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PL
Mapy, czyli kartograficzne przedstawienia różnorodnych, w zależności od tematyki, terenów, są znane od kilku tysiącleci. Wraz z rozwojem materiałów piśmienniczych oraz drukarskich, a także badań kartograficznych ulegały one zmianom i były dostosowywane do obecnych im czasów. Pracom konserwatorskim-restauratorskim w Katedrze Konserwacji-Restauracji Papieru i Skóry na UMK w Toruniu poddano 7 map przedstawiających Toruń z okresu 1912-1949, pochodzących ze zbiorów Książnicy Kopernikańskiej w Toruniu. Reprezentują one techniki druku chętnie ówcześnie stosowane do wyrobu map, czyli litografię oraz chromolitografię. Niemniej istotne są także podłoża papierowe, których maszynowa produkcja jest typowa dla początku XX wieku. Podstawowym celem konserwacji-restauracji było zahamowanie, w miarę możliwości, procesów niszczących obiekty, aby już nie jako materiały kartograficzne, a artefakty historyczne mogły służyć kolejnym pokoleniom. Istotne w pracy było również zastosowanie nieszablonowej metodyki w przypadku niezbędnych procesów, tzw. „mokrych”, gdzie należało minimalizować i bacznie kontrolować wprowadzanie oraz wyprowadzanie wody ze struktury obiektów. Zastosowanie metody oczyszczania kapilarnego z użyciem włókniny Paraprint OL60 pozwoliło na kompleksowe przeprowadzenie zabiegów, jednocześnie nie przyczyniając się do zmian strukturalno-wymiarowych obiektów. Mimo zmiany funkcji z użytkowej na archiwalną, artefakty dalej mogą pełnić rolę map, a co za tym idzie w wyniku konserwacji-restauracji ich dane kartograficzne nie zostały zafałszowane.
EN
Maps, i.e. cartographic representations of various – depending on the subject – areas, have been known for several millennia. Along with the development of writing and printing materials, as well as cartographic research, they changed and were adapted to the present times. 7 maps from the collection of the Nicolaus Copernicus Provintional Library in Toruń showing Toruń in the years 1912-1949, had undergone conservation-restoration works at the Department of Conservation-Restoration of Paper and Leather at the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń. The maps have been printed in techniques that were then eagerly used for the production of maps, i.e. lithography and chromolithography. No less important are the papers on which the maps were printed, their machine production is typical for the beginning of the 20th century. The main goal of conservation-restoration was to slow down the processes of degradation as much as possible, so that the maps could be of use for future generations no longer as cartographic materials, but as historical artifacts. The use of an unconventional method in the case of the necessary so-called "wet" processes, where it was imperative to minimize and carefully control the introduction and removal of water from the structure of the objects. The applied methods of capillary cleaning with the use of Paraprint OL60 nonwoven fabric allowed for a full conservation treatment, while not contributing to structural and dimensional changes of the objects – despite the change of function from utility to archival, the objects can still act as maps, and thus as a result of conservation-restoration, their cartographic data was not falsified.
EN
The authors present and analyse the Vesuvius eruption map ordered by Princess Anna Jabłonowska, found in the Krafft collection, in the National Museum of Natural History in Paris. The map was made after 1779, the date of the last eruption marked on it. It was commissioned by Anna Jabłonowska, a Polish aristocrat, an influential representative of the Enlightenment, the creator of one of the largest and most valuable natural science collections of 18th-century Europe. The author of the map is Filippo Morghen, a famous artist, engraver, collector and art dealer. It compares nine 18th-century eruptions from 1723, 1737, 1751, 1754, 1760, 1767, 1770, 1771, 1776 and August 8, 1779. It is one of the first cartographic documents showing changes in the morphology of Vesuvius as a result of successive eruptions. The authors analyse the map in the context of the development of volcanology, geology, technology, as well as artistic production related to the 18th-century Enlightenment fashion of scientific tourism in southern Italy.
