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EN
In the years 1780-1781, Doctor Franz Karl Heintz hesitated about the diagnosis for a long time. Initially he thought he had encountered cases of ‘rotten diseases’. However, taking into account the experience of other European countries, he knew one had to be certain about the diagnosis given, especially when it concerned the most terrible infection. Only after some time he admitted was dealing with the plague. He was still optimistic though. He claimed that herbal medicaments were efficient in many cases. In 1786, already as the quarantine physician of the Right-Bank Ukraine, he sensibly assessed the potential of medicine regarding the plague. Although he based his project on the contemporary medicinal state of the art that went along with the 18th c. ideal of medical knowledge (he was a follower of Hippocrates, i.e. a supporter of humoral pathology), the most important components of the project were police-order in their character, which found a permanent place in the medical thought of that time.
PL
W latach 1780-1781 doktor Franz Karl Heintz długo wahał się w sprawie diagnozy. Początkowo myślał, że napotkał przypadku ‘zgniłej choroby’. Czerpiąc jednak z doświadczenia innych krajów europejskich, wiedział, że trzeba być uważnym podczas diagnozy, zwłaszcza gdy dotyczyła najstraszniejszej choroby. Dopiero po pewnym czasie przyznał, że ma do czynienia z dżumą. Mimo to był dobrej myśli. Twierdził, że w wielu przypadkach pomagają lekarstwa ziołowe. W 1786 r., już jako lekarz kwarantann prowincji ukraińskiej, uważnie oceniał możliwości medycyny wobec dżumy. Mimo oparł swój projekt na współczesnym stanie medycyny, który współgrał z XVIII-wiecznym ideałem wiedzy medycznej (Heintz był zwolennikiem Hipokratesa, tj. wspierał medycynę humoralną), najważniejsze elementy projekt miały charakter policyjny, który znalazł stałe miejsce w myśli medycznej tego okresu.
EN
This study expands on prior studies on wireless telecommunication generations by examining the technological differences and evolutional triggers that characterise each Generation (from 1G to 5G). Based on a systematic literature review approach, this study examines fifty (50) articles to enhance our understanding of wireless generation evolution. Specifically, this study analyses i) the triggers that necessitated the evolution of wireless telecommunication generations and ii) makes a case regarding why it is imperative to look beyond the fifth Generation (5G) network technologies. The authors propose areas for future research.
EN
The palaeogeographic positions of the pre-Cretaceous Tethys “western ends” (Kovács, 1992) and their relationships to easterly located oceanic domains remain to belong to the most challenging issues in deciphering the structure and tectonic evolution of the European Alpides (e.g. Schmid et al., 2020). Due to the westward increasing paucity of direct indications of ancient oceanic domains and their discontinuous occurrences, a number of sometimes considerably different reconstructions have been proposed by several authors. All these are based on various data and authors’ preferences; therefore achievement of a widely accepted model seems not to be probable at present. In general, searching for evidences of former oceanic domains in the nappe edifice of collisional mountain belts, commonly in the suture zones, is based on several fundamental criteria: 1) ophiolite slivers and ophiolite-bearing mélanges as vestiges of consumed oceanic lithosphere; 2) blueschistto eclogite-facies metamorphosed units recording the subduction/exhumation processes within a subduction channel and/ or accretionary prism; 3) deep-marine synorogenic sedimentary complexes like wildflysch or olistostromes; 4) mixture of these in chaotic units within an accretionary wedge; and 5) a specific case of intraoceanic subduction resulting in ophiolite obduction, but this is not considered as a continental collisional tectonic setting. Indirectly, position of past oceanic basins can be detected by: a) secondary occurrences of an oceanic crust-derived detritus, including the heavy mineral spectra, in syn- to early post-orogenic sedimentary clastic formations and clues to their source areas; b) shelf-slope-continental rise facies polarity of former passive margins; c) progradational trend of collisional thrust stacking of the lower plate with a suture (often totally destroyed) in the uppermost structural position in the rear part of an orogenic pro-wedge; d) subduction-related