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EN
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to identify scheduling problems in Polish local government units, examine the standards that are already used and identify the possibilities of improvement. For these reasons, three research questions are stated and then answered. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire method is used. The answers are collected from Polish local government units. A quantitative data analysis is performed, supplemented by an in-depth analysis of the open question answers. Findings: The results reveal that public projects do not always end on time and that standard scheduling and estimation are not always used. We provide recommendations for scheduling improvements. Research limitations/implications: The scheduling procedure is subject to further research, as it has not been verified and adjusted. Other countries’ insight is also needed. Practical implications: We believe that our work has a practical aspect for many Polish local government units and helps them in standardizing project scheduling supported by IT tools. Social implications: Infrastructure projects include the interests of local businesses and communities. Scheduling is a crucial element of providing project transparency and accountability, as well as enables communication with the stakeholders and the general public. Originality/value: The work tries to fill in the gap in standardizing scheduling practices in Polish local government units. The questionnaire data collected can also be used for further research.
2
Content available Risk management in JZR Development Programme
EN
Purpose: The main purpose of undertaken research was the analysis of risk management, especially, the adequate identification of risk factors and planning actions reducing their adverse effects. Ongoing monitoring of these risks is crucial to achieve the effects of investment project implementation. Design/methodology/approach: The authors present the research results concerning risk management in JZR (Jastrzębskie Zakłady Remontowe) Development Programme. Risk is an immanent element in the activity of a production company. Therefore, it requires an adequate approach in order to achieve the maximization of economic effects. The JZR Development Programme is a good example of the complexity of processes that should be taken into account in risk management of an investment project. Findings: The specificity of machine building enterprises determines the scope and scale of the necessary activities for efficient and effective risk management. The main scientific problem focuses on the analysis and categorization of risk factors. As a result, the authors determine appropriate responses to identified risks in the JZR Development Programme. Originality/value: The development of risk response is crucial for the success of the analysed project. These actions allow to reduce the negative impact of risk factors on the project’s timeliness, project’s budget as well as economic and technical-technological effects. Another necessary process within risk management is constant monitoring of a project implementation in accordance with the adopted methodology, which enables current updating of emerging new threats to the project implementation and developing necessary actions to minimize the threats.
EN
Purpose: The article discusses the range of economic approaches to risk management in the implementation of projects for the development of offshore hydrocarbon deposits. Design/methodology/approach: The article utilizes methods and tools of systemic, situational and strategic analysis, expert assessments, as well as methods for evaluating investment projects. Findings: Within the work, the main risks at the stages of project implementation and formulated proposals for their levelling were analysed. Originality/value: To create competitive conditions for the development of offshore fields, we have identified the main risks arising from the realisation of oil and gas projects, and evaluated their impact on the economic efficiency of projects. This scientific work includes an analysis of investment costs in the development of offshore oil and gas fields in different climatic conditions. This article also discusses the issues of industrial safety and environmental protection in the development of offshore fields.
4
Content available Place of social responsibility in project management
EN
Purpose: the aim of this article is to identify the place of social responsibility in the area of project management. The article is aims to determine the areas of interpenetration or mutual relations between Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Project Management (PM). Design/methodology/approach: this paper reviewed different definitions of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), project and project management. The article is an attempt to systematise the relatively new concept of Project Social Responsibility (PSR), which requires combining the CSR concept with a project approach. Since each company, apart from its current activity, carries out or will carry out projects in the future, the aim of this article is to identify the place of social responsibility in the area of project management. The article is of an analytical nature. Findings: none of the mentioned definitions of project management or the project itself referred to the company's strategy, social, environmental or even stakeholder impact. Moreover, stakeholders are one of the main reasons for the implementation of projects. Originality/value: the comparison made between 'CSR' and the term 'portfolio management' already indicates a greater correlation between these concepts. It may therefore be assumed that the place of Corporate Social Responsibility is in the portfolio management and involves planning and implementation of current activities, programmes or projects relevant to the company's strategic objectives and taking into account their impact, as well as the impact of the company itself on CSR areas.
