Eco-efficiency is a new concept of environmental analysis seeking to improve products, processes and manufacturing materials. The eco-efficiency analysis gives the opportunity to find the most effective solution with the lowest environmental burden in the bottle forming process. For this purpose, the LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) technique of environmental management was used to evaluate selected stages of the bottle forming process. The analysis was carried out using the Eco Indicator 99 method using the SimaPro software.
In the paper an economic, ecological and energy analysis of a home photovoltaic on grid installation was presented. The increase in ecological awareness of the Polish society contributes to the continuous growth of interest in green energy. However, many people haven’t been aware of the ecological, economic and energy benefits of photovoltaic installations yet, so the following analysis is made. The analysis concerns a photovoltaic installation with a capacity of 3.96 kWp located in Ościęciny near Włocławek. The photovoltaic installation consists of 11 monocrystalline panels with a power of 360 Wp, a 4 KTLM Sofar Solar inverter and other necessary components. The first part presents basic issues related to photovoltaic installations. Parameters related to the proper functioning of the photovoltaic installation were replaced. The analysis of the literature will help to understand the essence of the proper functioning of the photovoltaic installation. In the practical part, an analysis of a selected home photovoltaic installation was carried out. Based on the available data, it has been calculated that the installation will have a payback period of over 9 years. The photovoltaic installation will produce approximately 3 582.61 kWh of electricity and will contribute to the reduction of 70 tons of carbon dioxide during the entire operation.
The paper focuses on the analysis of the impact of technical, organizational and human factors on accident rate in small-sized enterprises. The research was carried out using the authors’ questionnaire. The results were verified using the method of direct interview with elements of observation. The results were compared with the trends prevailing in enterprises of EU countries. The respondents, i.e. production company workers, indicate technical factors as those which most significantly affect the occurrence of accidents at work. However, the assessment of the factors changes with the age of the respondents. Older workers, more often than younger employees, indicate the ones related to man or work organization as the most important factors affecting accidents at work and, consequently, the level of occupational safety. The presented results are a part of a larger whole project the authors of this paper are working on.
In the present paper, the scope of the process line maintenance in the production plant has been presented. The issues associated with the basic functions and characteristics of the services dealing with this problem, which is crucial for the production plant, have been discussed. Modern CMMS (Computerized Maintenance Management Systems) have been discussed, while indicating their specific ad-vantages, among others, the possibility of keeping records of machinery and equipment, maintenance schedules and various types of alarms, which may disrupt or suspend the operation of production facilities, so that these systems ensure the safety of fault-free operation of machinery and equipment.
In recent years, there has been an increase in the consumption of disposable packaging, which has led to overloading landfills. These problems have become widely noticeable and dominant in a wide range of packaging issues in terms of environmental protection. The development of knowledge in the field of environmental protection, which has taken place in recent years, has shown that the impact of packaging should be considered throughout its life cycle, taking into account many factors that constitute environmental burdens and threats. Many companies operating in the world markets, using the standardized Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method, conduct tests in terms of technical and material solutions with the lowest environmental impact. Therefore, this publication was to conduct environmental analysis of the life cycle of disposable food packaging based on the method of LCA. The subject of the research were bottles, caps and labels made mainly of polymeric materials: polyethylene terephthalate, polypropylene and LDPE. Eco-indicator 99 was used as the calculation procedure. The impact of the analysis objects on human health, ecosystem quality and resources was assessed. Among the examined objects, the highest level of negative influence on the environment was characteristic for the life cycle of a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle. The use of recycling processes reduce the environmental impact by about 25%.
The G8D method is one of the methods used in quality management using quality management tools and designed to solve problems occurring in production processes. The method consists of 8 disciplines and ensures the required quality of both production processes and finished products. It may also be applied to the optimization of production processes, while ensuring their safety. In the article, the authors presented the method of using the D4 discipline algorithm of the G8D method allowing to detect the root cause of the problem in the process and to indicate the so-called escape point. The authors presented the course of action for discipline D4 undertaken when the root cause of the problem is to be analysed. The procedure is presented on an exemplary process of the projection welding of a nut.
