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EN
The topic of digital transformation in supply chain optimization has garnered considerable attention in recent years due to its importance. The purpose of the study was to offer empirical evidence and insights into the advantages and obstacles linked with digital transformation in supply chain manage-ment. To investigate the effects of digital transformation on supply chain optimization, the research employs a hybrid methodology and comprehensive approach that includes a thorough literature re-view, the creation of a theoretical framework, and the presentation of empirical finings through various case studies using the predefined selection criteria. The case analyses highlight crucial elements that support effective digital transformations, including real-time data analytics, teamwork, blockchain technology, digital twin augmented and virtual reality and collaborative robots. The practical implica-tions from the findings of this study, proffers insights that can be extremely helpful for professionals in various industrial sectors and businesses planning similar digital transformation journeys. This em-pirical study with regards to the implication of Digital transformation 5.0 on supply chain management is novel to the body of literature. It is however necessary to conduct more study to confirm the results, apply them to a wider range of businesses, and investigate different aspects of digital transformation in supply chain optimization.
PL
Tekst opisuje proces doboru optymalnego cyklu sygnalizacji świetlnej na wąskim fragmencie drogi, skupiając się na analizie danych dotyczących ruchu i geometrii drogi. Przeprowadzane obliczenia uwzględniają różnorodne czynniki wpływające na czas sygnałów zielonych i międzyzielonych. W artykule przedstawiono też schemat ideowy oraz podstawowe oznaczenia, wraz z założeniami wyjściowymi. Analiza wyników dla przyjętego cyklu sygnalizacji oraz cyklu optymalnego obejmuje miary ruchu, takie jak straty czasu i długość kolejek pojazdów.
EN
The innovative approach to the issues of integration of an electricity storage, heat storage and an electrode heating boiler in the heating system in this paper is presented. In recent years, a growing share of renewable energy sources in heating has been observed, which may result in the dynamics of electricity price variability being greater and more frequent than in daily and annual periods. This may apply in particular to the price of heat from electrode boilers. The proposed solution to optimize heat prices at an acceptable level for end users, consisting in connecting an electrode heating boiler with heat and electricity storage facilities is presented.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono innowacyjne podejście do zagadnień integracji magazynu energii elektrycznej, magazynu ciepła i elektrodowego kotła ciepłowniczego w systemie ciepłowniczym. W ostatnich latach można zaobserwować rosnący udział odnawialnych źródeł energii w ciepłownictwie, co może spowodować, że dynamika zmienności cen energii elektrycznej będzie większa i częstsza niż w okresach dobowych oraz rocznych. Może to dotyczyć w szczególności ceny ciepła z kotłów elektrodowych. W artykule przedstawiono propozycję rozwiązania dla optymalizacji cen ciepła, na akceptowalnym poziomie dla odbiorców końcowych, polegające na połączeniu elektrodowego kotła ciepłowniczego z magazynami ciepła i energii elektrycznej.
EN
Changing the ignition advance angle has a significant impact on the performance of a combustion engine. Optimization of ignition advance angle is a major task of adjusting the engine concerning emission standards, fuel consumption, torque value, etc. The results of the research showed that the process of optimizing the ignition advance curve can noticeably increase engine efficiency, as well as torque and power output from the engine while reducing fuel consumption as a result of lower indications of the air flow mass per second from MAF sensor (mass air flow sensor). The highest impact of the ignition advanced angle modifications can be seen in the area of the highest volumetric efficiency of the tested combustion engine. Almost no impact is observed within high engine speed levels. Simultaneously increasing engine load and rotation speed increases the possibility of engine knocking, which has a devastating effect on engine durability.
EN
To improve the dynamic adaptability and flexibility of the process route during manufacturing, a dynamic optimization method of the multi-process route based on an improved ant colony algorithm driven by digital twin is proposed. Firstly, based on the analysis of the features of the manufacturing part, the machining methods of each process are selected, and the fuzzy precedence constraint relationship between machining metas and processes is constructed by intuitionistic fuzzy information. Then, the multi-objective optimization function driven by the digital twin is established with the optimization objectives of least manufacturing cost and lowest carbon emission, also the ranking of processing methods is optimized by an improved adaptive ant colony algorithm to seek the optimal processing sequence. Finally, the transmission shaft of some equipment is taken as an engineering example for verification analysis, which shows that this method can obtain a process route that gets closer to practical production.
