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EN
The efficient management of biomass fly ash is a key factor for the circular economy. Fly ash is produced in large quantities during biomass combustion and may be utilized for various applications, for both environmental and financial benefits. The main limitation of biomass fly ash utilization is its unrecognized potential caused by a lack of consistent law regulations. In this paper, possible paths of biomass fly ash management are discussed. The compositions of 4 fly ashes derived from biomass combustion in Polish units are presented, together with 2 examples of phosphorous-rich ashes. The five most promising ways of management are elaborated: concrete and cement production, phosphorous recovery and fertilizers, composites, ceramics, and sorbents. The latest state-of-the-art research regarding each path is briefly reviewed and current law regulations are introduced. Limitations for the safe management of biomass ash are also discussed.
PL
Zagospodarowanie popiołów lotnych z biomasy jest ważnym elementem gospodarki o obiegu zamkniętym (GOZ). Popiół lotny powstaje W znacznych ilościach podczas spalania biomasy, a jego odpowiednie zagospodarowanie może przynieść zarówno korzyści dla środowiska, jak i oszczędności finansowe. Głównym ograniczeniem wykorzystania popiołów lotnych z biomasy jest brak odpowiednich uregulowań prawnych, co powoduje również słabe rozpoznanie możliwości użycia popiołów. W artykule przedstawiono składy 4 popiołów lotnych pochodzących ze spalania biomasy W polskich obiektach energetyki zawodowej oraz 2 przykłady popiołów szczególnie bogatych w fosfor. Omówiono pięć najbardziej obiecujących sposobów wykorzystania: produkcja betonów i cementu, odzysk fosforu i zastosowanie jako nawozy, składnik kompozytów, materiały ceramiczne oraz sorbenty. Przedstawiono aktualne regulacje prawne oraz dokonano krótkiego przeglądu najnowszych badań dotyczących poszczególnych ścieżek. Omówiono także ograniczenia w zakresie bezpiecznego zagospodarowania popiołów z biomasy.
PL
Przeprowadzono pirolizę czterech surowców biomasy roślinnej: słomy pszenicznej, paździerzy lnianych, odpadów kukurydzianych i pestek wiśni, w atmosferze CO₂ i w trybie kaskadowego wzrostu temperatury, aż do osiągnięcia 500°C. Do oceny otrzymanych biowęgli zastosowano analizę termograwimetryczną i różnicową kalorymetrię skaningową (DSC). Wyznaczono ubytek masy oraz temperaturę i wielkość efektów cieplnych zachodzących podczas ogrzewania w warunkach utleniających. Wynikiem analiz była ocena efektów cieplnych zachodzących pod wpływem utleniania biowęgli, która potwierdziła możliwość stosowania techniki DSC do oceny ich właściwości energetycznych.
EN
Wheat straw, flax shives, corn waste or cherry pits were pyrolyzed in a CO₂ atmosphere in a cascading temp. increase mode until 500°C was reached. TG anal. and DSC were used to evaluate the obtained biochars. The mass loss, temp. and the magnitude of thermal effects occurring during heating under oxidizing conditions were detd.
EN
The paper presents an emergy analysis of the poultry farm regarding shifting energy sources from fossil fuels to biomass generated onsite in broilers and hen eggs rearing systems. It has been found that the manure produced on the farm has sufficient energy potential to replace the currently used energy carriers, both for heating and electricity supply. Replacing the currently used conventional energy resources with chicken manure will increase the emission charges. However, implementation of low-emission combustion techniques can help with reducing the emissions. Emergy analysis showed that for the conventional energy mix used in the farm, the Renewability Index (REN) is 0.5797, the Environmental Loading Ratio (ELR) is 171.49 and the Emergy Yield Ratio (EYR) has a value of about 1. If energy carriers are replaced by chicken manure, the REN may increase by 6.19% and the ELR may decrease by 6.11%. These relatively small changes should be considered in the context of the large scale of chicken production in Poland.
