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PL
W artykule przedstawiono oprogramowanie komputerowe, przeznaczone do zobrazowania danych z portu szeregowego COM w postaci tekstowej i graficznej oraz z zachowaniem wymagań czasu rzeczywistego. Dane przesyłane są w postaci znaków ASCII w kolejnych linijkach o określonej organizacji. Oprogramowanie umożliwia jednoczesne rysowanie do szesnastu okien z wykresami i w każdym z nich może być 16 sygnałów. Każde okno może mieć różną częstotliwość aktualizacji danych. Optymalna częstotliwość odbioru danymi wynosi 100 Hz. Zwiększenie tej częstotliwości powoduje zauważalne opóźnienia w rysowaniu wykresów, co spowodowane jest ograniczeniem standardowych bibliotek systemowych, odpowiedzialnych za funkcje graficzne.
EN
The article presents computer software for real-time, text and graphic form data visualization from the COM serial port. The data is received in the ASCII form on subsequent lines of the specified organization. The software allows to simultaneously draw up to sixteen windows with charts and each of them can contain 16 signals. Each window may have a different frequency of data updates. The optimal frequency of data reception is 100 Hz. Increasing this frequency causes noticeable delays in drawing charts, which is caused by the limitation of standard system graphic libraries.
EN
Hydrological conditions are changed continuously and these phenomenons generate errors on flood forecasting models and will lead to get unrealistic results. Therefore, to overcome these difficulties, a concept called model updating is proposed in hydrological studies. Real-time model updating is one of the challenging processes in hydrological sciences and has not been entirely solved due to lack of knowledge about the future state of the catchment under study. Basically, in terms of flood forecasting process, errors propagated from the rainfall-runoff model are enumerated as the main source of uncertainty in the forecasting model. Hence, to dominate the exciting errors, several methods have been proposed by researchers to update the rainfall-runoff models such as parameter updating, model state updating, and correction on input data. The current study focuses on investigations about the ability of rainfall-runoff model parameters to cope with three types of existing errors, timing, shape and volume as the common errors in hydrological modelling. The new lumped model, the ERM model, has been selected for this study to evaluate its parameters for its use in model updating to cope with the stated errors. Investigation about ten events proves that the ERM model parameters can be updated to cope with the errors without the need to recalibrate the model.
EN
Real time processing enables online reactions to dynamic environment changes. The author focuses on possibilities of implementing the Finite Element Method (FEM) to real time algorithms on microcontrollers. The paper presents the current state of the Real Time Finite Element Method (RTFEM) and describes results obtained by the author. The RTFEM for microcontrollers (with examples of use cases) is presented and results of the computations for the chosen platform are given. The results consider optimization of RTFEM computational algorithms for a microcontroller taking into account their execution time. All the tests were performed on the ARM-CortexM4F based STM32F429ZIT6 microcontroller. The obtained results were compared, discussed and presented in the paper.
EN
The aim of this study is to design and implement a system that detect driver sleepiness and warn driver in real-time using image processing and machine learning techniques.Viola-Jones detector was used for segmenting face and eye images from the camera-acquired driver video. Left and right eye images were combined into a single image. Thus, an image was obtained in minimum dimensions containing both eyes. Features of these images were extracted by using Gabor filters. These features were used to classifying images for open and closed eyes. Five machine learning algorithms were evaluated with four volunteer’s eye image data set obtained from driving simulator. Nearest neighbor IBk algorithm has highest accuracy by 94.76% while J48 decision tree algorithm has fastest classification speed with 91.98% accuracy. J48 decision tree algorithm was recommended for real time running. PERCLOS the ratio of number of closed eyes in one minute period and CLOSDUR the duration of closed eyes were calculated. The driver is warned with the first level alarm when the PERCLOS value is 0.15 or above, and with second level alarm when it is 0.3 or above. In addition, when it is detected that the eyes remain closed for two seconds, the driver is also warned by the second level alarm regardless of the PERCLOS value. Designed and developed real-time application can able to detect driver sleepiness with 24 FPS image processing speed and 90% real time classification accuracy. Driver sleepiness were able to detect and driver was warned successfully in real time when sleepiness level of driver is achieved the defined threshold values.
EN
This article briefly introduces the characteristics of ships' electrical power networks, and an existing system is described as an example. A mathematical model of a selected power system, including generators with a drive and its loads, is presented. The algorithm implementing the author's numerical method, named 'the average step voltages method', is described. The chosen numerical method is notable for its stability and high accuracy, even in combination with a large integration step size. Software and hardware applications of the RT AVR tester are also shown. To check the adequacy of the simulations using the implemented model, experimental measurements were carried out. The measurements, including dynamic states, obtained by the computer tester with the AVR system, as well as the physical model with the AVR system, are summarized. Possibilities for usage in the marine industry in the future are also outlined.