EN
In this study, cost optimization of a 4-storey school building is carried out. For the optimization, ACDOS (Automated Cost and Design Optimization of Structures) program – which is a computing platform created by the authors – is used. The Rao-1 algorithm is the optimization method used. As a result, a cost analysis of the RC building was performed and 12% cost savings were achieved.
7
Content available Introduction to the "Theory of Compensation"
EN
In this article, we systematize and emphasize the information elements that are the starting point for step-by-step actions related to the improvement of technological maps in accordance with the “energy model” to ensure sustainable sanitary and hygienic standards throughout the life cycle of buildings. In particular, we draw attention to the lack of analytical methodologies to visually or technically incorporate optimization measures to achieve the final building outcome in accordance with energy models A, B and C throughout the life cycle of buildings. These findings serve as a basis for research aimed at improving the analytical methods and ensuring their compliance with the established legal standards.
EN
The article presents the results that can be a prerequisite for the introduction of a pre-sowing electrotreatment of winter rape seeds into the production process. The results of photon emission by rape seeds after electrical stimulation are highly correlated with the data obtained during determination of its sowing qualities and field germination. Absorption and transformation of the energy of the external electric field during the electrostimulation of winter rape seeds occurs non-linearly. It was established that the main transformations take place during the first 15 s, regardless of the electric field intensity. Relaxation processes were revealed, which become dominant after 15 s of electrical stimulation. The pre-sowing electrical stimulation improved the sowing properties of winter rapeseed. The highest values of germination energy and laboratory germination (87% and 96%), which exceeded the control by 9% and 8%, were obtained under the treatment mode E=2 kV⸱cm-1 , t=30 s. Pre-sowing electrostimulation of winter rape seeds at optimal conditions helps to increase its field germination. Under the treatment mode E=2 kV⸱cm-1 , t=30 s was 90%, and with E=3 kV⸱cm-1 , t=30 s - 83% versus 79.7% in the control.
PL
Niniejszy artykuł przedstawia wyniki, które mogą stanowić przesłankę wprowadzenia przedsiewnego zabiegu elektrycznego nasion rzepaku ozimego w procesie produkcji. Wyniki emisji fotonu przez nasiona rzepaku po elektrycznej stymulacji są powiązane mocno z danymi otrzymanymi podczas określania ich właściwości siewnych oraz kiełkowania. Absorpcja oraz transformacja energii zewnętrznego pola elektrycznego podczas elektrostymulacji nasion rzepaku ozimego występuje nieliniowo. Stwierdzono, że główne transformacje mają miejsce w pierwszych 15 sekundach bez względu na intensywność pola elektrycznego. Odkryto procesy relaksacyjne, które stały się dominujące po 15 sekundach stymulacji elektrycznej. Przedsiewna stymulacja elektryczna poprawiła właściwości siewne rzepaku ozimego. Najwyższe wartości energii kiełkowania i kiełkowania laboratoryjnego (87% i 96%) co przekroczyło próbę o 9% i 8%, uzyskano w trybie zabiegu E = 2 kV⸱cm-1 , t = 30 s. Elektrostymulacja przedsiewna nasion rzepaku ozimego przy optymalnych warunkach pomaga zwiększyć kiełkowanie na polu. W trybie zabiegu E = kV⸱cm-1 , t = 30 s wynosiło 90%, a przy E = 3 kV⸱cm-1 , t = 30 s - 83% versus 79.7% w próbie.
PL
Artykuł dotyczy wykorzystania algorytmu optymalizacji rojem cząstek do rozwiązywania układów równań nieliniowych. Przeprowadzona została eksperymentalna analiza efektywności i skuteczności działania algorytmu w zależności od ustawień jego parametrów.
EN
The article concerns the use of a particle swarm optimization algorithm for solving nonlinear equation systems. An experimental analysis of the effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithm has been conducted, considering various settings of its parameters.
EN
The paper deals with the implementation of research concerning the collection routes of a selected company and subsequent streamlining processes in the field of distribution logistics. Specifically, the paper is focused on the optimization of collection routes of textile waste for the customer, i.e., a contractual partner of the company under investigation. The objective of the paper is to analyse step by step the current state of logistics of supplying a specific warehouse, followed by the application of the centre of gravity method for proposing a warehouse relocation. Finally, the individual routes to collection points are optimized. In general, optimization is done for two basic reasons: profit maximization and logistics costs minimization, which ultimately has a positive impact on earnings. The outcome is to determine the optimal routes with respect to costs and traffic while considering complications that may occur in a given transport territory.
