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4
Content available Metro w Bukareszcie
PL
Sieć metra w Bukareszcie składa się obecnie z 4 linii, z których pierwsza została uruchomiona w 1979 r. Bukaresztańska sieć kolei podziemnej jest jedynym w Rumunii systemem metra. Do obsługi zaprojektowano oraz wyprodukowano w krajowej firmie w Arad tabor kolei podziemnej. Metro zostało zbudowane w oparciu o wzorce zachodnie – unikano stosowania marmurów czy ozdób na większą skalę na rzecz prostoty czy funkcjonalności. Skutkowało to także większym tempem budowy sieci metra. Wraz z przystąpieniem Rumunii do UE w 2007 r. oraz możliwością pozyskania dofinansowania, zakupiono tabor pochodzący od renomowanych producentów – Bombardiera i CAF.
EN
The Bucharest metro network currently consists of 4 lines, the first of which was launched in 1979. This underground rail network is the only metro system in Romania. The underground rolling stock was designed and manufactured by the national company in Arad. The metro was built in Western-style - the use of marbles or decorations on a larger scale was avoided for simplicity and functionality. It also resulted in faster construction of the metro network. With the accession of Romania to the EU in 2007 and the possibility of obtaining funding, rolling stock from well-known manufacturers - Bombardier and CAF - was purchased. The metro uses the 1435 mm rail gauge and right-hand traffic.
EN
This work focuses on the paleoenvironmental and palaeoclimatological history of the undisturbed core sequence of 8.6 m extracted from the Bottomless Lake (Tăul fără fund) sphagnum peat bog located in Bǎgǎu, Romania, which covers the last 8,600 years based on radiocarbon dating. By comparing results of archaeological and palaeoenvironmental investigations carried out so far in the area, results of the loss on ignition analyses and the data of the chronological analyses, it was possible to reconstruct climatic factors and anthropogenic impacts on the local environment. The undisturbed core sequence has above 86% organic matter content all along excluding the erosion horizons. Anthropogenic effects (building, woodcutting, pasturage, husbandry, farming) and changes in the local climate, vegetation, and environment increased the rate of the erosion and decreased the rate of the accumulation.
6
Content available remote The national defence strategy of Romania
EN
Globally, the security environment is in a continuous transformation, which is mainly reflected in the accentuation of interdependencies and unpredictability in the international relationship system and the difficulty of delimiting the risks and threats of classical type asymmetric and hybrid. Considering that the defence strategy of Romania is the main instrument of defence planning at national level, I chose to talk in the next article about its role and the measures the country has to take to avoid the risks and the various threats to which it is exposed, given the situations that Europe has faced in recent years.
EN
Background: The information technology (IT) is presented in all levels of the supply chain, from the communication with suppliers, through the manufacture process and until the delivery to clients. Moreover, IT has a positive effect on the performance of the supply chain. In this context, it is important for the IT sector to register a positive evolution, in other words it is important that the IT companies to be profitable and to continue to exist on the market ensuring the provision of the necessary tools for the logistic sector. Therefore, the objective of this paper was to analyze the profitability of the IT companies and to identify which factors impact it. The importance of our study in the context of the logistic sector can be sustained by the fact that technology information constitutes a crucial strategic aspect for the logistics service providers and it is important to maintain a positive evolution of the IT sector. Methods: There was used a regression analysis which started from the factors of the DuPont model and afterwards supplemented by one factor identified based on the Stepwise method. Results: The results show that the profitability of the Romanian IT companies is influenced by the Net Profit Margin, the Asset Turnover, the Financial Leverage and the Sales Growth. Conclusions: More exactly, the profitability of these companies is impacted by the capacity to generate net income based on the sales performed (and indirectly by the management of the costs), the efficiency with which the assets are used in order to generate revenues, the financing source of the assets and by the growth of the sales volume. Our results may present importance for the financial management, investors and researches offering insights about the factors which should be observed in order to improve the profitability of an IT entity from Romania. The importance of this study for the logistics sector can be interpreted as following: knowing which is the evolution of the IT market from a country and which factors impact the profitability of it represents an asset from the point of view of the logistics aspects, as there can be provided insights in case that the continuity for the tools needed is uncertain. Future research direction may imply the analysis of the correlation between the evolution of the IT companies and the logistic sector. Considering the fact that, as far as we know, no similar study was performed at the level of the Romanian IT industry, the novelty and originality of the research is represented by the performance of the research at the level of this market.