PL
Artykuł dotyczy tematu zniekształceń odwzorowawczych w odwzorowaniu kartograficznym Gaussa-Krügera. W artykule zawarto krótkie wprowadzenie do tematu zniekształceń odwzorowawczych, wymieniono zniekształcenia generowane przez odwzorowanie Gaussa-Krügera (nie wymieniono zniekształceń powierzchni, które wynikają ze zniekształceń odległości). Omówiono państwowe układy współrzędnych oraz pomiary eksperymentalne przeprowadzone w ramach pracy inżynierskiej współautora. Pomiary eksperymentalne polegały na pomiarze współrzędnych punktów sieci testowej, zlokalizowanej przy granicy 5 i 6 strefy odwzorowawczej, z wykorzystaniem techniki satelitarnej RTN oraz pomiarze tachimetrem długości boków sieci i kątów między tymi bokami. Omówiono również część zasad związanych z zakładaniem osnów pomiarowych obowiązujących w czasie przeprowadzania eksperymentu, a także wnioski z eksperymentu.
EN
The article concerns the topic of mapping distortions in the Gauss-Krüger cartographic projection. The article contains a brief introduction to the subject of projection distortions, distortions generated by the Gauss-Krüger projection are listed (surface distortions resulting from distortions of distance are not mentioned). National coordinate systems and experimental measurements carried out as part of the co-author's engineering work are discussed. The experimental measurements consisted in measuring the coordinates of the test network points, located at the border of the 5th and 6th mapping zone, using the RTN satellite technique and measuring the length of the network sides and the angles between these sides with a total station. Some of the rules related to setting up the measurement networks in force at the time of the experiment, as well as the conclusions of the experiment were also discussed.
EN
The paper sets out to attempt identification of all known plates used to print maps included in the Atlas Silesiae and of all identified states of these maps. While the early states of the Atlas maps are relatively well studied (though far not in every detail), printings pulled from the same though deeply reworked plates, published in Nurnberg in the first two decades of the 19th c., are not always recognised as the late states of the same maps. For each of twenty maps from Atlas Silesiae listed are all identified states together with the most distinctive differences between them. Eleven copies of Atlas Silesiae were also examined in search for possible regularities of their composition in terms of states of the included maps. Public collections with exemplary copies of the Atlas maps in each state identified in the paper are listed in the Appendix.
EN
In the present research, a scripting cartographic technique for the environmental mapping of Ethiopia using climate and topographic datasets is developed. The strength of the Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) is employed for the effective visualisation of the seven maps using high-resolution data: GEBCO, TerraClimate, WorldClim, CRUTS 4.0 in 2018 by considering the solutions of map design. The role of topographic characteristics for climate variables (evapotranspiration, downward surface shortwave radiation, vapour pressure, vapour pressure deficit and climatic water deficit) is explained. Topographic variability of Ethiopia is illustrated for geographically dispersed and contrasting environmental setting in its various regions: Afar, Danakil Depression, Ethiopian Highlands, Great Rift Valley, lowlands and Ogaden Desert. The relationships between the environmental and topographic variables are investigated with aid of literature review and the outcomes are discussed. The maps are demonstrated graphically to highlight variables enabling to find correlations between the geographic phenomena, their distribution and intensity. The presented maps honor the environmental and topographic data sets within the resolution of the data. Integration of these results in the interpretation maps presented here brings new insights into both the variations of selected climate variables, and the topography of Ethiopia.
EN
Utility networks provide transport for various types of raw materials. They comprise a network of pipes, cables and ducts running on, under and above the surface of either ground or water. They connect individual customers with distributors within water supply, sewage, heating, telecommunications, electricity, as well as oil, gas and chemical networks. They serve an extremely important role in today’s urbanised world. However, utility networks require specialised treatment not only in legal, technical or social terms, but also geodetic and cartographic. It is necessary to conduct a precise and accurate inventory to prepare and implement projects of utility networks, as well as all kinds of other construction works. Mapping is another task required, along with the preparation of databases on networks that provide comprehensive (graphic and descriptive) information on objects. In each country, the execution of surveying and cartographic works observes internal laws and technical standards and norms. This paper presents the issues of surveying and cartographic works in relation to utility networks, as well as their implementation in Slovakia (Bratislava) and Poland (Kraków). The rules for the presentation of networks on maps, as well as technical standards for collecting, processing and sharing network databases based on legal provisions that are valid for both countries, were compared.