EN
Activated carbon (AC) is one of the best adsorbents for removing trace contaminants from air, soil and water due to its adsorption properties. It is produced from carbon-rich materials, mainly fossil raw materials. However, the price of hard coals has increased significantly in recent years due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the war in Ukraine. The existing eastern markets became blocked for carbon-raw-material sourcing. It is therefore important to find alternative materials or plant-based products. This study investigated the possibility of manufacturing activated carbon from waste biomass such as sugar beet fibers (SBSF), mixed vegetable processing waste (mainly corn) (MVW) and cherry stones (ChS). The raw material was subjected to pyrolysis, milling, granulation, carbonisation and activation at different times and temperatures. However, of the biomass materials tested, only SBSF in the form of marc can be processed into valuable activated carbon in further production steps. MVW and ChS as carbon substrates showed, in addition to high moisture and ash, low efficiency in decolourising molasses and methylene blue MB and also had a lower specific surface area.
EN
Pyrolysis is a method of producing oils from the raw materials of biomass by decomposing the thermochemical of organic materials at a given temperature. Free variables used in this research include pyrolysis temperaturę and biomass composition. The temperature variation of pyrolysis consists of three ranges: 100–200; 200–300; and 300–350 °C. Meanwhile, the composition of biomass consists of five combinations of waste rubber and coconut shells ranging from 0% coconut shell and 100% rubber wood to 80% coconut shell and 20% rubber shell. The physical characteristics of bio-oil analyzed include volume, pH, density, viscosity, and GC-MS analysis to determine its chemical characteristics. Research results showed that the pyrolysis temperature and composition of the biomass affected the characteristics of the bio-oil. The results of GC-MS analysis on bio-oil at 300–350 0C showed that bio-oil with a biomass composition of 80% coconut shells and 20% rubber wood yielded 50.19% phenol. The percentage of phenol is greater than that found in bio-oil with 20% coconut shells and 80% rubber wood, which is 18.78% phenol.
EN
This article presents the influence of ashes generated in the combustion processes of various types of biomasses on the durability (resistance to freezing and thawing after 25 cycles) of cement mortars. Three types of ashes were used for the tests: two fly ashes and one bottom ash. These differ in chemical composition and microstructure in the amounts of 10%, 20%, and 30% of the cement mass and are used as a substitute for standard sand. The ashes are characterized in terms of microstructure and chemical composition. The research shows that, regardless of the type of ash used, all the cement mortars containing ash are characterized by higher durability than the control mortars. Among the modified mortars, the smallest decrease in resistance (by 0.54%) to the process of freezing and thawing is shown by cement mortars containing 10% fly ash from the combustion process of biomass with the addition of sunflower, and the largest (by 7.56%) show mortars containing 30% bottom ash from the combustion of biomass with the addition of sunflower. These findings suggest that the incorporation of biomass ashes, particularly fly ash, into the cement matrix mixes has the potential to improve their durability for road infrastructure applications.
EN
Rapeseed by-products of seeds de-oiling, particularly expellers and post-extracted meal, are currently considered an important biomass that can be used as an alternative energy source, either in raw form or after conversion to biochar. Rapeseed biomass represents a difficult-to-handle cargo, mainly due to its sensitivity to mechanical, climatic, and biological impacts, as well as its dusty nature. This study aims to determine the physical properties of rapeseed meals and their fractions. Morphological and chemical features of six particle sets are investigated in order to explain the variation in their physical properties having importance in handling and transportation processes. The true density of fractions increases when the particle size decreases due to the diminishing quantitative share of seed coats. No correlation is observed between true and bulk densities, as the particle shape, surface sculpture, and adhesion affect the mutual particle arrangements. Along with a decrease in the particle size from 0.4 mm, a rapid decrease in the flowability is observed. The tendency of the finest dust (d < 0.075 mm) to form agglomerated complexes causes its lower bulk density, higher porosity, and higher angles of repose in comparison to coarse dust (0.075–0.4 mm). It is concluded that a relatively low tendency to free flowing of natural RSM is mainly caused by its wide-ranging particle size distribution and their geometry differentiation, which facilitate mutual particle interlockings. The known cases of blockages of silos, bins, hoppers, and transfer chutes may be mainly caused by the powder fractions (< 0.2 mm), with a much lower flowability than other particles.