calc-alkaline magmatism accompanying the active margin; e) upper plate back-arc extension, or retro-wedge thrusting opposite to the pro-wedge in a bivergent orogen with the suture in its axial zone; f) major crustal-scale discontinuities revealed by deep seismic sounding connected to surface fault zones separating palaeogeographically distinct domains indicating possible plate boundaries. All these potential clues have been considered while reconstructing the Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the Western Carpathians (Plašienka, 2018 and references therein). It should be noted that no single criterion characterized above, even not a few indirect signs are enough to define a particular orogenic zone or unit as an evidence for an oceanic suture. There is only one Western Carpathian zone which fulfils most of them. It is represented by units and rock complexes grouped in a tectonic superunit known as the Meliaticum and respective oceanic realm as the Meliata Ocean. The Meliata-related units bear clear signs of criteria 1, 2, 3, 4 and indirect indicators a, b, c and e. Whatever different are the interpretations of the Meliata Ocean origin (e.g. born as a back-arc basin initiated by the northward subduction of Palaeotethys, or simply as a northern margin or embayment of Neotethys), or even its existence as an independent domain (regarded as a facies zone only), all palaeotectonic interpretations of the Alpine tectonic evolution of the Western Carpathians have to take into account these pieces of evidence.
EN
The evolutionary history of the Skole Basin during the Campanian–Paleocene period exhibits several cycles of progradational and retrogradational movement, accompanied by shifts from carbonate to siliciclastic-dominated sedimentation, which are recorded in the Ropianka Formation deposits (Kotlarczyk, 1978). These changes are primarily driven by fluctuations in relative sea levels and tectonic activity (Kotlarczyk, 1988; Kędzierski & Leszczyński, 2013). The study area is located south of Tarnów and encompasses western part of the Skole Nappe, the most external major tectonic unit in the Polish Outer Carpathians. Skole Nappe stands as a folded and thrust remnants of sedimentary infill of the Skole Basin, being one of a several deep-water basins located at the northern margin of the Tethys Ocean (Ślączka et al., 2012). The progradational-retrogradational cycles initiate with the appearance of sand-rich bodies at the lower part of the sedimentary log, which gradually diminish up the section. The depositional environment of the study area contains a broad range of distinguished submarine fan setting including channel-fill deposits, the transition zone between channels and lobes, and various sub-environments within depositional lobes such as the lobe axis, off-axis and lobe fringe, distal fringe, and interlobe areas. The intricate distribution of facies throughout the studied time interval can be attributed to the basin’s asymmetry, characterized by a steep southern slope and a gentler northern slope, as well as the influence of multiple sediment sources. The significant aggradation of specific depositional elements, variations in calcareous sediment content, and changes in palaeotransport directions indicate the presence of morphological obstacles and/or the semi-confined nature of the Skole Basin in the study area. Further field investigations have identified two distinct submarine depositional settings characterized by sediment bypass: channel-lobe-transition zone and marl-dominated lower slope or base-of-slope bypass zone. Despite domination of marls, the second type of bypass zone tends to show two different end-member variants. The first type involves a higher proportion of thin- and thick-bedded coarse-grained lag deposits, while the second type consists of dune scale bedforms with intraformational. Log with more intermediate characteristics occurs as well, reflecting the spatial continuum of facies changes in the marl-dominated bypass zone and transition to the marl-dominated lower slope and base-ofslope deposits. Record of intervals with siliciclastic sediment bypass within areas of predominantly marly deposition can serve as valuable indicators of turbidite system progradation despite relative sea-level highstand connected with carbonate production. Moreover, such deposits may indicate smallscale sea-level changes or tectonic pulses within deep-water monotonous sedimentary successions predominantly composed of fine-grained sedimentation.