EN
Purpose: The subject of interest of this article is reengineering and restructuring. The purpose of the article is to answer the question: is remedial restructuring carried out using reengineering methods more efficient, i.e. is a greater percentage of the assumed restructuring goals achieved in a given unit of time than in a project carried out without using this method? Design/methodology/approach: The process of restructuring management described in the article is supported by a case study of a company dealing with production of pumps. The case study shows how effective the reengineering method is for managing corrective change. The restructuring project described in the article was aimed at eliminating unproductive processes in the company, and then leading to the development of the company by conducting organizational changes and radical rebuilding of the company's business processes. Findings: Conclusions from the case study analysis provide clear evidence that remedial restructuring using reengineering is much more efficient than in a traditional project. Originality/value: The article supplements knowledge in the field of change management. The conclusions presented in it regarding the usefulness of the reengineering method when conducting remedial processes in enterprises can be used by change managers as an indication to successfully carry out restructuring implementations.
EN
Purpose: The aim of this article is to present the results of research aimed at identifying the most frequent risk factors of IT projects managed using the agile approach to project management. Design/methodology/approach: The research was conducted by means of in-depth structured interviews, on a sample of 111 project managers, leaders and project team members. The research included identification of risk factors and their assessment during project planning, as well as the most frequent risk factors in an agile-managed project. Findings: While carrying out a critical analysis of the literature, it can be observed that in the majority of publications concerning risk in projects managed in the agile way, the human factor is strongly underestimated, often excessively favouring procedures. However, when analysing the risk factors arising in IT projects managed in the agile way, except for the technology, equipment, system, or even the project schedule and cost, the project team is strongly accentuated. Research limitations/implications: The article presented recommendations to conduct supplementary research concerning the assessment of risk factors directly resulting from the specific nature of IT projects and the application of agile methodology to project management in terms of project team work organisation as well as potential project stakeholder groups. Originality/value: Software companies are one of the typical industries in which project management and the concept of teamwork are applied and the functioning of these teams is the dominant form of work organisation.
EN
Purpose: The main objective of this paper was to identify and determine the potential of holacracy from the point of view of new product development in the IT industry. Design/methodology/approach: The article contains a literature review on the subject of holacracy and a detailed case study analysis conducted in two IT companies which concerned the new product development process. Also, the article presents research results of a quantitative survey and results of interviews with employees that revealed key attributes of teams working in holacracy. Findings: Research results indicate that companies tend to adapt and adjust holacracy in a unique way to meet their development needs, but such approach requires a specific organizational culture and high-tech resources. Holacracy can enhance NPD process and induce self-development among holacratic development teams, which have a dozen of unique attributes in comparison to traditional teams. Agile development with holacracy is faster and more effective than standard agile development or waterfall approach. Research limitations/implications: The research results presented in the paper were based only on two IT companies which use new approaches to new product development. Therefore, more scientific research should be carried out in the future to discuss this topic further. Practical implications: The author of the article recommends that every company should evaluate its capabilities, organizational culture and technical resources before implementing holacracy. Originality/value: This paper presents and discusses a brand new approach to new product development used by modern IT companies. Holacracy is still considered as a new and innovative approach to managing organizations.
EN
Purpose: The aim of the article is to analyse the risk management process in IT projects managed using the agile methods. Design/methodology/approach: The research was conducted through in-depth structured interviews on a sample of 111 project managers, leaders and project team members. Findings: In the conducted research, attention was paid to the identification of risk factors, their assessment during project planning, management of key risk factors and the importance of risk analysis for project success. The test results were compared with a critical analysis of the literature on the subject of research. Originality/value: The results of a survey of company heads become input information for the analysis, which allowed to confirm theoretical knowledge with the practical experience of company heads and emphasize the importance of the human factor in the risk management.