6
Content available remote Particle Effect System for the Needs of a Modern Video Game Using the GPU
EN
A new system of creation and management of particle effects created for the needs of the future productions of Techland Co. Ltd. is presented. By a proper organisation of memory buffers it provides for maximum data density in the memory. This makes it possible to simplify the calculations and to use a smaller number of threads and less memory readings.
EN
This paper discusses the need to create intelligent machine tools, the expected properties of such machine tools and the benefits they will bring to business and the development of manufacturing. The basis for machine tool intelligence, and the evolution of machine tools towards the development of their intelligent functions, with a special emphasis on control, digitization and virtualization systems, the role of the STP-NC standard, and the prediction of machine tool operating properties, are presented. The arising concepts of the development of intelligent machine tool functions, which take into account the monitoring and planning of a collisionless tool path, are discussed. The approach to achieving real time and the intelligent machine tool is described for copy milling. Also the directions of implementing intelligent functions by machine tool manufacturers are presented using the MAZAK Corporation as an example.
EN
The hydrodynamic interaction effects between two vessels that are significantly different in size operating in close proximity can adversely affect the safety and handling of these vessels. Many ship handling simulator designers implement Potential Flow (PF) solvers to calculate real-time interaction effects. However, these PF solvers struggle to accurately predict the complicated flow regimes that can occur, for example as the flow passes a wet transom hull or one with a drift angle. When it comes to predicting the interaction effects on a tug during a ship assist, it is essential to consider the rapid changes of the tug’s drift angle, as the hull acts against the inflow creating a complicated flow regime. This paper investigates the ability of the commercial PF solver, Futureship®, to predict the accurate interaction effects acting on tugs operating at a drift angle during ship handling operations through a case study. This includes a comparison against Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations and captive model tests to examine the suitability of the PF method for such duties. Although the PF solver can be tuned to solve streamline bodies, it needs further improvement to deal with hulls at drift angles.
PL
Zwiększone bezpieczeństwo eksploatacji spod lustra wody, lepsze wykorzystanie zasobów złoża, wzrost wydajności pracy. To niektóre z zalet systemów zarządzania kopalniami. Ich wdrażanie jest koniecznością w nowoczesnym górnictwie i jednym z kluczowych składników osiągnięcia sukcesu.
EN
In this paper, the application of the proposed control strategy PWM three intervals with 3×5 matrix converter is presented and analyzed. This control strategy is developed for the control of the multi-phases matrix converter, where the main aim is to ensure the waveform quality of the output voltages and the input currents based on the THD evaluation. Simulation results and real time implementation on dSpace 1103 of 3×5 matrix converter under R-L load are presented for the validation of the proposed control strategy and to clarify the main related advantages.
11
Content available remote QRS detector approach for on-line purposes
EN
The problem of real time restrictions and effectiveness requirements of the QRS detection algorithm is presented in the paper. Several approaches were taken into account and were tested during the research. CSE ECG databases were used as test signal set. FIR and IIR filters were investigated as well as different filter coefficients floating point data types. The paper summarises Authors’ investigations in the field of QRS detector application to the contemporary market platform.
PL
W artykule przedstawione zostały zagadnienia dotyczące wymagań stawianych algorytmom do detekcji zespołów QRS, przeznaczonych do pracy w czasie rzeczywistym. Szczególnie ważne są przeciwstawne problemy, które dotyczą skuteczności pracy algorytmu i szybkości jego działania. W trakcie testów wykorzystano wiele rozwiązań bazujących na filtrach SOI oraz NOI oraz różnych formatach współczynników filtrów.
12
Content available remote A Defect Tea Leaf Identification Using Image Processing
EN
This paper introduces defect identification on tea leaves during production .This frame work introduces an active learning strategy through a set of passively trained leaf parameters. Under the supervision of support vector machine the trained parameters and input image are compared to know the characteristics of the leaves This algorithm is been used for identification of defective leaves using image processing techniques and for the removal of defective leaves through real time techniques.
PL
W artykule opisano metodę oceny jakości liści herbaty w procesie produkcji. Na wstępnym etapie układ trenowany jest do rozpoznawania uszkodzonych liści z wykorzystaniem metody SVM. W metodzie wykorzystuje się narzędzia graficznej przetwarzania obrazu.
EN
This paper addresses computer memory management with real-time operation in mind. Two essential memory allocation algorithms are analyzed, Hoard and jemalloc, as we 11 as a default algorithm for each specific platform considered. Benchmarking experiments for four platforms, Mac OS X, Linux, Windows NT, and VxWorks, were conducted and respective data collected and analyzed.