8
Content available remote Uzdatnianie biogazu z wykorzystaniem technik membranowych
EN
The article presents the upgrading of biogas to biomethane using membranes. Currently, most of the biogas produced in Europe is burned in cogeneration units to produce electricity and heat. Upgrading raw biogas into biomethane seems to be future-proof and promising, especially considering the possibility of injecting enriched biogas into the transmission network or using it in the transport sector. A future solution is the enrichment of biogas into biomethane as an energy carrier. Waste-free purification of gas streams, recycling of raw materials and reducing energy consumption are possible, among others, thanks to the use of technologies using membrane modules. Factors that determine the profitability of a biogas enrichment installation are the selectivity of the membrane towards the separated gases, permeability, lifetime, temperature and humidity range, maintenance and replacement costs. An important problem is the lack of legal regulations in Poland regarding biomethane as a transport fuel. Currently, work is underway on legal regulations that will allow for the widespread use of treated biomethane in transport and the possibility of injecting it into gas networks.
PL
Niniejsza praca naukowa dotyczy wyników badań związanych z analizą zamienności paliw stałych dla kotłów grzewczych małej mocy. Opracowanie skupia się na wskaźnikach ekologicznych oraz ekonomicznych wybranych paliw stałych konwencjonalnych i odnawialnych. Wyniki badań dają wgląd w proces spalania konkretnych paliw biomasowych w oparciu o analizę techniczną, a także badania emisji substancji szkodliwych. Otrzymane rezultaty badań cieplnych oraz emisyjnych posłużyły do określenia średnich stężeń masowych emitowanych substancji szkodliwych oraz do oszacowania średnich parametrów cieplnych kotła, takich jak moc, sprawność i temperatura spalin. Zestawienie zebranych parametrów umożliwiło stworzenie szerszego obrazu procesu spalania biomasy, określenie konsekwencji środowiskowych używania badanych wsadów oraz oszacowanie wpływu zmiany obecnie eksploatowanych paliw kopalnych na biomasę. Przedstawiona analiza ekonomiczna pozwoliła także zauważyć potencjał ekonomiczny w przypadku słomy z pszenicy jako paliwa biomasowego.
EN
The present research work concerns the subject of the analysis of the interchangeability of solid fuels in low-power boilers. The study focuses on ecological and economic indicators of selected conventional and renewable solid fuels. The results provide insight into the combustion process of specific biomass fuels created on the basis of technical analysis and fuel interchangeability analysis as well as the research on the emission of harmful substances. The obtained results of thermal and emission tests were used to determine the average mass concentrations of emitted harmful substances and to estimate the average thermal parameters of the boiler, such as power, efficiency and flue gas temperature. The summary of the collected parameters enabled the creation of a broader picture of the biomass combustion process, allowed for the estimations of the environmental consequences of the use of the tested feedstocks and revealed the predicted impacts of changing the currently used fossil fuels on biomass. The presented economic analysis also revealed the profitable potential of wheat straw as a biomass fuel.
PL
Łupiny orzechów laskowych, produkt uboczny przemysłu spożywczego, mają znaczny potencjał jako prekursor do produkcji węgla aktywnego ze względu na ich dużą dostępność i dużą zawartość węgla. Przedstawiono badania możliwości przekształcenia łupin orzechów laskowych w węgiel aktywny, wykorzystany do oczyszczania ścieków z zanieczyszczeń organicznych. Porównano procesy aktywacji fizycznej i chemicznej otrzymanego węgla. Otrzymano wysoce porowaty materiał o powierzchni właściwej 1211 m²/g. Ponadto przedstawiono izotermy adsorpcji i oznaczono pojemność adsorpcyjną biowęgla względem rodaminy B.
EN
Hazelnut shells were pyrolyzed at 500°C for 1 h. The obtained biochar was activated phys. with CO₂ at 800°C or chem. with KOH at 850°C. A porous material with a sp. surface area of 1211 m²/g was obtained. The adsorption properties of activated C were tested in relation to the adsorption of rhodamine B. The adsorption capacity was 64.4 mg/g. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips and Toth adsorption equil. models were used to describe the rhodamine adsorption isotherm. The best fit to the exptl. data was observed for the Sips isotherm.
