existence of the different groups of compounds. With a lot of olefins content (31.9%), followed by aromatics (20.0%), paraffins (17.3%), and naphthenes (7.5%), it is described as the liquid product from pyrolysis of municipal solid wastes. The aromatic compounds in liquid product from pyrolysis of spent tyre wastes have the highest concentration (33.5%), and they are followed by naphthenes (28.6%), olefins (19.2%), and paraffins compounds (7.0%). The present study has shown that the pyrolysis of municipal waste and spent tyres can be used as a means for reduction of environmental pollution and production of liquid product which could be used as a fuel source.
PL
Przedstawiono wyniki badań eksperymentalnych nad rozdziałem mieszanin n-heptan/tiofen oraz toluen/tiofen metodą perwaporacji próżniowej na komercyjnych membranach z warstwą aktywną z poli(dimetylosiloksanu). Badania wykazały, że strumienie węglowodorów, jak i tiofenu wzrastały wraz ze wzrostem temperatury nadawy oraz stężeniem tiofenu i ich wartości były większe w przypadku mieszaniny toluen/tiofen. Z kolei współczynnik wzbogacenia permeatu β osiągał większą wartość dla mieszaniny n-heptan/tiofen.
EN
PhMe/thiophene and n-heptane/thiophene org. mixts. were sepd. by vacuum pervaporation by using a com. Hydrophobic poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based membrane. Both, hydrocarbon and thiophene fluxes increased with the increasing temp. and thiophene concn. and were higher for the PhMe/thiophene mixts. while the enrichment coeff. was lower.
PL
Etanol stosowany jako biokomponent benzyny bezołowiowej 95 wywiera znaczący wpływ na wartości nieaddytywnych parametrów jakościowych tego paliwa, do których zaliczane są: prężność par, skład frakcyjny i liczby oktanowe. Do obliczania tych właściwości dla mieszaniny benzynowo-etanolowej można wykorzystać addytywne wskaźniki mieszania. W artykule omówiono sposób wyznaczania addytywnych wskaźników mieszania do obliczenia parametrów destylacji E70 i E100 dla benzyny bezołowiowej 95 z udziałem do 10,0% (V/V) etanolu.
EN
Ethanol used as a bio-component of gasoline, has a significant impact on the non-additive parameters of the gasoline, which include vapor pressure, distillation and octane numbers. To calculate these properties of the ethanol-gasoline blend, additive blending index can be used. This article discusses how to determine the blending index to calculate E70 and E100 for gasoline with up to 10.0% (V/V ) ethanol.
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