EN
Sixty-eight brachiopod species are reported from the upper part of the Skały Formation at Miłoszów (Łysogóry Region of the Holy Cross Mts., central Poland) on the basis of over 2,200 specimens. The fauna is Early to early Middle Givetian in age (timorensis to rhenanus/varcus conodont zones) and thus predates the Middle Givetian Taghanic Bioevent. One new genus and three new species are described. Leiocyrtia Baliński gen. nov. (type species: Leiocyrtia rara Baliński gen. et sp. nov.; Spiriferida, Cyrtiidae) is characterised by a non-costate shell with prominent sulcus and fold and capillate microornament. Undispirifer sidoniae Halamski and Baliński sp. nov. is characterised by transverse shells and dense ribbing. Moravilla andreae Baliński and Halamski sp. nov. is characterised by relatively coarse radial capillate ornament and is the first representative of the genus outside the type species from the Givetian of Moravia. The most abundant species are: Spinulicosta cf. spinulicosta, Antirhynchonella linguiformis, Pentamerelloides davidsoni, Peratos beyrichi, Plectospira ferita, Spinatrypa wotanica (confirmed to belong to that genus and not to Spinatrypina), Ambothyris sp., and Echinocoelia dorsoplana. ‘Spirifer’ quadriplicatus Sandberger and Sandberger, 1856, a rare species known from Miłoszów and the Rhenish Massif, is an orthide and belongs to Teichertina. The relationship between Skenidioides polonicus and S. cretus, formerly understood as anagenesis, is re-interpreted as budding cladogenesis. Davidsonia septata is reported as an epizoan on rugosan corals, a relationship never previously observed in representatives of that genus. Brachiopods represent different palaeoecological groupings, from relatively shallow-water taxa (BA3, globetum) to deep-water mud-dwelling ones (BA5, deeper brachiopodetum). The richest beds are M1-IIa (28 brachiopod species), M3-7 (23 species), and M0-9 (22 species). Eighteen species described here were not known previously in the Holy Cross Mountains, so the corrected total number of brachiopod species from the Middle Devonian of the Łysogóry Region is 140.
EN
The evolutionary history of the Aulacostephanidae presented here includes the interval of about 5 Ma of the Late Oxfordian and Early Kimmeridgian ranging from the origin of the family to is maximal development. The development and biogeographical distribution of aulacostephanids in Europe were related mostly to sea-level changes and tectonics. The appearance of the ancestor genus Decipia and the following genus Ringsteadia was controlled by marine transgressions during the Late Oxfordian which stimulated also the distribution of these ammonites in Subboreal and Submediterranean Europe. The main faunal turnover at the Oxfordian/Kimmeridgian boundary was related to allopatric speciation correlated to separation of the aulacostephanid assemblages: it resulted in the appearance of the main Ringsteadia-Pictonia-Rasenia lineage in NW Subboreal Europe and the side-lineages Ringsteadia-Vielunia-Eurasenia/Involuticeras and Ringsteadia-Vineta-Balticeras-Rasenioides in NE Subboreal and Central Submediterranean Europe. A strong development of the shallow-water carbonate platforms during the Early Kimmeridgian stimulated the development of still another Pictonia (Pomerania) - Rasenia (Pachypictonia) lineage. The main faunal turnover correlated to a large transgression at the end of the Early Kimmeridgian resulted in the sudden distribution of the new aulacostephanid faunas over large areas of northern and central Europe, and opened a new stage in the evolutionary development of the family.
EN
Over the past few years, murals have actively and firmly entered into the fabric of the architectural environment as one of the most powerful artistic means of urban art. According to the latest statistics, Ukraine, and Kyiv in particular, tops the list of leaders of the countries with the largest number of murals. Based on the historical context, the murals performed a social and propaganda mission. Already in the XXI century, Ukraine has experienced two revolutions. And they became a powerful impetus for the active manifestation of „street art” on free surfaces. But in contrast to the monumental and decorative compositions of totalitarian art, which still adorn the cities of Ukraine, the artistic and graphic language has changed. Young designers in modern graphic trends, form an updated visual representation of established stylistic solutions. The purpose of the article is an attempt to determine the historical conditions of the murals’ development, the features and principles of their solutions in the city space, as well as modern and promising means of implementation. The article discusses the factors and conditions of the evolution of modern murals, their typology and thematic focus, techniques and means of spatial composition and artistic solutions.
