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EN
Today, there is a growing shortage of commercial motor fuels in the world. This is due to the tendency to regulate the extraction of hydrocarbons, which are the main raw materials for their production; and, therefore, to reduce the import of oil, alternative types of fuel for diesel engines based on oils and animal fats are becoming widespread today. In this regard, intensive work is underway to convert internal combustion engines to biofuel-based ones both in countries with limited fuel and energy resources and in highly developed countries that have the opportunity to purchase liquid energy carriers. Biodiesel fuel (biodiesel, PME, RME, FAME, EMAG, etc.) is an environmentally friendly type of biofuel obtained from vegetable and animal fats and used to replace petroleum diesel fuel. According to the results of modelling, in the process of using RME B100 biodiesel fuel, we found a reduction in nitrogen dioxide emissions by 21.5% and a reduction in soot emissions by 34.5%. This will positively affect the environmental performance of the Sandvik LH514 loader, which is especially relevant in closed environments such as mines. So, according to the results of studies of the operation of the DD15 engine of the Sandvik LH514 loader on commercial and RME B100 biodiesel fuel, it was established that the use of biodiesel fuel leads to a deterioration of the mixture, due to which heat generation is reduced and, as a result, fuel consumption increases and engine power decreases, but the aspect of environmental indicators constitutes the significant improvement demonstrated by the present work.
EN
Purpose: The paper aimed to analyze the profitability of the ten selected healthcare units in Poland before and after ownership transformation. Source data used for calculations came from the financial statements of the examined healthcare units. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on ratio analysis, i.e., profitability, which facilitates the evaluation of the studied hospitals in two periods, 'before transformation' and 'after transformation'. A method of scientific cognition was used (1): an analysis of the subject literature, a method of obtaining empirical data (2): an analysis of the content of internal documentation of the analyzed healthcare entities (hospitals), and a method of analysis of the obtained empirical material (3): indicator analysis. Undertaken research contributed to the formulation of the research objective: Is there an improvement in the profitability of medical entities (hospitals) in Poland following ownership transformation? Referring to the presented research problem, the author formulated the following hypothesis: There is an improvement in the profitability of the examined healthcare entities in Poland. Findings: The study's results allow the author to verify the research hypothesis. The spatial scope of the analysis refers to the territory of Poland with a focus on three selected provinces: Lesser Poland (małopolskie), Kuyavia-Pomerania (kujawsko-pomorskie), and Lubusz (lubuskie). The time scope of the study covers three years before the transformation of a given 'SP ZOZ' (Independent Public Healthcare Institution) into a commercial law company and three years after the transformation. The subject scope of the evaluation includes: hospitals subordinate to local government units (LGUs) transformed into commercial law companies. The subject scope of the evaluation is the profitability of hospitals. Research limitations/implications: The results obtained are of great practical importance for managers, shareholders and other stakeholders in the health care sector. Nevertheless, the proposed considerations certainly do not exhaust all possible solutions and may be the subject of further research and scientific discussions. In the future, the author plans to expand the research results with the criterion of social effectiveness (quality of services provided and patient satisfaction with the services of medical entities). Practical implications: The results of the work can become an incentive for executives, managers and investors, as they indicate an improvement in the profitability of hospitals. Social implications: The implementation of the research results will contribute to increasing public awareness of the functioning of hospitals. Originality/value: The number of studies on the financial performance of medical entities is insufficient. All the more, the research results presenting the evaluation of the financial situation of the transformed entities are extremely valuable. The results from the conducted research indicate an improvement in the profitability of the examined medical entities (hospitals). In connection with this fact, legal changes resulting from normative acts (reforms in the healthcare sector) were also justified. The choice of topic results from the personal interests of the author.