PL
Możliwości zastosowania sztucznej inteligencji w sektorze energetycznym są dziś szerokie. Ogromna ilość danych przechodzących przez ten sektor stwarza potrzebę wdrażania automatycznej, inteligentnej analizy oraz potencjał rozwoju tych technologii. Chcąc zapewnić bezpieczeństwo energetyczne rozumiane jako zapewnienie ciągłości dostaw energii i paliw, należy mieć pełną kontrolę nad ich dystrybucją i możliwymi zagrożeniami. Korzyści płynące z kontroli nad danymi, prognozowania kluczowych w tym sektorze wartości czy optymalizacji działań i operacji na sieci są nieocenione. Celem niniejszego artykułu jest przegląd konkretnych obszarów energetyki, w których metody obliczeniowe i sztuczna inteligencja mają największy potencjał. Ponadto, wskazanie konkretnych metod, które sprawdzone w innych sektorach lub zbadane w nauce mają zastosowanie również tutaj.
EN
The possibilities for using artificial intelligence in the energy sector are vast today. The massive amount of data passing through this sector creates the need to implement automatic, intelligent analysis and the potential for developing these technologies. In order to ensure energy security, understood as ensuring the continuity of energy and fuel supplies, it is necessary to have complete control over their distribution and possible threats. The benefits of controlling data, forecasting critical values in this sector, or optimizing activities and operations on the network are invaluable. The purpose of this article is to review specific areas of the energy sector where computational methods and artificial intelligence have the most significant potential. In addition, specific methods that have been proven in other sectors or studied in science are indicated to apply here.
13
EN
The form of modern guitars were shaped by Spanish luthiers in the XIX century. Especially Antonio de Torres Jurado is the one, whose designs are an inspiration for modern constructions. From the very beginning, guitars are struggling with not sufficient sound levels for all the desired applications. Apart from electroacoustic amplification, there were several attempts to modify the construction of the sound hole or the soundboard. Higher sound pressure levels were often connected with distorted sound, sometimes not acceptable to musicians. In this paper, inequalities in the frequency characteristics of the sound generated by the guitar with modern sound holes are presented. Resonant frequencies of the soundboard were pointed as being responsible for the too high amplitude of sound in the 600-800 Hz frequency range. Using optimization and finite element method modelling, the best patterns of bracings were proposed to equalize the frequency spectrum and improve the sound of the instrument.
EN
It is essential to check whether the surgical robot end effector is safe to use due to phenomena such as linear buckling and mechanical resonance. The aim of this research is to build an multi criteria optimization model based on such criteria as the first natural frequency, buckling factor and mass, with the assumption of the basic constraint in the form of a safety factor. The calculations are performed for a serial structure of surgical robot end effector with six degrees of freedom ended with a scalpel. The calculation model is obtained using the finite element method. The issue of multi-criteria optimization is solved based on the response surface method, Pareto fronts and the genetic algorithm. The results section illustrates deformations of a surgical robot end effector occurring during the resonance phenomenon and the buckling deformations for subsequent values of the buckling coefficients. The dependencies of the geometrical dimensions on the criteria are illustrated with the continuous functions of the response surface, i.e. metamodels. Pareto fronts are illustrated, based on which the genetic algorithm finds the optimal quantities of the vector function. The conducted analyzes provide a basis for selecting surgical robot end effector drive systems from the point of view of their generated inputs.
EN
Precise and efficient localization of sound sources is essential in many applications. Traditionally, methods that use beamforming tend to scan the entire space with fixed level of precision. Although effective, this approach is inefficient when searching for a single source. In this paper we propose an iterative algorithm for localizing a single sound source utilizing signals from a 4th order ambisonic microphone array. Two beamformers were implemented: one based on signals in A-format, incorporating delay-and-sum method, commonly used for sound source localization, and the second one based on B-format, operating in the spherical harmonic domain. By utilizing an iterative algorithm, we have significantly decreased the number of points to be evaluated to localize the sound source. For the delay-and-sum beamformer, the best outcome was obtained by using all 32 channels in every iteration. For the spherical-harmonics-based beamformer, the best strategy was to use first-order harmonics in the initial iteration and fourth-order harmonics in subsequent iterations.