EN
The Smart Grid environment gives more benefits for the consumers, whereas the power quality is one of the challenging factors in the smart grid environment. To protect the system equipment and increase the reliability, different filter technologies are used. Even though, consumers’ expectations towards the power quality are not fulfilled. To overcome these drawbacks and enhance the system reliability, a new Custom Power Devices (CPD) are introduced in the system. Among different CPDs, the Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) is one of the voltage compensating devices that is used to improve the power quality during distortions. When the distortions such as voltage swell and sag occur in the distribution system, the control strategy in the DVR plays a significant role. In this article, the DVR performance using Proportional Integral (PI), Proportional Resonant (PR) controllers are analyzed. A robust optimization algorithm called Self Balanced Differential Evolution (SBDE) is used to find the optimal gain values of the controllers in order to reach the target of global minimum error and obtain fast response. Then, a comparative analysis is performed between different controllers and verified that the performance of PR controller is superior than the other controllers. It has been found that the proposed PR controller strategy reduces the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) values for all types of faults. The proposed SBDE optimized DVR with PR controller reduces the THD value less than 4% under voltage distoration condition. The DVR topology is validated in MATLAB/SIMULINK in order to detect the disturbance and inject the voltage to compensate the load voltage.
EN
Science classes in public schools are usually strictly linked to several subjects and taught by reference to the reading-listening model. Non-formal educational institutions and events such as ‘children universities’ and science fairs (and to some degree also some private schools) implement elements of interdisciplinary teaching of science and learning through experiments and the use of scientific methods. Workshops conducted within non-formal educational structures prove that only is this method engaging and understandable to primary school pupils, it also is possibly much more effective than the traditional learning style for coding information and explaining common misconceptions in teaching evolution, palaeontology and biodiversity. The example of a scenario for science classes presented here (the so-called ‘aquatic problem’, i.e., adaptations of primarily terrestrial animals – amniotes – to the aquatic environment) uses simple props, such as everyday items, to address the problems that teachers in public school face. Thus, it can be implemented independently of school budgets and availability of school equipment.
EN
Each terrorist organisation is modelled with four coupled differential time equations for the evolution of ideologues, criminal mercenaries, captive participants, and capital sponsoring. Emigration of ideologues may cause unbounded growth of the organisation receiving ideologues. The organisation losing ideologues may reach a stationary state where ideologues are supported by capital sponsors and mercenaries. Emigration of mercenaries may cause the organisation losing mercenaries to experience growth. The organisation receiving mercenaries may lose capital sponsors permanently, allowing for the presence of mercenaries, or capital sponsors may rebound deterring mercenaries. Emigration of ideologues from one organisation to another requires more government intervention into the latter to ensure termination. Emigration of mercenaries from one organisation to another may require more government intervention into the latter, since mercenaries support ideologues. Competing terrorist organisations may facilitate their mutual extinction. Various intervention strategies are considered: the most threatening organisation is eliminated first, aided by competition from the least threatening, after which the remaining organisation is eliminated. The government’s instantaneous and accumulated utilities are analysed through time and compared, depending on emigration, competition, and government intervention strategies.
EN
Fossil bear material from the lowermost deposits of the Jasna Strzegowska cave is described and its taxonomic status assessed. Comparison with bear remains from other Early and early Middle Pleistocene localities of Eurasia shows the presence of two bear species: Ursus etruscus and U. deningeri, based on morphological and size characters of the teeth and postcranial bones. The teeth of U. deningeri from the Jasna Strzegowska cave are larger, wider and have much more complicated occlusal surfaces when compared with the teeth of U. etruscus. Both bear species are characterized by relatively short and robust metapodials, although those of U. etruscus are on average less massive. Some differences in muscle attachments and articular surfaces have also been found. Metapodials of primitive arctoid bears, that co-occurred with U. etruscus and U. deningeri, are much longer and slimmer. U. etruscus and U. deningeri probably did not live in the Jasna Strzegowska cave at the same time. Based on its time range in Eurasia and morphological characteristics, the age of U. etruscus is estimated as Early Pleistocene, between 1.8-1.3 Ma. This is its first description from Poland, and the remains described are in size and morphology indistinguishable from material from other European localities. For U. deningeri, an early Middle Pleistocene age is suggested.