PL
Wstęp: Technologia IT jest obecna we wszystkich obszarach łańcucha dostaw, od komunikacji z dostawcami, poprzez proces produkcyjny aż po dostawy do klientów. Dodatkowo, IT ma pozytywny wpływ na pracę łańcucha dostaw. W tym kontekście ważne jest, aby sektor IT przeżywał pozytywną ewolucję, to znaczy, aby firmy IT były zyskowne oraz kontynuowały swoją działalność na rynku i były w stanie dostarczać potrzebnych narzędzi dla sektora logistycznego. Celem niniejszej pracy była analiza zyskowności przedsiębiorstw IT oraz identyfikacja czynników na nią wpływających. Istotność tych badań w kontekście sektora logistycznego opiera się na fakcie, że informacja technologiczna jest kluczowym aspektem strategicznym dla dostawców usług logistycznych i dlatego ważnym jest utrzymanie pozytywnej ewolucji sektora IT. Metody: W pracy zastosowano analizę regresji, wychodząc od czynników modelu DuPonta a następnie uzupełniając o czynnik zidentyfikowany przy użyciu metody Stepwise. Wyniki: Wyniki wskazują, że na zyskowność rumuńskich przedsiębiorstw IT ma wpływ marża netto, wskaźnik rotacji, dźwignia finansowa oraz wzrost sprzedaży. Wnioski: Zyskowność badanych przedsiębiorstw jest uwarunkowana zdolnością generowania dochodu netto w oparciu o realizowaną sprzedaż (oraz pośrednio przez zarządzanie kosztami), wydajnością wykorzystania posiadanych zasobów, źródłem finansowania zasobów oraz wielkością sprzedaży. Prezentowane wyniki są istotne dla zarządzania finansowego, zarówno dla inwestorów jak i naukowców, oferując informacje na temat czynników, które należy kontrolować w celu uzyskania zyskowności przedsiębiorstwa IT w Rumunii. Istotność uzyskanych wyników dla sektora logistycznego należy zinterpretować następująco: znajomość ewolucji rynku IT w kraju oraz czynników wpływających na zyskowność daje przewagę z punktu widzenia aspektów logistycznych i dostarcza niezbędnych informacji w sytuacjach niepewnych. Dalsze badania powinny obejmować analizę korelacji pomiędzy ewolucją przedsiębiorstw IT oraz sektora logistycznego. Biorąc pod uwagę fakt, że jest to pierwsza tego typu praca dotycząca poziomu przemysłu IT w Rumunii, nowość i oryginalność prezentowanej pracy jest reprezentowana poprzez jej realizację na poziomie tego rynku.
EN
The Getic Nappe belongs to the Central Dacides or Dacia Mega Unit. Gravity flow deposits were generated by the Lower Cretaceous overthrust and uplift of this unit over the External Dacides. In the Piatra Craiului Syncline (part of the Getic Nappe), such detrital deposits are represented by the Aptian conglomerates and the uppermost Albian-Cenomanian conglomerates. Part of the infill of the syncline consists of a thick pile of NW-SE oriented conglomerates. Sedimentological study documents the presence of an association which consists of three distinct facies types, represented by: massive conglomerates; alternating conglomerates, sandstones and microconglomerates; and fining- and coarsening-upwards conglomerates. These deposits were accumulated through a series of debris flows, and hyperconcentrated or concentrated flows. The entire assemblage represents a complex routing system within submarine channels, an interpretation made by interpreting facies associations, palaeoflow directions and clast fabrics. A large part of this succession was removed by post-Albian erosion. Thus, the interpretation of the depositional system could be as a series of feeder channels or the submarine sector of a fan-delta system representing a foreland basin fill.
EN
The irregular distribution of sand injections, traditionally termed “dykes” in the Polish geological literature, within individual Carpathian units and within individual lithofacies were observed during long-lasting field works. Injectites have been observed in the Magura Beds and in the Inoceramian Beds of the Polish and Romanian Carpathians, and in the Central Carpathian Paleogene deposits. However, they are most common in the Oligocene-Miocene Menilite Beds, where they are typical and abundant, particularly in the Skole Unit. Two clastic injectite types were distinguished: sedimentary (S-type) and tectonized (T-type). Based on the occurrence and interpretation of these injectites a new two-stage conceptual model is proposed for the Polish segment of the progressive Oligocene-Miocene Carpathian orogenic belt evolution. Type S clastic injectites are interpreted as having formed in the compressional stage, during foredeep basin migration while depositional slope changes were taking place in the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene. Type T injectites are interpreted as having formed by reactivation of S-type injectites in the last, mainly strike-slip, phases of Carpathian orogenic belt formation.