EN
Purpose: The purpose of using the method is to obtain information on the social perception of the employment restructuring process in the mining industry, taking into account the phase of design, implementation, monitoring and impact assessment for the industry and local communities. Design/methodology/approach: The theses presented in the article have been verified using: literature review, critical literature analysis, document research and comparative analysis. The article presents a research method enabling social assessment of barriers and determinants of the employment restructuring process in the mining industry under the just transition mechanism. The method of researching the social perception of the hard coal mining employment restructuring process, due to the specificity and complexity of the issue under consideration, uses various, mutually complementary methods and techniques of social research: quantitative and qualitative. Findings: As a result of the analyzes and surveys carried out, a set of conclusions can be presented, the most important of which include conclusions relating to social issues – implementation of the economic transformation in mining communes and poviats is possible in the coming years, but the communes are not prepared for the transformation. The negative effects of the employment restructuring process on the local economy may be noticeable in significant liquidation of enterprises cooperating with entities restructuring industry, reduction of revenues to the budget of local government authorities and reduction of demand on the local market. Originality/value: The article enriches knowledge and develops a discussion in the area of social perception of the employment restructuring process in the mining industry. The attempt to capture the phenomena and processes presented here that may result from the transformation of hard coal mining in Poland is aimed at a better comprehension of the task that may be played by the local government in the area of which operating or closed mines and mining companies are located. On the basis of the results of the survey, it is mainly noticed that there is a need to define the challenges and tasks that should be undertaken in real action by the institutions responsible for the transformation of mining communes – especially due to the need to limit the social and economic consequences that may appear in the transformation process, both in the area of mining communes mining and in their surroundings.
EN
Purpose: The purpose of using the method is to obtain information on the social perception of the employment restructuring process in the mining industry, taking into account the phase of design, implementation, monitoring and impact assessment for the industry and local communities. Design/methodology/approach: The theses presented in the article have been verified using: literature review, critical literature analysis, document research and comparative analysis. The article presents a research method enabling social assessment of barriers and determinants of the employment restructuring process in the mining industry under the just transition mechanism. The method of researching the social perception of the hard coal mining employment restructuring process, due to the specificity and complexity of the issue under consideration, uses various, mutually complementary methods and techniques of social research: quantitative and qualitative. Findings: As a result of the interviews carried out, it seems that all the expert assessments and opinions expressed confirm thesis that if the changes related to the just transition process cannot be stopped, then one must learn to take advantage of it. The view expressed above regarding the process of just transformation, which implies both economic and social challenges that are important for mining communes, among which the following deserve special attention as increasing the importance of the participation of mining communes in making government decisions, more friendly conditions shaping cooperation, need for mining communes to implement projects based on local mobility, adaptability and social sensitivity, need to increase social awareness related to mining in mining communes with responsibility for the just transition process, disappearance of state policies in the implementation of social functions in the phase of ongoing changes and taking them over by the local society. Originality/value: The article enriches knowledge and develops a discussion in the area of social perception of the employment restructuring process in the mining industry. Based on the assessments and opinions of experts, it seems that in the perspective of the predictable occurrence of the transformation process, it could be important for local governments, and in particular mining communes, to promote actions for an evolutionary, not short-term shift from coal-based energy to low-emission sources - striving to make it a multi-stage and long-term process. Equally important may be the pursuit of solutions according to which the principle of introducing funds directly to individual communes for the implementation of the just transformation process will be adopted. Must be considerated need for local governments, including mining communes, to obtain state intervention appropriate to the scale of the challenges, while equipping them with reliable and comprehensively planned proposals for transformational activities limiting their spontaneity.