PL
Sieci użyteczności publicznej zapewniają transport różnego rodzaju surowców. Stanowią sieć rur, kabli i kanałów przeprowadzanych na, pod oraz nad powierzchnią ziemi i wody. Zapewniają one połączenie poszczególnym odbiorcom dóbr z dystrybutorem w ramach sieci wodociągowej, kanalizacyjnej, ciepłowniczej, telekomunikacyjnej, elektroenergetycznej, a także naftowej, gazowej i chemicznej. Stanowią niezwykle istotną rolę w dzisiejszym zurbanizowanym świecie. Jednakże sieci użyteczności publicznej wymagają specjalistycznego traktowania nie tylko pod względem prawnym, technicznym czy społecznym, ale również geodezyjno-kartograficznym. Przygotowywanie projektów, a także realizacja sieci, jak również wszelkiego rodzaju innych prac budowlanych wymagają precyzyjnej i dokładnej ich inwentaryzacji. Kolejnym zakresem prac jest mapowanie wraz z przygotowaniem bazy danych o sieciach, zapewniając w ten sposób kompleksową (graficzno-opisową) informację o obiektach to jest wszystkich elementów składowych sieci oraz urządzeń technicznych. W ramach realizacji prac geodezyjno-kartograficznych w poszczególnych krajach stosowana są wewnętrze przepisy prawa oraz normy i standardy techniczne. W niniejszym artykule przedstawiono problematykę prac geodezyjnych i kartograficznych w aspektach dotyczących sieci użyteczności publicznych, a także przedstawiono ich realizację w Republice Słowackiej (na przykładzie Bratysławy) oraz w Polsce (na przykładzie Krakowa). Porównaniu zostały poddane zasady prezentacji sieci na mapach, a także normy techniczne dotyczące gromadzenia, przetwarzania oraz udostępniania baz danych o sieciach w oparciu o aktualne dla obu krajów przepisy prawa.
EN
Integrated geophysical mapping benefits from visualizing multi-source datasets including gravity and satellite altimetry data using 2D and 3D techniques. Applying scripting cartographic approach by R language and GMT supported by traditional mapping in QGIS is presented in this paper with a case study of Iranian geomorphology and a special focus on Zagros Fold-and-Thrust Belt, a unique landform of the country affected by complex geodynamic structure. Several modules of GMT and ’tmap’ and ’raster’ packages of R language were shown to illustrate the efficiency of the console-based mapping by scripts. Data sources included high-resolution raster grids of GEBCO/SRTM, EGM-2008, SRTM DEM and vector geologic layers of USGS. The cartographic objective was to visualize thematic maps of Iran: topography, geology, satellite-derived gravity anomalies, geoid undulations and geomorphology. Various cartographic techniques were applied to plot the geophysical and topographic field gradients and categorical variations in geological structures and relief along the Zagros Fold-and-Thrust Belt. The structures of Elburz, Zagros, Kopet Dag and Makran slopes, Dasht-e Kavir, Dasht-e Lut and Great Salt Desert were visualized using 3D-and 2D techniques. The geomorphometric properties (slope, aspect, hillshade, elevations) were modelled by R. The study presented a series of 11 new maps made using a combination of scripting techniques and GIS for comparative geological-geophysical analysis. Listings of R and GMT scripting are provided for repeatability.