11
Content available remote Społeczeństwo rumuńskie uwięzione w stereotypach
PL
Celem niniejszego artykułu jest przedstawienie zagadnienia stereotypów istniejących na temat społeczności rumuńskiej. Artykuł koncentruje się na przybliżeniu teoretycznego zagadnienia istoty stereotypów, ich źródeł, funkcji oraz różnicy między uprzedzeniami. Artykuł przedstawia główne problemy dotyczące niechęci poznawania nowych kultur oraz braku zaangażowania w weryfikację ogólnie przyjętych stereotypów.
EN
The main purpose of this paper is to present basic stereotypes about Romania. The article shows origin and differences of stereotypes and prejudice. Also there was mentioned functions which stereotypes provide. Authors tried to present the main problems regarding the reluctance to learn about new cultures and the lack of commitment to the verification of generally accepted stereotypes.
EN
Pliocene fish species based on skeleton remains and associated teeth ever reported from the inner Carpathian area in Romania in the Braşov Basin (Baraolt sub-basin), which refers to a pike (Esox sp.). The fish fossils illustrating a large-sized specimen originate from the South Racoş coal open pit (Racoşu de Sus, Covasna County), in the so-called “Formation with Limnocardium” (Dacian, Lower Pliocene). Comparisons with osteological material of recent pikes originating from various localities in Romania are presented. The associated mollusc fauna known from the formation that yielded the pike remains suggests the presence of a lake with a stratified water column in the Baraolt sub-basin.
EN
The Lower Jurassic (Hettangian–Sinemurian) continental deposits of the Mehadia area (Caraş–Severin County) belong to the Presacina Basin, Upper Danubian Units of the South Carpathians, Romania. This un-named succession is exposed along large areas within the Greaţca Quarry where deposits of a complex braided river system can be seen. Nine clastic facies are identified within the Mehadia section and grouped into two facies associations reflecting two main sub-environments. (A) a fine-grained association, up to 6.5 m thick, composed of greyish black and dark grey massive and horizontally laminated mudstones interbedded with fine- to medium-grained sandstones showing ripple lamination, tabular low-angle large-scale cross-bedding and in some places massive sandstones. Within this association coarsening and fining-upward sequences are visible, while subordinate pensymmetrical-like sequences were observed. The sediments of the fine-grained association are interpreted as having been deposited along an alluvial plain from flood waters. The sandstone interbeds are interpreted as crevasse channel-fills and the thinner sandstone bodies as proximal crevasse splays. (B) a coarse-grained facies association represented by sandstones and conglomerates, both clast- and matrix-supported, from granule to pebble clast sizes. Almost all basal members of this association are underlain by erosional surfaces, while internal erosional surfaces occur at some levels. The coarse-grained facies association is interpreted as having been deposited within active river channels of a sandy braided river system. The occurrence of numerous erosional surfaces, the recurrence of the facies within this association (channel bodies), as well as the abundant mudstone and sandstone intraclasts all point to frequent conditions of erosion (including redeposition) of previously deposited sediments. The relatively low fine-grained sediment content (<25%) can be explained by two factors: (1) a creation rate for accommodation space was not enough for the accumulation of a large amount of overbank deposits; (2) a lack of larger quantities of fine-grained material being transported in the river system. Both factors may have operated independently or interacted.
EN
Hydrocarbons Potential Evaluation represents an important task for Petroleum Exploration. The main problem is the reliability of the initial data and the correct approach to the Petroleum System components. With more than 150 years of existence the Romanian Petroleum Industry benefits of a huge data base, mainly from old explorations which have to be taken into account. Old well data provides important field data and clues permitting a comprehensive geological model. Using old well logs, core data, production data the main physical parameters for rock-fluids system were obtained and enabled a realistic hydrocarbons generating processes evaluation for the main geological units and estimation of potential source rock volume. Correlated with geological evolution, burial depth, temperature, tectonics results of resources were obtained with a good confidence degree.
15
Content available Road transport safety management in Romania
EN
The aim of the study was to present Ways to Prevent road accidents in Romania. Improving security requires the Involvement of many companies, but only with Their help and cooperation can create a fully functional and effective system for Preventing accidents. The article shows the effectiveness of the Romania safety system in road transport. The study shows that the introduction of modern solutions slowly results in achieving improvement in the management of road, and brings measurable effects in the form of fewer fatalities.