PL
Azot jest ważnym makroskładnikiem biomasy, ponieważ odgrywa istotną rolę w procesach metabolicznych, produkcji białek, syntezie aminokwasów, enzymów, hormonów oraz jest składnikiem chlorofilu. Ocena jego niedoborów w uprawach kukurydzy jest przedmiotem badań naukowych. W artykule zaprezentowano wyniki pomiarów w kontrolowanych warunkach laboratoryjnych wskaźników teledetekcyjnych kukurydzy uprawianej w wariantach nawożenia 0-150 kg·N/ha. Zaproponowana metoda oceny niedoboru azotu z wykorzystaniem sensora Crop Circle pozwala na autonomiczne sterowanie precyzyjnym nawożeniem doglebowym w projektowanym rozwiązaniu robota polowego.
EN
Nitrogen is an important macronutrient of biomass because it plays an important role in metabolic processes, protein production, amino acid synthesis, enzymes, hormones and is a component of chlorophyll. The assessment of its deficiencies in maize crops is the subject of scientific research. The article presents the results of measurements in controlled laboratory conditions of remote sensing indices of maize cultivated in fertilization variants of 0-150 kg·N/ha. The proposed method of assessing nitrogen deficiency using the Crop Circle sensor allows for autonomous control of precise soil fertilization in the designed solution of a field robot.
EN
This study examined the seasonal distributions of the medusa Rhizostoma pulmo along the coasts of the southern Black Sea between Kızılırmak and Yeşilırmak between April 2008 and March 2010. Monthly abundance and biomass values were determined, as well as population parameters.The effect of temperature on medusa distribution wasalso investigated. Results showed that medusa abundance and biomass were highest in autumn, following a period of increased temperature. In contrast, medusa was not observed during the spring season. It was possible to observe the R. pulmo individuals for five months for the first term of investigation period (2008-2009), and seven months for the second term (2009-2010). The highest abundance value was found to be 10 n/m 2 (November 2008 and September 2009) and the highest biomass value was 12.587,5 g/100 m3 (October 2009).
13
Content available remote Reverse supply chain of residual wood biomass
EN
Background: Awareness of environmental or, more broadly, sustainable development is becoming an increasingly important issue, and questions of recycling and reuse have been getting more and more attention lately. Biomass is an important renewable resource and can take many forms, ranging from agricultural residues to food waste, forestry residues, and wood processing residues. A particular example is woody biomass such as forestry residues, wood-processing residues, or construction and municipal wastes that can be recycled and reused, providing a more environmentally friendly alternative to bioenergy production. This requires reverse supply chains in which the processes of collection, sorting, and transportation are efficient. The aim of this paper is to characterise the reverse supply chain of residual wood biomass and to indicate the main challenges related to it. Methods: For the needs of the paper, the research was conducted using the methods of analysis of secondary and primary sources. The materials included data obtained from scientific papers, reports, studies, and internet sources. We conducted focus groups interviews (FGIs) in three cities in Poland. Results: The article characterizes the details of the supply chain processes in woody biomass. Moreover, challenges, threats, and opportunities for reverse biomass supply chains are indicated. Conclusions: Wood biomass can be derived from various residues and has a very wide range of industrial applications. Several factors must be considered when organising and conducting logistics processes for wood residues, such as origin, structure, and composition of woody biomass. The reverse supply chain of residual biomass consists of many different entities between which many different processes take place. The well-organized logistical and technological processes are vital parts of the supply chain because they result in size reduction, moisture adjustment, cleaning, fractionation, densification etc., which reduces transport and storage costs. There are many challenges related to biomass supply chains, e.g. the seasonality of biomass, the different requirements for handling and transport equipment, as well as storage space configuration.