Safety of road roller technical operation for safety diagnosis will be analysed. The analysis is based on the assumptions and hypotheses confirmed by fundamental-applied and experimental-theoretical works. Such modelling enables formulating commonly known diagnostic equivalent for building a real diagnose method of contacting problems of moving roller contacted with the road material.
The article discusses and analyses selected issues of selection and adaptation of staff due to the specificity of a company. A theory on the principles of recruitment, selection and adaptation was confronted with the practice applied in a production company, taking into accout the safety of the company, depending on the correct selection of an employee with appropriate competences.
To consider the optimization of the supply chain, a company operating in the cosmetics and hygiene industry was selected. It is a typical production company with foreign capital, working on entrusted material which entirely belongs to the parent company. The company management, purchasing and sales department are located at the parent company, the Polish branch is entrusted only with production and direct distribution of finished goods. The purpose of the work is to present the applied logistic solutions, characterize and analyse the existing supply chain and to propose actions to optimize currently used methods.
This study focuses on the evaluation of the benefits and ecological costs that occur in the life cycle of a wind power plant. The study constitutes an attempt to expand upon previously conducted research on the analysis of costs and benefits in the stages of production, operation and post-consumer management of wind turbines. The aim of the study adopted research methodology, analysis and assessment of the benefits and environmental impacts of the Vestas V90/105m 2 MW wind turbine throughout its life cycle. Original assessment indicators of the benefits and ecological costs occurring throughout a wind power plant’s life cycle for environmental safety management, were proposed and verified.
Theoretical and experimental studies of new technology and equipment on the fulfilled cables and ropes of handling equipment are provided for diagnosis of main process. The result of the safe processing is steel fiber which is used further for production of a steel-fiber reinforced concrete. The research offered a number of essentially new diagnose methods which considerably increases engineering procedures of fiber production from waste.
The article presents the CRM (Customer Relationship Management) philosophy. The principles of building the CRM strategy, enabling building and strengthening ties with the client (including ensuring its safety in relationship with a company), thanks to which the company can expect continuous sales, have been presented. Exemplary tools used in CRM (such as: call centre, contact centre, key account management) are listed and described. An attempt has been made to assess the cost-effectiveness of implementing the CRM philosophy in the enterprise based on the SWOT analysis. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of such an undertaking were analysed, and the results were presented in the summary and final conclusions.
The G8D method is a universal method for solving problems arising in production processes, also used in optimisation of these processes. The method allows the detection and elimination of any drawbacks occurring in manufacturing processes and ensuring the safety of these processes. In the article, the authors have presented one of the sensitive and critical disciplines of the G8D problem solving method in production processes, i.e. discipline D2 - “problem description”. The authors have presented the algorithm of procedure in the discipline D2 as well as the quality management tools that can be used to correctly “describe the problem”. The authors have also discussed the procedure for the discipline D2 in the "problem description" for the case of the projection welding of a nut.
The main aim of the grinding process is size reduction. For such formulated purpose of grinding, the particles dimensions after grinding process are the major quality determinant indicated in many works concerning size reduction. In this paper original quality index integrating size reduction and energy consumption in the grinding process was proposed. The aim of the study is to create method for grinding process quality assessment. The problem was formulated as a question: (1) is it possible to create mathematical description of grinding process quality? (2) what grinding parameters influence on the grinding quality index? To resolve the problem, original quality index was developed and experiment on a multi-disc mill was conducted. On the basis of obtained results it was found that discs angular speed affects the grinding process quality.
In the article was presented the results of analysis of the nonconformities which occur during the production of PET bottles in the selected company from Poland. The analysis included six process unit operations of forming PET bottles. The aim of the analysis is to present specific corrective and improvement actions based on the results obtained. The article presents a short description of the process of shaping PET bottles for six selected operations. The block diagram of the PET bottle shaping process is presented. Quality management tools were used for quantitative and qualitative analysis. The use of the Pareto-Lorenz diagram allowed for quantitative an approach to the quality problems of PET bottles. The Ishikawa diagram was used to identify potential causes of the most frequent problem. Corrective actions were proposed to improve the quality of PET bottles tested. The research problem has been solved. As a critical element requiring improvement, the competences of employees and the process of operating machines and devices were indicated.