EN
Purpose: The purpose of this article was to identify current development directions and potential research gaps in project management. Design/methodology/approach: The method of systematic review of articles published in the Elsevier - Science Direct database in the years 2000-2019 was used, where the search phrase was “project management” and the type of articles was “research articles”. In order to answer the research questions posed, an additional method of analysis and criticism of the literature was used. Findings: The following conclusions were drawn from the analysis of the articles: a) almost a third of them concerned the practical application of PM issues in one clearly defined sector of the economy, with the most common reference being to the building sector and IS/IT, b) most articles were created in English-speaking countries (47%), c) the largest number of articles concerned the area of human resource (HR) management, including many subjects of qualifications and leadership, d) of the ten areas of knowledge specified in PMBoK, “HR” and “scheduling/time” were the most popular, followed by risk-related issues. Practical implications: The findings of this article would contribute to building a strong and coherent theory and identify best practices in project management. Originality/value: The most important achievement is the recognition of two areas of knowledge - lean management and game theory - where little research has been done so far, and whose solutions and methods could be successfully implemented inside PM.
10
Content available remote Zarządzanie projektami w warunkach kryzysu
PL
Organizacje funkcjonują w turbulentnym otoczeniu, którego cechą charakterystyczną jest konieczność błyskawicznego dostosowania się do wymagań rynkowych, by sprostać potrzebom klientów. Podejście to wymaga ciągłego doskonalenia się w celu realizacji złożonych, niepowtarzalnych przedsięwzięć, które wymagają stosowania metod i technik w zarządzaniu projektami. Realizacja projektu i zarządzanie nim w warunkach kryzysu wymaga dodatkowej, wzmożonej uwagi, zmiany kolejności zaplanowanych etapów oraz wprowadzania nowych. Nie jest to możliwe przy wykorzystaniu wszystkich dostępnych metodyk. W artykule omówiono możliwe do zastosowania podejścia w zarządzaniu projektami w warunkach kryzysu, szczególną uwagę zwrócono w stronę metod zwinnych. Skoncentrowano się na omówieniu praktyk, które dają szansę na zakończenie z sukcesem realizowanego projektu.
EN
Organizations operate in a turbulent environment, which is characterized by the need to rapidly adapt to market requirements in order to meet the needs of customers. This approach requires continuous improvement in order to implement complex, unique projects that require the use of methods and techniques in project management. The implementation of the project and its management in crisis conditions requires additional, increased attention, changing the sequence of planned stages and introducing new ones. It is not possible using all available methodologies. The article discusses the possible approaches to project management in crisis conditions, with particular emphasis on agile methods. The focus was on discussing practices that give a chance to successfully complete the project.
EN
Effective project management requires consideration of aspects such as quality, costs, time, material resources, staff and communication, and risk. In the case of projects co-financed from European Union funds, the main threat is recognition of part or all of the costs as ineligible, which will result in a need to cover them from university's own funds. Therefore, not only successful completion of the project but also financial condition of the university depends on safety level of EU project management system. Main purpose of the study was to indicate actions aimed at increasing safety of EU project management system in public universities. First part of article is theoretical and was prepared based on a critical analysis of the literature in a field of project management. Second part of the text was based on primary data collected during the survey among EU project managers at public technical universities. Literature studies and results of own research have enabled preparation of recommendations to increase the level of safety of project management system co-financed from EU funds at public universities.
EN
The paper presents good practices and selected problems of creating cooperation networks. The basics of creating and disseminating new forms of cooperation between enterprises and universities have been described. Based on the implemented international project "3DCentral - Catalyzing Smart Engineering and Rapid Prototyping", selected conclusions from creating network and management of many project activities including innovative technologies are presented.
EN
The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and PROMETHEE have gained increasing attention in the field of construction management as techniques for the analysis of complex situations and as decision support for decision makers. However, these two methods in themselves or their potential applications to problems of construction management are not sufficiently defined in the existing literature. The environment of group decision-making bring even more challenges. This paper consolidates and critically discusses the current knowledge on the application of AHP and PROMETHEE methods in the light of the specifics of the construction industry. A systematic literature review was used to select the contributions indexed in the databases Scopus and Web of Science. The findings indicate that the studies deal with broad topics and different aspects in different phases of civil engineering projects. This paper provides a useful reference work for researchers and practitioners interested in the application of AHP and PROMEETHEE as tools for group decision-making in civil engineering.