5
Content available remote Stabilizacja finansów publicznych wyzwaniem polityki gospodarczej Polski
PL
Celem przedmiotowej pracy jest analiza i ocena jednego z głównych wyzwań ekonomicznych Polski na najbliższe lata, mianowicie ustabilizowania systemu finansów publicznych oraz wyhamowania wzrostu długu publicznego. Główny problem badawczy pracy określono w formie pytania: Jak przedstawia się sytuacja stabilizacji sektora finansów publicznych, w dobie dzisiejszych wyzwań i zagrożeń istniejących w polityce gospodarczej, jak i na arenie międzynarodowej? Jako problemy szczegółowe określono: obecną sytuację finansów publicznych w Polsce, będącą podstawą tej analizy, zakres definicyjny podmiotu sprawy, jak i określenie czynników wpływu na mający miejsce rozwój wydarzeń. W nawiązaniu do przedstawionych problemów badawczych wysnuta została hipoteza, iż prowadzone działania w zakresie stabilizacji finansów RP są niewystarczające do aktualnych wydarzeń. Hipoteza została oparta o wyniki statystyczne przedstawione w artykule. W pracy zastosowano następujące metody badawcze: definiowanie, które pozwoliło na określenie jednoznaczności terminów, analizę i syntezę, które pozwoliły na odpowiednią interpretacje zastanych danych, indukcję i dedukcję, które pozwoliły na znalezienie odpowiedzi na rozważne w pracy pytanie badawcze. W pracy posłużono się także metodą analizy porównawczej w zakresie definicji dotyczących omawianego zakresu. Zastosowano również analizę źródeł, monografii, artykułów naukowych traktujących o badanej tematyce.
EN
The aim of this paper is to analyze and assess one of the main economic challenges for Poland in the coming years, namely stabilizing the public finance system and slowing down the growth of public debt. The main research problem of the work was defined in the form of a question: what is the situation of stabilization of the public finance sector in the era of today's challenges and threats in economic policy and in the international arena? The following were defined as specific problems: the current situation of public finances in Poland, which is the basis for this analysis, the definition scope of the subject of the case, as well as determining the factors affecting the development of events. With reference to the presented research problems, a hypothesis was put forward that the activities carried out in the field of stabilizing the finances of the Republic of Poland are insufficient to current events. The hypothesis was based on the statistical results presented in the article. The following research methods were used in the work: defining, which allowed to determine the unambiguity of terms, analysis and synthesis, which allowed for the appropriate interpretation of the existing data, induction and deduction, which allowed finding the answer to the research question considered in the work. The work also uses the method of comparative analysis in terms of definitions regarding the discussed scope. An analysis of sources, monographs, and scientific articles dealing with the researched subject was also used.
PL
Ambitny cel neutralności klimatycznej, który Unia Europejska chce osiągnąć do roku 2050, wymaga działań w kolejnych sektorach gospodarki. Obecnie więcej energii od przemysłu zużywają gospodarstwa domowe i je czekają największe zmiany. Plany ograniczania emisji, oszczędzania energii i zwiększania udziału energii odnawialnej na skutek wybuchu wojny na Ukrainie jeszcze przyśpieszają. W artykule omówiono plany Unii i ich wdrażanie w Polsce. W nadchodzących latach powinniśmy odchodzić od paliw kopalnych. W obszarze ogrzewania pomieszczeń naczelne hasła dekarbonizacji, elektryfikacji i wzrostu efektywności idealnie spełnia pompa ciepła. Urządzenie to charakteryzuje się bardzo wysoką sprawnością a czynniki nań wpływające szeroko opisano w niniejszej pracy. W realiach Polski, wadą pomp ciepła jest konieczność zasilania energią elektryczną, która jak wiemy, w dużej części pochodzi ze spalania węgla. Drugim potencjalnym zagrożeniem jest błyskawiczny rozwój rynku i szybki wzrost liczby instalowanych urządzeń. Dla wielu inwestorów indywidualnych wybór systemu grzewczego związany jest z aspektami ekonomicznymi - kosztami wynikającymi z budowy i eksploatacji instalacji. W pracy przedstawiono zmiany cen gazu i energii elektrycznej w Polsce i Unii Europejskiej. W chwili obecnej koszty eksploatacji instalacji grzewczej z pompą ciepła, w stosunku do innych źródeł, są bardzo konkurencyjne. Jednak koszty inwestycyjne są jednymi z najwyższych. Aby przekonać nabywców do tej technologii rządzący stosują dwie metody. Pierwsza - zachęty – poprzez różnego rodzaju dotacje do pomp ciepła, druga – podniesienia kosztu paliw kopalnych poprzez objęcie gospodarstw domowych systemem handlu prawami do emisji.