PL
Celem pracy było przedstawienie sposobów zapobiegania wypadkom drogowym w Rumunii. Poprawa bezpieczeństwa wymaga zaangażowania wielu firm, ale tylko z ich pomocy i współpracy można stworzyć w pełni funkcjonalny i skuteczny system zapobiegania wypadkom. W artykule przedstawiono skuteczność systemu bezpieczeństwa Rumunii w transporcie drogowym. W opracowaniu ukazano, że wprowadzenie nowoczesnych rozwiązań powoli skutkuje osiągnięciem poprawy w zarządzaniu transportem drogowym, a także przynosi wymierne skutki w postaci mniejszej liczby ofiar śmiertelnych.
EN
The Buila-Vânturariţa Massif consists of massive Upper Jurassic reef limestones (Kimmeridgian–Tithonian) and Lower Cretaceous (Berriasian–Valanginian, and Barremian–?Lower Aptian) deposits. Besides corals and stromatoporoids, a wide range of micro-encrusters and microbialites has contributed to their development. In this study, the authors describe briefly and interpret the main facies associations and present the microfossil assemblages that are important for age determination. The distribution of facies associations, corroborated with the micropalaeontological content and early diagenetic features, indicate different depositional environments. The carbonate successions show the evolution of the Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous depositional environments from slope and reef-front to internal-platform sedimentary settings, including peritidal environments in the lowermost Cretaceous. Early diagenesis, represented by synsedimentary cementation in the form of micritization (including cement crusts in the reef microframework), followed by dissolution, cementation and dolomitization in a meteoric regime, and void-filling late cementation during the burial stage.
EN
The aim of this paper is to describe a managing system for a unique Romanian database of historical seismograms and complementary documentation (metadata) and its dissemination and analysis procedure. For this study, 5188 historical seismograms recorded between 1903 and 1957 by the Romanian seismological observatories (Bucharest-Filaret, Foc- şani, Bacău, Vrincioaia, Câmpulung-Muscel, Iaşi) were used. In order to reconsider the historical instrumental data, the analog seismograms are converted to digital images and digital waveforms (digitization/vectorialisation). First, we applied a careful scanning procedure of the seismograms and related material (seismic bulletins, station books, etc.). In a next step, the high resolution scanned seismograms will be processed to obtain the digital/numeric waveforms. We used a Colortrac Smartlf Cx40 scanner which provides images in TIFF or JPG format. For digitization the algorithm Teseo2 developed by the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology in Rome (Italy), within the framework of the SISMOS Project, will be used.
EN
The comparative advantage and intra-industry trade of five countries: Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Turkey, are analyzed in the global textile and clothing markets by employing Balassa’s revealed comparative advantage (RCA) index and intraindustry trade (IIT) index for the period 2002-2013. The results have revealed that while Turkey is the only one among the countries selected to have comparative advantage in the global textile market, Romania joins Turkey in this in the world’s clothing market. The comparative advantage of these two countries in the global clothing market presents a stronger declining trend compared to that in textiles, which is probably due to the entrance of cheap-labour eastern Asian countries into the global clothing market, as this market is more labor-intensive compared to textiles. Moreover, while a high intra-industry trade index is found in Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland, an inter-industry trade structure is observed in Romania for textiles and clothing. Turkey presents intra-industry specialisation in textiles, while possessing inter-industry trade structure in terms of clothing.
PL
Analizowano przewagę konkurencyjną i handel wewnątrzgałęziowy pięciu krajów: Czech, Węgier, Polski, Rumunii i Turcji biorąc pod uwagę globalny rynek włókiennictwa i odzieżownictwa przy wykorzystaniu indeksu Balassy i indeksu handlu wewnątrzgałęziowego. Brano pod uwagę okres lat: 2002 - 2013. Wyniki wykazały, że podczas gdy Turcja jest jedynym spośród wybranych krajów, który ma przewagę konkurencyjną na globalnym rynku tekstyliów to na globalnym rynku odzieżownictwa pozycję taką posiada Turcja i Rumunia. Przewaga konkurencyjna tych dwóch krajów na globalnym rynku odzieżownictwa przedstawia silniejszy trend zniżkowy porównując do trendów w dziedzinie tekstyliów. Dzieje się tak prawdopodobnie w wyniku wejścia na rynek globalny tekstyliów wschodnioazjatyckich krajów o niskich płacach ponieważ produkcja odzieży wymaga większego nakładu pracy niż produkcja tekstyliów. Podczas gdy wysoki indeks handlu wewnątrzgałęziowego cechują Czechy, Węgry i Polska, Turcja przedstawia wewnątrzgałęziową specjalizację w dziedzinie włókiennictwa oraz międzygałęziową strukturę handlu w odzieżownictwie.