EN
At present, it is said that Industry 4.0 is the fourth industrial revolution. Like the previous ones, it also has the ability to transform economies, jobs and societies. Our expectations are changing to the speed of obtaining answers to the questions asked. This is done by introducing new technologies and processes. This is an opportunity for Polish participants of local heat markets, or participants of the power or energy market. who are currently facing profound changes and investments forced, among others, by BAT conclusions. Such mega-processes as digitization, automation, artificial intelligence, IoT, machine learning are increasingly penetrating the world and business. More than 200 years have passed since the first industrial revolution, which was the use of the steam engine, and the requirements for testing the efficiency of enterprises have changed, which themselves are changing very quickly. The basic efficiency measures used in a given sector often result from the specifics of the sector and its degree of development on a macroeconomic scale. Therefore, it is worth placing the energy company in this environment and presenting its role to better match the instruments used. The above is also associated with increased reporting and the need to use additional evaluation measures, e.g. effectiveness of individual projects. It is therefore worth analyzing the available literature in this area, and the performance measures available and used in it, which will help in assessing the effectiveness of management, despite political and regulatory turmoil, and help us use the opportunities brought by the fourth industrial revolution.
PL
Obecnie mówi się, że Przemysł 4.0 to czwarta rewolucja przemysłowa. Podobnie jak poprzednie, ma również zdolność przekształcania gospodarek, miejsc pracy i społeczeństw. Nasze oczekiwania zmieniają się wraz z szybkością uzyskiwania odpowiedzi na zadawane pytania. Odbywa się to poprzez wprowadzanie nowych technologii i procesów. To szansa dla polskich uczestników lokalnych rynków ciepła, czy też uczestników rynku mocy czy energii, którzy stoją obecnie w obliczu głębokich zmian i inwestycji wymuszonych m.in. konkluzjami BAT. Takie megaprocesy, jak cyfryzacja, automatyzacja, sztuczna inteligencja, IoT, uczenie maszynowe, coraz częściej przenikają do świata i biznesu. Minęło ponad 200 lat od pierwszej rewolucji przemysłowej, jaką było zastosowanie silnika parowego, a wymagania dotyczące testowania wydajności przedsiębiorstw uległy zmianie, same zaś przedsiębiorstwa zmieniają się bardzo szybko. Podstawowe mierniki efektywności stosowane w danym sektorze często wynikają ze specyfiki sektora i stopnia jego rozwoju w skali makroekonomicznej. Dlatego warto umieścić firmę energetyczną w takim otoczeniu i przedstawić jej rolę w lepszym dopasowaniu do stosowanych instrumentów. Z powyższym wiąże się również zwiększona sprawozdawczość i konieczność stosowania dodatkowych środków ewaluacyjnych, np. efektywność poszczególnych projektów. Warto zatem przeanalizować dostępną literaturę w tym zakresie oraz dostępne i zastosowane w niej mierniki efektywności, które pomogą w ocenie skuteczności zarządzania pomimo zawirowań politycznych i regulacyjnych, a także pomogą nam wykorzystać szanse, jakie niesie ze sobą czwarta rewolucja przemysłowa.
EN
Project maturity is the ability of an organisation to effectively select a project portfolio in such a way that the execution of these projects contributes to the objectives and strategy of the organisation and the ability to apply professional project management techniques and tools in order to achieve high quality project products, repeatability of successes and avoid failure in forthcoming projects. The article presents the results of preliminary survey research aiming to assess the degree of maturity in project management in the scope of methods and tools, human resources, environment and knowledge management. The research was conducted in mining service enterprises in Poland.
16
Content available Success of public projects according to stakeholders
EN
Introduction/background: It is highly probable that the criteria for assessing the implementation of public projects as successful will be different, depending on the point of view of the representatives of individual groups of stakeholders. In the paper, we present, after a brief introduction to the problems of design and the specifics of public projects, the results of surveys conducted among representatives of local governments, representatives of local communities (city citizens) and representatives of people professionally involved in project management. Aim of the paper: The aim of the paper is to capture the criteria and conditions for the success of public projects common to various groups of stakeholders. Materials and methods: Surveys were used as the research method and the questionnaire contained two open-ended questions. The research took the form of a direct interview. The analysis was performed using cross tables and a weighted average. Results and conclusions: Research results indicate that criteria and conditions common to all groups of stakeholders exist and the most important are the fulfillment of basic project parameters (time, quality, costs) as a success criterion, and reliable examination/identification of the residents' needs (social consultations) as a condition for success.