EN
The ambitious goal of climate neutrality, which the European Union wants to achieve by 2050, requires action in other sectors of the economy. Currently, households consume more energy than industry and are facing the biggest changes. Plans to reduce emissions, save energy and increase the share of renewable energy due to the outbreak of war in Ukraine are accelerating even more. The article discusses the plans of the European Union and their implementation in Poland. We should be moving away from fossil fuels in the coming years. In the area of space heating, the main slogans of decarbonisation, electrification and efficiency increase are perfectly met by a heat pump. This device is characterized by a very high efficiency and the factors affecting it are extensively described in this work. In the realities of Poland, the disadvantage of heat pumps is the need to supply electricity, which, as we know, largely comes from burning coal. The second potential threat is the rapid development of the market and the quick increase in the number of installed devices. For many individual investors, the selection of a heating system is related to economic aspects - costs resulting from the construction and operation of the installation. The paper presents changes in gas and electricity prices in Poland and the European Union. At pre sent, the operating costs of a heating installation with a heat pump, compared to other sources, are very competitive. However, the investment costs are among the highest. To convince buyers to this technology, the rulers use two methods. The first - incentives - through various types of subsidies for heat pumps, the second — increasing the cost of fossil fuels by including households in the emissions trading system.
PL
W artykule autorzy przedstawiają problem wzrostu kosztów w budownictwie na przykładzie kluczowych materiałów budowlanych, takich jak cement, kruszywo, transport bądź stal. Zostały przeanalizowane ostatnie lata, w których wykazano duże wzrosty cen na przestrzeni ostatnich lat, oraz oceniono perspektywę budownictwa w następnych latach.
EN
In the article entitled the authors present the problem of increasing costs in construction using the example of key building materials such as cement, aggregate, transport or steel. Recent years were analyzed, which showed significant price increases over recent years, and the prospects for construction in the coming years were assessed.
EN
This article systematizes the experience of conducting energy audits of production facilities and municipal establishments in the form of recommendations. The purpose of the analysis is to substantiate the criteria for an effective energy audit for thermal power stations. The object of the study is the formal and regulatory content of such criteria. The subject of the analysis (a prerequisite for objectification) is the systemic relationship of formal criteria with production efficiency. Based on the experience of energetic examinations, the general requirements for the subjects of the energy audit of thermal power stations are highlighted and the general approaches and the sequence of the analytical audit are recommended. It is generalized that the restoration and improvement of thermal power stations as elements of the Ukrainian energy system are cost-effectively provided that the relations between the customer and the energy auditor are transparent and open. From the perspective of energy management, the external on-site energy examination assesses the technical and economic performance of thermal power stations in a broad, comprehensive manner, identifying shortcomings and reserves, providing forecasting and determining the main areas of a thermal power station’s operation, and improving the plant’s reputation.
PL
W artykule uporządkowano, w formie zaleceń, doświadczenia z przeprowadzania audytów energetycznych zakładów produkcyjnych i komunalnych. Celem analizy jest uzasadnienie kryteriów skutecznego audytu energetycznego dla elektrociepłowni. Przedmiotem opracowania jest treść formalna i regulacyjna takich kryteriów. Przedmiotem analizy (warunek konieczny obiektywizacji) jest systemowy związek kryteriów formalnych z efektywnością produkcji. Na podstawie doświadczeń z badań energetycznych zwrócono uwagę na ogólne wymagania dotyczące przedmiotów audytu energetycznego elektrowni cieplnych oraz zalecono ogólne podejścia i kolejność przeprowadzania audytu analitycznego. Uogólnia się, że odbudowa i usprawnienie elektrowni cieplnych jako elementów systemu energetycznego Ukrainy jest opłacalne pod warunkiem, że relacje między klientem a audytorem energetycznym są przejrzyste i otwarte. Z punktu widzenia zarządzania energią, Zewnętrzne badanie energetyczne na miejscu ocenia techniczną i ekonomiczną wydajność elektrowni cieplnych w szeroki, kompleksowy sposób, identyfikując braki i rezerwy, zapewniając prognozowanie i określając główne obszary działania elektrowni cieplnej oraz poprawiając reputację zakładu.