EN
The article examines the influence of physicochemical traits on yield depending on the variety and year of cultivation. Four common to Poland grape cultivars, i.e. ‘Regent’, ‘Rondo’, ‘Seyval Blanc’, and ‘Solaris’, were evaluated by analysing, among others, number of clusters per bush, their weight, number of berries, and the yield per hectare, number of woody shoots, weight of woody shoots, and the diameter of woody shoots. Energy and emission parameters were evaluated by conducting technical evaluation (lower heating value, ash content, volatile matters content, moisture content, fixed carbon) and elemental analysis (carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, sulphur and oxygen contents) of one-year, two-year and three-year vine shoots. In addition, emission factors for CO, CO2, NOx, SO2 and dust were estimated. The study showed that there was no significant differences between years under study (2020, 2021 and 2022) and energy and emission parameters. It was observed that the highest LHV (lower heating value) occurred in the ‘Regent’ cultivar while the lowest level in the ‘Rondo’ cultivar. As regards energy-emission parameters, a significant influence of cultivar (‘Solaris’, ‘Rondo’, ‘Seyval Blanc’ and ‘Regent’) was shown on the parameters studied except for nitrogen content and NOx emission index. The interaction of year and cultivar showed no significant differences except for the moisture content.
EN
As the impact of global climate change increases, the interaction of biotic and abiotic stresses increasingly threatens current agricultural practices. The most effective solution to the problem of climate change and a decrease in the amount of atmospheric precipitation is planting extremely drought-resistant and high-yielding crops. Sorghum can grow in harsh conditions such as salinity, drought and limited nutrients, also it is an important part of the diet in many countries. Sorghum can be introduced in many zones of Kazakhstan. Plant height and yield of green plant biomass of 16 sorghum samples in arid conditions were determined based on a set of agrobiological characteristics for field screening. The height of the studied samples of grain sorghum was 0.47 ±0.03 m, and the height of sweet sorghum was much longer, reaching up to 2.88 ±0.12 m. Also, there was a strong difference in green biomass in cultivated areas under different soil and climatic conditions, the green biomass of sweet sorghum was 3.0 Mg∙ha-1, and in grain sorghum, it reached up to 57.4 Mg∙ha-1. Based on the data of the field assessment for various soil and climatic conditions, the following samples were identified for introduction into production: samples of sweet sorghum for irrigated and rainfed lands of the Almaty Region and in the conditions of non-irrigation agriculture of the Aktobe Region - a promising line ICSV 93046. For non-irrigation agriculture of the Akmola Region, genotypes of sweet and grain sorghum are ‘Chaika’, ‘Kinelskoe 4’ and ‘Volzhskoe 44’.
16
Content available remote Experimental studies of burning pellets in a burner up to 30 kW
EN
Given the world trends in the use of biofuels of agricultural origin, Ukraine has considerable potential to develop this direction at the expense of a significant resource base. Solid biomass is mainly used for heat production in large or medium-sized district heating boilers and in domestic wood, pellet boilers, in furnaces and in fireplaces. The work is devoted to the research of burning of wood pellets and agropellet (from rape straw) with the purpose of improvement of operational and ecological indicators of household boilers with capacity up to 30 kW. Results of experimental research of burning of mentioned pellets are given on the basis of data of experiment characteristic features of temperature conditions in heating volume of boiler and burning at burning of pellets are defined.
EN
Potentially negative environmental and human health effects have led to pharmaceutical chemicals,which are labeled as a new class of environmental contaminants. Adsorption is one of the most appealing choices to remove that pharmaceutical waste in recent years. However, the environmental limitations of the adsorbent material are an obstacle to the development of this process. The current study suggested the remaining Chlorella vulgaris biomass, after the extraction process of the biomaterials, to be a bio-absorption material in removing the Ciprofloxacin from the hospital wastewater. The preparation and characterization of the suggested adsorbent through FTIR analysis, and scanning electron microscopy, coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, were present in the current study. Several functional groups (such as carboxylic, amines, hydroxyls, and amides) were observed to aid the adsorption process. After the extraction process, the results showed a growth in the peaks, indicating an increase in functional groups, particularly the -O.H. and -N.H. groups, while having changed toward lower energy after binding with CIP atoms, as well as an increase in surface area from 2.3723 to 3.6224 m2/g. The XRD was shown to be compatible with the EDX test, which both demonstrated a decrease in carbon element concentration due to the deconstruction process. The effects of Ciprofloxacin bio-sorption variables, including contact time, initial Ciprofloxacin concentration, pH, and adsorbent dosage, were adopted as a parametric study. The maximum adsorption capacity was recorded at pH 7 with an adsorbent dose of 2.75 g/L; after 120 minutes, the data show that 89.9% of Ciprofloxacin has been adsorption onto the extracted biomass.