PL
Artykuł dotyczy zarządzania pamięcią w komputerach używanych do zastosowań w czasie rzeczywistym. Przeanalizowano dwa podstawowe algorytmy alokacji pamięci, Hoard i Jemalloc, oraz algorytm domyślny dla każej z rozważnych platform. Wykonano eksperymenty dla czterech platform, Mac OS X, Linux, Windows NT i VxWorks, dla których zebrano i przeanalizowano odpowiednie dane.
EN
Outstanding grow in demand both of mobile platform operability performance and efficiency of project development methodology encourage to apply modern algorithms and reliable engineering tools design. Latest research results confirm that the energy performance index algorithm [1, 2] applied into strongly non-linear mechatronic object developed by use of mechatronic techniques can guarantee sufficient motion control in the reduced time design process. In this paper the authors present three wheeled mobile platform research object developed and controlled with a use of the LabVIEW software environment. In order to boost mobile platform performance and handle its real time surveillance motion process the authors implemented the NI cRIO controller (dedicated Real Time hardware powered by LabVIEW). Mathematical complexity of on-line algorithm and sophisticated model description affected all the process design. Presented paralleled design methodology approach supported by mechatronic techniques [3] (virtual prototyping, Hardware-In-the Loop Simulations and rapid prototyping on a target object) allowed authors to achieve the highest level of a mobile platform system optimisation and increased probability of the final concept success.
PL
Rosnące wymagania stawiane platformom mobilnym, w zakresie wysokiej operacyjności oraz sprawności energetycznej, skłaniają do stosowania wydajnych algorytmów sterowania ich ruchem, a także efektywnych środowisk projektowania mechatronicznego. Badania autorów są dowodem skuteczności sterowania optymalnego przy energetycznym wskaźniku jakości [1, 2], jako trafnej metody w zastosowaniu do obiektów silnie nieliniowych. Zaimplementowany do systemu sterowania algorytm, którego koncepcja bazuje na rozpatrywanym wskaźniku jakości, zagwarantował przejazd platformy po wytypowanych trajektoriach z oczekiwaną dokładnością. W artykule opisano koncepcję trójkołowej platformy mobilnej, powstałą jako efekt zastosowania wybranych technik projektowania mechatronicznego, czyli [3] wirtualnego prototypowania, HILS (Hardware-In-the-Loop Simulations) oraz szybkiego prototypowania na obiekcie docelowym. Wraz z systemem sterowania bazowało ono na zintegrowanym środowisku LabVIEW. Złożoność matematyczna zastosowanego algorytmu on-line oraz modelu obliczeniowego platformy, a także konieczność sterowania obiektem w czasie rzeczywistym, wymagały użycia dedykowanego sterownika platformy. Wybór jednostki National Instruments cRIO, wraz z zastosowanymi technikami projektowania mechatronicznego, pozwoliły autorom osiągnąć zakładaną skuteczność sterowania platformą mobilną, przy jednoczesnym spełnieniu warunku optymalizacji energetycznej systemu, a także ograniczyć znacząco czas realizacji projektu platformy.
EN
The problem of real time requirements especially refers to digital video watermarking algorithms. This paper contains a description of the algorithm consisting of real time coding process in the luminance component in the spatial domain and not real time decoding process in the two dimensional Cepstrum domain. The algorithm makes the single I-frame robust against the following attacks: MJPEG compression, cropping, affine transform (two-dimensional shearing, rotation, translation). Also the Receiver Operating Curves have been performed for the above mentioned attacks. Watermarked digital stream is robust against desynchronization attack.
PL
Wymóg pracy w czasie rzeczywistym jest szczególnie ważny w znakowaniu wodnym cyfrowych strumieni wideo. Artykuł zawiera opis algorytmu znakującego w czasie rzeczywistym macierzy luminancji w dziedzinie przestrzeni. Proces dekodowania odbywa się w dwuwymiarowej przestrzeni Cepstralnej. Metoda znakująca uodparnia pojedynczą I-klatkę na ataki: kompresji MJPEG, przycinanie, przekształcenia afiniczne (dwuwymiarowe skręcenie, rotację, translację). Ponadto algorytm jest odporny na atak desynchronizacji. Dla przeprowadzonych ataków obliczono Charakterystyki Operacyjne ukazujące efektywność metody.