EN
Globalization poses new challenges, while also providing development opportunities for strong and dynamic enterprises and new sectors which shape the world markets and economy and contribute to a more global approach to business activities. The business activities undertaken in each country depend on a number of factors, and these factors are often similar due to globalization, though their impacts appear to vary. In addition, changes in economies progress at different speeds, thus this article aims to determine how the impact of change in the global economy influences transformations in ownership in container shipping. The organization and operation of global container shipping is shaped by numerous external factors, i.e. economic, geographical, and political factors. The impact of these factors varies depending on the specific aspect of the container shipping industry being discussed. This paper was motivated by the need to determine the container fleet size and ownership structure in container shipping, and whether these are changing as the industry evolves. The stated aim of this research requires the use of statistical methods and a literature review to allow for a comparative study of the size and ownership relations in container shipping.
EN
This research explores the extent to which various management accounting practices (MAPs) have been implemented in large Thai manufacturing companies. Although IFAC 1998, which describes management accounting evolution, has been studied extensively in the two decades since its release, MAPs and their diffusion for business value creation has received relatively little attention. This study uses a survey questionnaire to collect information on this subject. Of the 1,500 companies that received the survey, 205 provided usable, complete responses, for a 13.67% response rate. Cluster analysis is used to group a set of data objects into four clusters with hierarchical agglomerative methods, and a discriminant analysis is used to assure the cluster analysis classification’s accuracy. The results show that the respondents used Budgeting for product cost controlling the most. We also discovered that the new, advanced MAPs are used increasingly among many large Thai companies. MAPs are used to create value for large Thai companies, but not yet to the highest stage, based on the IFAC evolution model. Adoption is still far behind compared to the pace of change in production processes, especially in light of increasing competition on the global level.
PL
Niniejsze badanie bada zakres, w jakim różne praktyki rachunkowości zarządczej (MAP) zostały wdrożone w dużych tajskich firmach produkcyjnych. Chociaż IFAC 1998, który opisuje ewolucję rachunkowości zarządczej, był intensywnie badany w ciągu dwóch dziesięcioleci od jego wydania, MAPs i ich rozpowszechnianie w celu tworzenia wartości biznesowej zyskały stosunkowo mało uwagi. To badanie wykorzystuje kwestionariusz do zbierania informacji na ten temat. Spośród 1500 firm, które otrzymały ankietę, 205 dostarczyło użytecznych, kompletnych odpowiedzi za wskaźnik odpowiedzi 13,67%. Analiza skupień jest używana do grupowania zbioru obiektów danych w cztery klastry z hierarchicznymi metodami aglomeracyjnymi, a analiza dyskryminacyjna jest używana do zapewnienia dokładności klasyfikacji analizy skupień. Wyniki pokazują, że respondenci najczęściej stosowali budżetowanie do kontrolowania kosztów produktu. Wskazano również, że nowe, zaawansowane MAP są coraz częściej wykorzystywane przez wiele dużych tajskich firm. MAPy są wykorzystywane do tworzenia wartości dla dużych tajskich firm, ale jeszcze nie do najwyższego etapu, w oparciu o model ewolucji IFAC. Zastosowanie wciąż pozostaje daleko w tyle w stosunku do tempa zmian w procesach produkcyjnych, zwłaszcza w świetle rosnącej konkurencji na poziomie globalnym.