PL
Odchodzimy od modelu gospodarki linearnej na rzecz gospodarki obiegu zamkniętego. Staramy się odejść od zasady wyprodukuj-użyj-wyrzuć i przejść do zasady maksymalnego wykorzystania potencjału produktu, a po zakończeniu jego cyklu życia - ponownie go wykorzystać, czyli zawrócić do obiegu. W ten sposób możliwe jest zaoszczędzenie zasobów naturalnych oraz zmniejszenie liczby wytwarzanych odpadów.
EN
As organisations and economic markets continually evolve, it becomes essential to improve risk management skills on an ongoing basis. In this respect, it is particularly important to make practical use of all the tools available to identify and quantify risks. As with most entities, the most important tool for forest management is the timber selling price risk (TSPR). Economic practice shows that global markets experience very high volatility in this respect. The awareness of some popular techniques to understand the nature of individual risks by properly identifying their impact on the functioning of the organisation is currently increasing in importance. One of these techniques is the Value at Risk (VaR) method, which was used in this study to measure TSPR in 38 timber-selling economic entities. The aim of this article is to examine the concept of TSPR estimation using the VaR method adopted in the methodology by implementing the main VaR assumptions in the Polish forest economy in order to improve the methods of quantification of market risk in forestry, taking into account the impact of the sales volume and trade pattern of wood species on TSPR. The article demonstrates that the application of the VaR method can be an auxiliary tool in the TSPR management process. It is noted that this method can be a basic tool to ascertain the degree of exposure to risk and that the structure of commercial classes of timber is important. Using VaR, the relationship between the level of generated revenue and TSPR as well as between the assortment structure and TSPR was identified and discussed. It is also shown that the class of timber had an impact on TSPR.
EN
Selected Challenges of Closed-Loop Economy in the Furniture Industry. In this work, the subject matter of the reutilization of wood and other wood-derived materials in the field of carpentry was addressed. To begin with, particular emphasis was placed on elucidating the definitions of upcycling. Additionally, a comparative analysis was conducted, juxtaposing the aforementioned upcycling process with the practice commonly referred to as downcycling. Subsequently, an exposition was presented regarding the concept of a closed-loop economy, alongside an exploration of the legal frameworks governing the reuse of waste materials. The final section of the study delved into the intricacies surrounding recycling within the realm of furniture manufacturing, encompassing a comprehensive elucidation of wood biomass and its subsequent utilization, followed by a focused examination of the potentialities offered through the repurposing of, for instance, antiquated furniture items.
PL
Wybrane problemy gospodarki o obiegu zamkniętym w meblarstwie. W pracy poruszono zagadnienia związane z ponownym wykorzystaniem drewna i innych materiałów drewnopochodnych w drzewnictwie. Na wstępie zwrócono uwagę na definicje upcyclingu. Dokonane jest także jego porównanie z procesem określanym jako downcycling. Kolejno przedstawiono czym jest gospodarka z obiegiem zamkniętym, a także jakie są uwarunkowania prawne ponownego wykorzystania odpadów. Rozdział ostatni porusza zagadnienia związane z recyclingiem w meblarstwie - przedstawiono czym jest biomasa drzewna i w jaki sposób się ją wykorzystuje, następnie skupiono się na możliwościach, jakie daje ponowne wykorzystanie np. starych mebli.
PL
Według danych Banku Światowego już teraz ponad 56% mieszkańców naszej planety mieszka w miastach. Co więcej, wszystko wskazuje na to, że proces urbanizacji dalej będzie postępował. Eksperci z Organizacji Narodów Zjednoczonych szacują, że do roku 2050 liczba osób mieszkających w miastach wzrośnie do 68%.
