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The antimicrobial impact of visible violet and blue light has been known for more than a century but hardly been applied for purposeful pathogen reduction or prevention. The disinfecting properties of wide-spread warm-white and cool-white light emitting diodes (LEDs) are investigated by irradiation of staphylococci with different LEDs and varying doses. Additionally, the combination of a white and a violet LED illumination is examined. Both white LEDs exhibit an antimicrobial effect, which seems to be dominated by the blue parts of the LED emissions. Unfortunately, the antimicrobial effect is weak in realistic illumination applications. Additional violet LEDs can significantly enhance this impact without a large change in human color perception. This allows reasonable applications in certain medical and domestic environments without endangering humans.
During the past decade, group III-Nitride wide bandgap semiconductors have become the focus of extremely intensive reearch because of their exceptional physical properties and their high potential for use in countless numbers of applications. Nearly all aspects have been investigated, from the fundamental physical understanding of these materials to the development of the fabrication technology and demonstration of commercial devices. The purpose of this paper is to review the physical properties of III-Nitrides, their areas of application, the current status of the material technology (AlN, AlGaN, GaN, GaInN) including synthesis and processing. The state-of-the-art of III-Nitride material quality, as well as the devices which have been demonstrated, including electronic devices, AlxGa₁-xN ultraviolet photoconductors, ultraviolet photodiodes, visible light emitting diodes (LEDs) and ultraviolet - blue laser diodes, will also be presented.
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