EN
It needs to become a source of renewable energy raw materials derived from biomass, through revegetation reclamation activities. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the differences in the quality of the wood pellets derived from distinguished raw materials and ages. It also aims to evaluate the relationship between raw material and wood pellet parameters. In this process, the method used emphasized the measurements of the chemical-physical and quality parameters of the materials and pellets, respectively. These analyses were subsequently carried out through a comparative test with the quality standards of SNI (Indonesian National Standard) 8021-2014 and SNI 01-6235-2000. To analyze the relationship between raw material and wood pellet quality parameters, a statistical test of Pearson correlation (product-moment) was conducted. Based on the results, the pellets produced from post-mining land revegetation reached SNI quality limits on the parameters of water content, density, fixed carbon, and heat. This proved that all the chemical-physical features of the raw materials had a relationship in improving the quality of wood pellets. Regarding the comparison between types, the Acacia mangium pellets relatively had the best quality.
EN
Forestry waste (FW) extracted parts ofmedicinal-aromatic plant waste (EPW) and unused parts (UPW) are considered potential resources for energy recovery (their heating value of approximately 19 MJ/kg).In order to valorize lignocellulosic biomass, a pretreatment process is required to hydrolyze the recalcitrant lignocellulosic complex into fermentable simple sugars. The aim of this study is to determine the best method of pretreatment that takes into account treatment time, efficiency, and environmental friendliness. The mixture of FW, EPW, and UPW was treated by simple and combined treatment using different methods like acid sulfuric (Ac), steam explosion (SE), and enzymatic (E) (cellulase and hemicellulase).The results showed that the combined and simple Ac treatments are the mostefficient compared with SE and E treatments in the hydrolysis of polysaccharide of cellulose with a rate respectively of 90.5% and 77.6% and hemicellulose with a rate respectively of 80.63% and 87.14%. In addition, both of the preceding methods release an important rate of total phenolic compounds. Combined treatment demands high time but is friendly (approximately 1 day), and Ac treatment is less time-consuming (about 25 min) but harmful to the environment and causes the corrosion of equipment.In conclusion, combined treatment can be the best method and the high time required can be reduced with the progress of the research.
PL
Celem niniejszego artykułu jest analiza możliwości pozyskania biowęgla z biomasy odpadowej w województwie wielkopolskim. Na podstawie zidentyfikowanych zasobów substratów, będących potencjalnym źródłem produkcji biowęgla (zasoby leśne, rolne, pozostałości z produkcji roślinnej i hodowli zwierzęcej oraz bioodpady dla województwa wielkopolskiego) sporządzono teoretyczny bilans ilościowo-jakościowy, przedstawiający potencjał wykorzystania biowęgla dla tego województwa. Zaprezentowany w artykule bilans na terenie Wielkopolski przedstawił biomasę możliwą do zagospodarowania na cele biowęgla, w około 4 376 270 [ton/rok], w tym największą produktywność osiągnęła biomasa pochodzenia zwierzęcego w ilości około 3 989 401 [ton/rok]. Na podstawie danych literaturowych wyznaczono powolną pirolizę, jako najefektywniejszą technologie obróbki surowców na biowęgiel.
EN
The aim of this article is to analyze the possibilities of biochar from waste biomass in the Wielkopolskie Voivodeship. Based on the identified resources of substrates that are a potential source of biochar production (forest resources, agricultural resources, residues from plant production and animal husbandry, and bio-waste for the Wielkopolskie Voivodeship), a theoretical quantitative and qualitative balance was prepared showing the potential of biochar use for this voivodeship. The analysis presented in the paper showed the biomass possible to be used for biochar purposes in the amount of about 4 288 989 [t/year], of which the highest productivity was achieved by biomass of animal origin in the amount of about 3,989,401 [t/year]. In addition, based on literature data, slow pyrolysis was determined as the most effective technology for processing raw materials for biochar.
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