EN
This article shows the development of high-speed rail in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), its development stages and the shipping companies dealing with this business activity. Special attention was given to the progress in the technical solutions of the track infrastructure as well as during the build of the rolling stock and engines. The high-speed rail was presented in the context of the general development of the economy and transport in Germany. This article contains a synthetic approach to the effects of the functioning of high-speed rail and its financing, as well as further directions and development prospects. Also, this article is based on thoughts, authors’ own research and factual sources of polish and western literature.
EN
The article presents an economic analysis of water leaks from the water suply system on the example of a single-family house, taking into account methods aimed at preventing uncontrolled water losses, including also water consumption reducing methods. The analysis was conducted for selected variants in the economic aspect. The research included measurements of water consumption on the main water meter and specially prepared containers for measuring water leaks. Simple leaks that are not easily visible can generate over 1700 PLN additional costs per year for the household budget. The results of the analyses carried out make it possible to assess which variant of the analysis is the most favourable in economic terms, making it possible to reduce water consumption by up to 60% of the standard consumption. The payback time for the analyzed variants varies from 5 to about 310 days.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono analizę ekonomiczną wycieków wody z sieci wodociągowej na przykładzie domu jednorodzinnego, z uwzględnieniem metod mających na celu zapobieganie niekontrolowanym stratom wody, w tym również metod ograniczających zużycie wody. Analizę przeprowadzono dla wybranych wariantów w aspekcie ekonomicznym. Badania obejmowały pomiary zużycia wody na wodomierzu głównym oraz specjalnie przygotowane pojemniki do pomiaru wycieków wody. Proste wycieki, które nie są łatwo widoczne, mogą narazić budżet domowy na dodatkowe koszty w wysokości ponad 1700 zł rocznie. Wyniki przeprowadzonych analiz pozwalają ocenić, który wariant jest najkorzystniejszy pod względem ekonomicznym, umożliwiając zmniejszenie zużycia wody nawet o 60% zużycia standardowego. Czas zwrotu nakładów dla analizowanych wariantów waha się od 5 do około 310 dni.
EN
Purpose: the main purpose of this article is to stimulate discussion on the following thesis presented in the article. Anticipating the process of just transition without taking into account demographic changes will incompletely reveal the social and economic effects caused by it. Design/methodology/approach: the research used the method of descriptive and comparative statistics, as well as literature review, critical analysis of literature, document research and comparative analysis. Findings: on the basis of the analyses and research carried out in this article, it can be concluded that in the examined areas of mining municipalities – in the part relating to the stream of labour supply – a dynamic process of ageing of labour resources is clearly noticeable. On the basis of the above conclusion, it seems that the need to subordinate the policies implemented in the city to the indicated process is justified. Originality/value: the entirety of the outlined changes, processes and forecasts indicates that in order to reduce the stratification in the examined areas, which is the main source of structural mismatches, it is necessary to undertake actions aimed at building future-oriented municipal policies – especially with regard to old age. Failure to take such measures in the perspective of social and economic transformation may delay preparation for the seemingly inevitable changes in the age structure of the population living in the studied areas of mining municipalities.
EN
Purpose: The purpose of the work is to present historical aspects of management, technology, innovation and economic growth in Great Britain based on international literature and articles. Design/methodology/approach: Due to the cognitive nature of the work, the aim of the work will be achieved using the method of analyzing the literature and overview international articles to present results on the subject. Literature studies includes only foreign publications. Findings: Historical aspects of management, technology, innovation and economic growth in Great Britain is widely described in international and British literature. Many articles provided value information’s and researches to get to the conclusions and summary. Based on the reliable results scientist assess every aspects of provided subject. Originality/value: The analysis international and British literature and articles shows all aspects of historical management, technology, innovation and economic growth in Great Britain and helps to improve knowledge and assessment of past to present and to predict future.