EN
The applications of the machine learning and programming approaches in cartography has been increasing in recent years. This paper presents a case study of the scripting techniques used for cartographic mapping using Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) and R language (raster and tmaps packages). The aim of the study is environmental mapping of Ghana. The materials include high-resolution raster grids: topography by the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO), climate and environmental datasets (TerraClimate) and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) for geomorphometric analysis (slope, aspect, hillshade and elevations). The methodology includes code snippets commented and explained with details of scripts. It is argued that using consolebased scripting tools for mapping is effective for cartographic workflow due to the logical structure and repeatability of scripts. The results include eight new thematic maps of Ghana performed using scripting approach inGMTscripting toolset and R language for quantitative and qualitative environmental assessment. Maps show correlations between the landforms of Ghana and certain environmental variables (drought index and soil moisture) showing the effects of the topographic relief on the distribution of the continuous geographic fields. These varied in several geographically distinct regions of Ghana: Ashanti (Kumasi), Volta, Savannah, coastal and northern regions. Demonstrated maps show that scripting method works effectively on a wide range of geosciences including environmental, topographic and climate studies. In such a way, this paper contributes both to the regional studies of Ghana and development of cartographic techniques.
EN
The paper concerns GMT application for studies of the geophysical and geomorphological settings of the Weddell Sea. Its western part is occupied by the back-arc basin developed during geologic evolution of the Antarctic. The mapping presents geophysical settings reflecting tectonic formation of the region, glaciomarine sediment distribution and the bathymetry. The GlobSed grid highlighted the abnormally large thickness of sedimentary strata resulted from the long lasting sedimentation and great subsidence ratio. The sediment thickness indicated significant influx (>13,000m) in the southern segment. Values of 6,000–7,000 m along the peninsula indicate stability of the sediments influx. The northern end of the Filchner Trough shows increased sediment supply. The topography shows variability -7,160–4,763 m. The ridges in the northern segment and gravity anomalies (>75 mGal) show parallel lines stretching NW-SE (10°–45°W, 60°–67°S) which points at the effects of regional topography. The basin is dominated by the slightly negative gravity >-30 mGal. The geoid model shows a SW-NE trend with the lowest values <18 m in the south, the highest values >20m in the NE and along the Coats Land. The ripples in the north follow the geometry of the submarine ridges and channels proving correlation with topography and gravitational equipotential surface.
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Content available Status of the cartographic model
EN
The author presents the proposal for a map as a model based on the current concepts in the philosophy of science. It is the attempt to define a map within the general theory of the model – in its ontological, semantical, and epistemological aspect. Treating a map as a model of reality boils down to specifying several characteristics determining its character. The article primarily aims at broadening the discussion on what a map is and what defines it as a model of reality. A new definition has been proposed in effect of the deliberations based on the analysis of models’ typology in the sphere of philosophy.
EN
The paper presents the application of ArcGIS for environmental modelling of the landscapes in northern Iceland (17.00°W–23.00°W, 64.30°N–67.00°N). The aim was to explore the vegetation distribution by NDVI and ISOCLUST classification of the land cover types. Data include the Landsat TM image. Freely available satellite remote sensing data from the Landsat mission have been processed by GIS to deliver information on land cover types from image classification and NDVI vegetation index. Landsat products provide geospatial data on regional scale with moderate temporal (weekly) and spatial (30–10 m) resolution, making them useful for environmental monitoring and landscape studies. The tools include the ArcGIS software used for raster processing. Data processing was performed in the three steps: 1) comparative analysis of the visualized sixteen band combinations to assess the distinguishability of vegetation and other land cover types in colour composites; 2) computed NDVI standardized vegetation index; 3) unsupervised classification of the Landsat TM by the ISOCLUST algorithm. Large glaciers Hofsjökull and Langjökull were detected on various colour composites, and the visibility of the water/land borders is assessed (Blöndulón lake), agricultural areas near the Varmahlíð, vegetated areas around the Akrahreppur municipality. Computing the NDVI and using ISOCLUST by ArcGIS software enabled to distinguish various land cover types and map landscapes in the study area. The computed NDVI shown the presence and condition of vegetation, that is, a relative biomass in the area of northern Iceland. The NDVI was used based on the contrast of the two channels from a multispectral Landsat TM raster data.
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