PL
Nowoczesne technologie są doskonałym czynnikiem ułatwiającym relacje międzyludzkie. Eliminują lub marginalizują znaczenie granic geograficznych, politycznych i kulturowych. Zadajmy więc sobie pytanie, czy technologia zbliżyła ludzi i sprawiła, że zachowanie ludzi stało się bardziej zrozumiałe? Czy społeczeństwo skorzystało na wiedzy, która znajduje się w zasięgu myszki komputerowej? Innymi słowy, czy większe obciążenie informacyjne spowodowało poprawę więzi społecznych? Paradoksalnie przeciążenie informacji prowadzi do poczucia straty, a możliwość zdobycia wielu przyjaciół skutkuje sztucznością ludzkich relacji. Czy zatem nowoczesna technologia pozbawia ludzi ich naturalnej zdolności do wiązania się ze sobą, czy jest jedynie etapem rozwoju stosunków społecznych? Czy ludzie w dzisiejszym świecie mogą stać się częścią społeczeństwa i pełnoprawnymi obywatelami bez nowoczesnej technologii?
EN
Modern technologies are a great facilitator when it comes to interpersonal relations. They eliminate or marginalize the importance of geographic, political and cultural borders. Thus, let us ask ourselves a question whether technology has brought people closer together and have made people's behaviour more understandable? Has society benefited from the knowledge wicher is within a computer mouse's reach? In other words, has greater information load resulted in the improvement of social ties? Paradoxically, the overload of information leads to a feeling of loss, and the possibility to make a great number of friends results in the artificiality of human relations. Thus, does modern technology deprives people of their natural ability to bond with each other, or is it merely a phase in the development of social relations? Therefore, it is worth considering what is going to be the end result? Are people in today's world able to be a part of society and fully-fledged citizens without modern technology?
EN
This paper examines possible aids of performance measurement to the evolution in production ecosystems. A conceptual solution is proposed which derives from the potential of exponential technologies, theory and practice. By adopting an ecosystem approach, a twofold setup of performance has been designed that addresses both the performance of actors and the performance of ecosystem. The proposed mechanism applies Big Data and machine learning. The proof of concept was supported by a prototype of the virtual environment.
EN
Detailed study of all the ammonite collections gathered by the authors in the Staffin Bay sections has resulted in minor changes in the distribution of ammonite taxa, and slight modification of the position of the Oxfordian/Kimmeridgian boundary. Most significant is the discovery of Pictonia (Triozites) cf. seminudata which results in the placing of the stage boundary 0.16 m below the level formerly proposed. This study discusses the evolution of the Subboreal family Aulacostephanidae, and the Boreal family Cardioceratidae, indicating changes in the patterns of individual development in the evolution of both families in terms of heterochrony. The Oxfordian/ Kimmeridgian boundary interval shows major morphological changes in both ammonite families which were released from phylogenetic constraints by heterochrony, closely related to changes in environmental conditions.
17
Content available remote Normalizacja w ewolucji systemów
PL
W pracy przedstawiono w ogólnym zarysie istotę systemów i ich przybliżoną ewolucję oraz znaczenie systemowego podejścia na efektywność budowy przewagi konkurencyjnej. Bardziej szczegółowo przedstawiono zasady i podstawy normalizacji w systemach oraz ich nieuświadomione wykorzystywanie w ewolucji systemów biologicznych oraz świadome wykorzystywanie norm dobrowolnych w systemach technicznych i gospodarczych oraz norm obowiązkowych w postaci przepisów prawa w tych systemach. Wskazano również wykorzystywanie zasad normalizacji w postaci praktycznego wykorzystywania obowiązkowych standardów wewnątrzorganizacyjnych.
EN
The paper presents an overview of the essence of the systems and their approximate evolution and the importance of a systemic approach to the effectiveness of building a competitive advantage. More specifically, the rules and basics of standardization systems and their unconscious use of the evolution of biological systems and the conscious use of voluntary standards in technical systems and economic and compulsory standards in the form of the law in these systems. It also identifies the use of the principles of standardization in the form of a practical use of mandatory standards within the organization.