EN
This article presents a Train on Railway Track simulation model and program developed by the authors. The model implements the module for multiple-criteria optimization with a set of proposed objective functions allowing reductions in train passing time, total costs, energy consumption, and adverse environmental impacts. The Train on Railway Track simulator has been developed to allow both the simulation itself and the ride optimization. The main achievement is the development of an algorithm that simulates the passage of a train over 500 km, the duration of which did not exceed two minutes. We present an analysis of the impact of model changes on the duration of the simulation and the accuracy of the results obtained. This allows the use of these achievements in simulations carried out for the railway, automotive, or aviation industries as well. Changes in the classical approach to optimization proposed by the authors made it possible to obtain results directly by solving classical systems of equations. The change in the approach to the optimization and system algorithm has reduced the operating time of the optimization system from thousands of simulations to a single simulation with an additional optimization process that takes several minutes to calculate. This article is a continuation of the description of the work performed, and basic information about the developed simulation model and software functionality is included in a separate publication [13].
17
Content available remote Modelling of the Solina-Myczkowce pumped storage power plant
EN
The article presents simulation results of a developed model of PSP Solina. The model was designed and executed in the Matlab – Simulink interface. A modular approach was used to clearly distinguish characteristic elements of the model. Simulations of the model performance were carried out for a period of 365 days. The results were presented graphically. To simplify, the form of criteria defining on/off moments and defining the turbine/pump turbine operating mode was adopted. All constraints arising from the physical parameters and limitations of the cascade objects as well as those arising from the provisions of the current water management instructions for the Solina-Myczkowce cascade were taken into account. The model is a flexible proposal with which to develop and test decision-making mechanisms in the context of energy generation/consumption in operation. Due to the high potential and short on/off times of the turbine sets, the Solina EW plays an important role in the National Electricity System. An important role in the control process of the facility is played by the forecast of both power demand and contingencies. The analyses are supported by many charts and commentary.
18
EN
This article presents the idea and mathematical model of a pumped storage power plant. PSPS Porąbka Żar was selected as the real object for modelling. Due to the specificity of the operation of an intervention-regulatory and scheduled nature related to the coverage of power demand in the power system, the possibility of different modes of operation was taken into account in the model. PorąbkaŻar power plant is a pearl of hydro-engineering on the global stage. It is the first underground and the second largest pumped storage power plant in Poland. It is located in Międzybrodzie Bialskie, in the Silesian province. The short distance between the upper reservoir of the power station, located on Mt. Żar, and the lower reservoir of the międzybrodzkie lake, the high average head of the power station of 432 m above sea level, create great opportunities for accessibility and interference in the operation of the power station. It is equipped with four reversible Francis turbine sets, which operate simultaneously with a total capacity of 500 MW in the generator mode and 542 MW in the pumping mode. Due to its high potential and short turn-on and turn-off times of the turbine sets, it plays an important role in the national power system. The mathematical model was made in Matlab - Simulink software. An important role in the control process of the facility is played by the forecast of both power demand and contingencies. The forecasting model is equipped with elements of artificial intelligence. In addition, the article shows the possibility of supplementing an operating power plant with hybrid elements. The analysis is supported by commentary and a number of charts.
EN
The article presents the optimization of supply chain management in a foundry using computer simulation with the FlexSim program. The authors analyze collaboration with external entities in the production process, focusing on the settlement of raw materials, transportation services, and storage costs. Special attention is given to the production plans of subcontractors integrated into the operational production schedule. Utilizing the 3D FlexSim environment, they showcase a simulation model optimized for minimizing the costs of production, transportation, and storage of alloying elements essential for iron casting production. The case study illustrates the effective use of computer simulation in refining supply chain management within the context of the foundry production process.
EN
Urban planning and urban design involve complex processes that require detailed information about the visual information of a place at various scales. Different graphic tools, such as game engines, are evolving to use urban representation fields. The concept of "level of detail" (LOD) has been used to categorize the level of detail in AEC applications such as BIM and GML for urban representation models. However, there is a need to distinguish between different LOD concepts commonly used in various fields, as these terms have different interpretations and implications. This article presents a novel approach to re-categorizing the level of detail concept in AEC applications, led by the traditional use of LOD and in parallel with urban planning scales. From an urbanist perspective, a four-stage LOD classification framework has been studied: LOD 1000 for urban and neighbourhood scales, LOD 2000 for the plaza and square scales, LOD 3000 for architectural and street scales, and LOD 4000 for protected and private areas.
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