17
Content available remote Safety Control of Maritime Traffic Near by Offshore in Time
EN
This paper introduces and presents a strategy for ensuring safety during control of vessel inter-action in real time. A measure of danger during the interaction is explicitly computed, based on factors affect-ing the impact force during a potential collision between an object and the vessel. A motion strategy to mini-mize the danger factors and risk level is developed for articulated degree of freedom for multi activities of vessel. Simulations and experiments demonstrate the efficacy of this approach. The aim of this research is to introduce and develop an assistant system by analyzing ships activities in real time from land aspect.
18
Content available remote Optymalizacja procesu kompostowania w warunkach rzeczywistych
PL
Kompostowanie jest uznaną metodą biologicznego przetwarzania odpadów organicznych, której jednym z efektów jest uzyskanie stabilnego produktu [5]. Jeżeli surowiec wykorzystywany w procesie kompostowania jest odpowiedniej jakości, to uzyskany kompost, klasyfikowany zgodnie z obowiązującymi przepisami jako nawóz organiczny, można wykorzystać w rolnictwie [8]. W sytuacji, kiedy substrat organiczny zawiera balast obniżający walory użytkowe kompostu, to wykorzystanie produktu końcowego jest mocno ograniczone. W konsekwencji powstają wątpliwości, co do sensu stosowania tej metody chyba, że celem nadrzędnym jest uzyskanie materiału biologicznie stabilnego o odpowiednio niskiej zawartości substancji organicznej, umożliwiającej jego składowanie. Wówczas, biorąc pod uwagę tzw. opłaty depozytowe, jest to uzasadnione ekonomicznie.
EN
Organization of field studies should allow to obtain full picture of changes of various physical and chemical indicators in the entire process of composting. Because verified thesis concerns the impact of time of compost stay in the reactor on time of compost ripening in heaps, therefore it should be anticipated execution of several independent compost tests, differing with the duration of the hot phase. Individual compost tests, will be referred to as cycles. During the tests, the load of the reactor should not be supplemented, what in case of different depending on the day, composition of the organic fraction from municipal waste, is important. Issues related to the operation of the reactor, in particular, ways of feeding, determines the method of collecting a representative sample of compost. This applies both to sampling for laboratory analysis, as well as separating the appropriate volume of fresh compost, after a period of retention in the reactor, for forming heaps in the field conditions. The studies performed resulted in description of relationship between both composting phases timing. The devised formula confirms practically applied shortening of the period of compost keeping in the windrow yard in such situation when the reactor is used at the preliminary production phase. Practical application of obtained results depends, first and foremost, on the quality of the batch put into the reactor, which determines the course of mineralisation and humification processes. As a result, demand for windrow yard area will strongly depend on degree of compost maturity after first phases. The analysis of investigation results may suggest that the hot phase timing exceeding 18 days has no clear impact on shortening of the ripening phase.
19
Content available Automatyka rozproszona
PL
Współczesne systemy sterowania rzadko są projektowane jako układy autonomiczne. Zazwyczaj są one połączone przewodowymi lub bezprzewodowymi kanałami transmisji danych, wymieniając dane z innymi urządzeniami automatyki i tworząc systemy sterowania rozproszonego. Od strony teoretycznej modele rozproszonych układów mogą mieć złożoną dynamikę, co jest związane z opóźnieniami transmisji danych lub nawet utratą części danych. Zagadnienia te stały się przedmiotem zainteresowania badaczy oraz praktyków z przemysłu, tworząc nową, interdyscyplinarną dziedzinę automatyki. W pracy omówiono projekty badawcze i dydaktyczne dotyczące takich rozwiązań, realizowane w Katedrze Automatyki AGH w Krakowie. Przedstawiono przykład odpornego algorytmu sterowania rozproszonego, wykorzystującego bufory dla kompensacji opóźnień wnoszonych przez rozproszoną konfigurację.
EN
Modern control systems are rarely found as autonomous control units. Usually they are connected by teletransmission channels, exchanging data with other control units, and creating a distributed control systems (DCS). From theoretical point of view models of DCS may have more complex dynamics, which is associated with transmission delays or even the possibility of losing some data. DSC has been one of the main research focuses in academia as well as in industry for many years and has become a multidisciplinary area. The paper describes research and educational projects related to the DSC solutions, implemented at the Department of Automatics AGH in Kraków. The paper presents also an example of robust decentralized control algorithm that uses buffering method to compensate network delays. This example also shows how to model such a system and how to analyze its stability.
EN
In this paper, an algorithm that monitors the power system to detect and classify power quality events in real time is presented. The algorithm is able to detect events caused by waveform distortions and variations of the RMS values of the voltage. Detection of the RMS events is done by comparing the RMS values with certain thresholds, while detection of waveform distortions is made using an algorithm based on multiharmonic leasts-squares fitting.
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