18
Content available Evolution of Russian assault-breaching subunit
EN
In the Russian military art, the effectiveness of combat operations is largely dependent on the capabilities of the military engineering. It can be assumed that the capabilities of engineering forces are one of the major determinants of the efficiency of military operations. Taking into account the assumptions of contemporary operational art and tactics, the military engineering forces are constantly evolving, which results in their adaptation to the changing requirements of the environment of the operations being carried out. In this light, urbanized areas, including large agglomerations, are supposed to be places where engineering tasks will be executed. Based on the experiences of modern armed conflicts, Russian military engineers are primarily prepared for actions in the built-up environment. In the opinion of Russian specialists, the implementation of tasks in urban agglomerations requires the involvement of subunits, which ensure the maintenance of maneuverability, thereby increasing the effectiveness of combat measures used. One of the preferred solutions is to form, mainly on the basis of engineering troops, specialist task forces as assault-breaching subunits. Such an approach to adjusting (modernizing) the Russian Federation’s military engineering forces to the requirements of modern warfare is not revolutionary, but a permanent evolutionary process.
EN
A Research Object (RO) is defined as a semantically rich aggregation of resources that bundles together essential information relating to experiments and investigations. This information is not limited merely to the data used and the methods employed to produce and analyze such data, but it may also include the people involved in the investigation as well as other important metadata that describe the characteristics, inter-dependencies, context and dynamics of the aggregated resources. As such, a research object can encapsulate scientific knowledge and provide a mechanism for sharing and discovering assets of reusable research and scientific knowledge within and across relevant communities, and in a way that supports reliability and reproducibility of investigation results. While there are no pre-defined constraints related to the type of resources a research object can contain, the following usually apply in the context of scientific research: data used and results produced; methods employed to produce and analyze data; scientific workflows implementing such methods; provenance and settings; people involved in the investigation; annotations about these resources, which are essential to the understanding and interpretation of the scientific outcomes captured by a research object. The example research object contains a workflow, input data and results, along with a paper that presents the results and links to the investigators responsible. Annotations on each of the resources (and on the research object itself) provide additional information and characterize, e.g. the provenance of the results. Therefore, exploitation of the RO model should be considered as a way to provide additional reliability and reproducibility of the research. The concept of the RO was introduced to the environment created in the EVER-EST project in the form of Virtual Research Environment (VRE). a group of Earth Scientists, who are observing, analyzing and modeling processes that take place on land and see, was examined against their needs and expectations about the possible improvements in their scientific work. The results show that scientist expectations are focused on knowledge sharing and reuse, and new forms of scholarly communications beyond pdf articles as supporting tools of knowledge cross-fertilization between their members. The Research Object concept seems a natural answer for these needs. However, the model, in order to be sufficient and usable, must become a part of the working environment and needs to be integrated with the actual tools. Therefore, great efforts have been undertaken to create a generic, technical solution – VRE , which implements the expected functionalities. In this article we present a concept of the VRE as a tool that takes advantage of the Research Object model in order to integrate and simplify the information exchange, as well as persist, share and discover assets of the reusable research. Moreover, we are presenting example scenarios of the VRE usage in the four different Earth Science domains.
20
Content available remote Health and environmental applications of gut microbiome: a review
EN
Life on Earth harbours an unimaginable diversity of microbial communities. Among these, gut microbiome, the ecological communities of commensal, symbionts (bacteria and bacteriophages) are a unique assemblage of microbes. This microbial population of animal gut helps in performing organism’s physiological processes to stay healthy and fit. The role of these microbial communities is immense. They continually maintain interrelation with the intestinal mucosa in a subtle equilibrium and help the gut for different functions ranging from metabolism to immunologic functions like upgradation of nutrient-poor diets, aid in digestion of recalcitrant food components, protection from pathogens, contribute to inter- and intra-specific communication, affecting the efficiency as disease vectors etc. The microbial diversity in the gut depends upon environmental competition between microbes, their sieving effects and subsequent elimination. Due to wide diversity of anatomy and physiology of the digestive tracts and food habits, the gut microbiome also differs broadly among animals. Stochastic factors through the history of colonization of the microbiome in a species and in situ evolution are likely to establish interspecies diversity. Moreover, the microbes offer enormous opportunity to discover novel species for therapeutic and/or biotechnological applications. In this manuscript, we review the available knowledge on gut microbiome, emphasising their role in health and health related applications in human.
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