PL
Zachowane w Meksyku monumentalne budowle, a zwłaszcza piramid, zachwycają swą architekturą i zachowują tajemniczość. W artykule oprócz zachowanej dawnej architektury opisano gospodarkę kraju oraz rozwój energetyki. Opisano rodzaje użytkowanych elektrowni oraz stosowany system przesyłowy.
EN
The monumental buildings preserved in Mexico, especially the pyramids, delight with their architecture and keep their mystery. In addition to the old architecture, the article describes the country’s economy and the development of the energy sector. The types of power plants in use and the transmission system used are described.
18
Content available remote COVID-19 Implications for China's National Security
EN
The COVID-19 pandemic began in March 2020 and China has since been under public scrutiny for neglecting the first signs of this global health challenge and for its lockdown strategy. Although lockdowns have not lasted for long, China needs to confront the political, social, and economic implications for its national security. The paper aims to fill a gap in the knowledge and investigate aspects of China’s national security in light of the pandemic. The study is based on desk research using secondary data and statistical and comparative analysis. It also employs an inductive method to build general theorems. The Chinese government can be seen as successful in dealing with the pandemic because of a low death toll and minimal economic losses. By early February 2022, only 106,863 Chinese had been diagnosed, and 4,636 had died from the virus. China also achieved enviable economic success and, its output grew by 18.3% year on year in the first quarter of 2021, the fastest rate since the 1990s, and it was the first major economy to withdraw its pandemic stimulus. China consolidated its position in low-income countries and improved its image as a global leader in trade by supplying vaccines, masks and ventilators, and strengthened its geopolitical standing. It will face threats from other countries working on a joint approach to the challenges posed by Beijing and while the aftereffects of the crisis can be seen, it also fears that they might further affect China's national security.
PL
W artykule przeanalizowane zostały podstawowe aspekty ekonomiczne wytwarzania odnawialnego metanolu z wychwyconego dwutlenku węgla i zielonego wodoru (separacja CO2 + nadwyżkowa energia z odnawialnych źródeł energii). Zawarte zostało porównanie cen wodoru uzyskanego z różnych źródeł (konwencjonalnych i alternatywnych), a także porównanie cen wodoru uzyskanego dzięki energii odnawialnej z wody, wiatru i słońca. Przedstawiono także podział kosztów CAPEX i OPEX. Dodatkowo przeanalizowany został rynek pod względem zapotrzebowania na energię elektryczną poszczególnych stosowanych komponentów w instalacji. Artykuł zawiera również przykładową metodologię obliczeń kosztów związanych z instalacją i informację o przewidywanych trendach na rynku metanolowym.
EN
The article analyzes the basic economic aspects of renewable methanol production from captured carbon dioxide and green hydrogen (CO2 separation + surplus energy from renewable energy sources). A comparison of prices of hydrogen obtained from different sources (conventional and alternative) was included, as well as a comparison of prices of hydrogen obtained with renewable energy from water, wind and sun. The breakdown of CAPEX and OPEX costs is also presented. Additionally, the market was analyzed in terms of electricity demand for individual components used in the installation. The article also includes an exemplary methodology for calculating the costs associated with the installation and information about the expected trends on the methanol market.
PL
W artykule przebadano korelacje demograficzno-przestrzenne, uwzględniając relację pomiędzy dostępnością pracy a zmianami w zakresie zamieszkania. Zmiany migracyjne zachodzące na terenie Górnośląsko-Zagłębiowskiej Metropolii mają znaczny wpływ na jakość życia mieszkańców. Wykazano, że możliwość pozyskania pracy w centrum Metropolii nie ma bezpośredniego wpływu na zamieszkiwanie na tym samym obszarze.
EN
The article examines demographic and spatial correlations, taking into account the relationship between the availability of work and changes in the area of residence. Migration changes taking place in the Metropolis GZM have a significant impact on the quality of life of the inhabitants. It has been shown that finding a job in the center of the Metropolis has no direct impact on living in the same area.
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