19
PL
[...]Zmiany w sieci transportowej Rumunii uzależnione są od wielu czynników ekonomicznych, społecznych i geograficznych. Przede wszystkim od możliwości finansowania rozwoju sieci transportowej, w tym od stopnia wykorzystania środków unijnych przyznanych w procesie akcesji i po wstąpieniu do Unii Europejskiej. Zasadniczy kierunek zmian w sieci transportowej, w znacznym stopniu decydującej o rozwoju rumuńskiej gospodarki, zależny jest od realizacji założeń ambitnego planu jej rozwoju.Dlatego celem pracy, poza przedstawieniem zmian w sieci transportowej kraju w ostatnich dwudziestu latach, jest wskazanie na stopień regionalnego zróżnicowania sieci transportowej i zróżnicowania wielkości przewozów w podziale na poszczególne środki transportu.[...]
EN
Changes in Romanian transport network are dependent on many economic, social and geographical factors. First of all, from the possibility of financing the development of the transport network including the degree of utilization of funds assigned during the process of accession and after it. The general direction of changes in the transport network, which has a large impact for the development of the Romanian economy, is dependent on the implementation of the ambitious plan for its development. It specifies the order of execution of individual tasks in rail and road transport and the size of the necessary inputs. However, among the most important factors affecting the development of the Romanian transport network, despite to economic and social factors, it should be emphasized the role of physico-geographical factors, especially the relief of the country. Mountainous area is for so far a barrier to the development of roads and railways. Although modern technical solutions in the field of transport infrastructure construction permit to cross all barriers, its implementation is related to the very high costs of individual transport projects. The aim of this paper, beyond the presentation of changes in the transport network of the country in the last twenty years, is an indication of the level of regional differentiation of the transport network and diversity of freight volume by individual types of transport.
PL
Obecnie wykorzystanie technologii informatycznych może uczynić nasze życie lepszym i łatwiejszym, a rozwój Internetu może zasadniczo zmienić sposób działalności w firmach. Podmioty świadczące usługi logistyczne widzą potrzebę zmiany tradycyjnego modelu logistycznego na model e-logistyki. Jest to konieczne w celu dostosowania się do dynamicznych zmian w świecie globalnego handlu elektronicznego. Obecna gospodarka cyfrowa jest napędzana dużą ilością informacji, nowymi narzędziami ICT i technologiami wykorzystywanymi przez wszystkich do osiągnięcia rozwoju działalności. Korzystanie z e-logistyki może zminimalizować koszty nabycia, przesyłania, odbioru i sprzedaży nie tylko towarów, ale także usług. Celem niniejszego artykułu jest zdefiniowanie pojęć i określenie znaczenia wykorzystania systemów e-logistyki w biznesie na przykładzie Elektronicznej Giełdy Towarowej (EGT). W pierwszej części opracowania autorzy wyjaśniają różnice między logistyką i e-logistyką. Kolejna część pracy prezentuje aspekty i założenia dotyczące e-logistyki. Dalsza część artykułu skoncentrowana została na zbadaniu aktualnej sytuacji w zakresie wykorzystania systemów e-logistyki na przykładzie EGT, efektem czego jest analiza porównawcza wybranych elektronicznych giełd towarowych.
EN
Nowadays, the use of Information Technologies Systems can make our life better and easier, as the incredible growth of the Internet is changing the way corporations conduct their business. Logistic service operators see the need to change the traditional logistics system into e-logistics. It is necessary to accommodate the dynamic changes in the commercial world. The current digital economy is driven by modern information and new ICT tools, new technologies used by everyone for stronger development of their activities. Using e-logistics may minimize the costs of acquisition, transmission, reception and sales. The purpose of this article is to analyze the notion and importance of using e-logistic systems in business with the example of Electronic Freight Exchange (EFX). In the first part of the paper, the authors explain the difference between logistics and e-logistics. The next part of the paper is devoted to presenting the aspects and fundamentals of e-logistics and their advantages as well. Moreover, the areas which might be improved are indicated. The further part of the paper is focused on the situation in e-logistics systems with the EFX example. In that section a comparative analysis of selected electronic freight exchanges can be found. This study brings its contribution to the understanding of the changes in logistics, in particular, in the EFX systems.
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