Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników

Znaleziono wyników: 3

Liczba wyników na stronie
first rewind previous Strona / 1 next fast forward last
Wyniki wyszukiwania
help Sortuj według:

help Ogranicz wyniki do:
first rewind previous Strona / 1 next fast forward last
Chemically modified nucleotides, which are not normally present in genetic material, are called DN A adducts. This type of DN A modifications (damage) is directly related to processes of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. Elevated levels of DN A adducts present in genetic material reflect exposure of humans to carcinogenic factors and are markers of increased risk of cancer [1]. For this reason different methods useful for quantitative and qualitative analyses of DN A adducts are used in the field of cancer prevention and research (Tab. 1). Enzymatically-catalyzed methylation of cytosine, observed mostly in so called CpG islands, is a frequent endogenous modification of genetic material. Such a DN A methylation is a key factor involved in regulation of gene expression, and methylation status of oncogenes and tumor supressor genes is an important biomarker of carcinogenesis. As such, analytical methods for assessment of DN A methylation are of great importance for molecular diagnostics of cancer. During the last decade significant progress has been made in methods available for quantitative, qualitative and structural analyses of biological molecules. Among intensively developed tools for bioanalyses are methods of mass spectrometry. Spectrometers that are based on two methods of ionization, namely electrospray ionization (ESI ) [30] and matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization (MALDI ) [48], are particularly suitable for analyses of biological macromolecules: proteins and nucleic acids. Currently available mass spectrometers, together with microscale methods for sample preparation and separation, significantly increased sensitivity and accessible mass range of analyses. New generation of “user-friendly” instruments is developed to bring the techniques directly into the workplaces of biological and clinical investigators. This review demonstrates representative examples of mass spectrometry techniques used for qualitative analyses of nucleotide modifications and adducts present in genetic material of humans. In this field several methods base on spectrometers with electrospray ionization. Generated ions are separated according to their mass-to-charge ratio in an analyzer by electric fields; among different ion analyzers frequently used in this methods are single or triple quadrupole and ion traps (Fig. 1). Among other methods available for assessment of DN A adducts is so called Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (Fig. 2) [41]. The most frequently applied method for the assessment of DN A methylation is based on methylation-specific PCR reaction. Products of such PCR reactions are analyzed using MALDI mass spectrometry [54] (Fig. 3). In summary, new powerful methods of mass spectrometry that made available qualitative analyses of damage and modifications of human genetic material found their important place in modern biological and medical laboratories.
Content available remote Zarządzanie akwizycją obronną w armii czeskiej
Contemporary understanding of the notion of managing defence acquisition in the Czech army system has been presented in the article. This system has been shown on the background of the other two main systems of defence management: defining requirements system and the system of budget planning, programming and creating both in the scale of the country and coalition. According to the author, defence acquisition management should be a bridge between the development, production and exploitation of systems in the military. He proves the necessity to apply managerial methods in defence acquisitions.
Content available remote Localisation of deformation as a local quasi-static / dynamic transition
The problem of the modelling of the strain localisation in elasto-visco-nonlinear materials and structures submitted to so-called "quasistatic" loadings is here considered. Unlike the usual approaches, which suppose that the localisation band remains in (quasi)static equilibrium, it is here assumed that localisation is essentially a dynamic phenomenon, even if the external loadings are "quasistatic" This means that the localisation criterion proposed is also a "local loss of (quasi)staticity" criterion. As soon as the criterion is verified, the dynamic problem is treated (at least locally) instead of the (quasi)static one.
first rewind previous Strona / 1 next fast forward last
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.