17
Content available remote Technologia BIM – narzędzie do zarządzania projektem
EN
This paper focuses on the analysis of selected risks as part of investments in the power engineering at the initial (tender) stage of the life cycle in the context of the method of project management by the Contractor. The study was carried out on the basis of an analysis of over 500 tenders in the power engineering, from the last 5 years, taking into account future forecast data. The analysis carried out in this article was aimed at achieving specific and unique goals and results aimed at creating a useful product, which is the Contractor’s offer in the power engineering, taking into account the most significant risks. The result of this article is to support the project team in implementing risk management in the project at the tender stage. For this purpose, the risks with their basic parameters were defined, which allowed for the development of a risk matrix taking into account the data obtained in the tender procedures of leading electric power distributors. Based on the proposed risk quantification criteria, a list of remedial actions was prepared for all risk types listed in this article. In addition, the aspects of possible elimination/reduction of the impact of the most significant risks that occur at the analyzed stage of the investment life cycle were developed.
PL
Zarządzanie projektami jest już obszerną i niezależną dziedziną nauki o zarządzaniu. Wiedza z tego zakresu jest rozpowszechniana nie tylko przez uczelnie wyższe, lecz również, a w zasadzie można by powiedzieć, że głównie przez stowarzyszenia zrzeszające praktyków i teoretyków zarządzania projektami takie jak IPMA czy Project Management Institute. Organizacje te prezentują różne podejścia do zarządzania projektami. Obecnie wiele firm zmaga się z dylematem, które podejście do zarządzania projektami stosować. Tradycyjne, dobrze znane przez większość praktyków zarządzania, czy zwinne, młodsze podejście. W referacie przedstawione zostało w jaki sposób popularne metodyki zarządzania projektami definiują projekt oraz jego cykl życia. Zostało to skonfrontowane z charakterystyką projektu górniczego co jednocześnie wskazuje, które z metodyk mają potencjał do zastosowania w górnictwie.
EN
Project management is already an extensive and independent field of management. Knowledge in this field is shared not only by universities, but also, and in principle it could be said that mainly by associations of practitioners and theoreticians of project management such as IPMA or Project Management Institute. These organizations present different approaches to project management. Today, many companies face a dilemma about which approach to project management to apply. Traditional, well-known by most management practitioners, or agile, younger approach. The paper presents how popular project management methodologies define a project and its life cycle. This has been confronted with the characteristics of the mining project, which at the same time indicates which of the methodologies have the potential to be used in mining.
PL
Cel artykułu: celem publikacji jest zaprezentowanie na praktycznych przykładach możliwości zastosowania oraz ograniczeń w zastosowaniu metody wartości wypracowanej (EV), jako narzędzia służącego ocenie postępu prac w projektach realizowanych w przedsiębiorstwach górniczych węgla kamiennego w Polsce. Metoda badawcza/narzędzia: metodą badawczą będzie analiza wybranych, typowych przypadków projektów oraz możliwość ich oceny za pomocą metody wartości wypracowanej. Oryginalne rezultaty: wynikami pracy będą referencje w zakresie skutecznego wykorzystania metody wartości wypracowanej w projektach realizowanych w górnictwie węgla kamiennego.
EN
Purpose of the article: the aim of the publication is to present practical examples of the application possibilities and limitations in the use of the earned value (EV) method as a tool for assessing the progress of work in projects implemented in hard coal mining enterprises in Poland. Research method / tools: the research method will be the analysis of selected, typical project cases and the possibility of their evaluation using the earned value method. Original results: the results of the work will be references in the effective use of the value-generated method in projects implemented in the hard coal mining industry.
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