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EN
Purpose: The acceleration of the digitization of the healthcare sector, forced by the pandemic, and the extensive use of e-services prevented is collapsed. But it was also created a space for innovative medical and medical-related solutions, development of staff competences, greater focus on the patient and his environment. The aim of the article is to determine the state and directions of sustainable development of Polish health care in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic. Design/methodology/approach: According to the World Commission on Environment and Development, sustainable development makes it possible to meet the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. The 2030 Agenda aims to “ensure healthy lives and promote prosperity for all people of all ages”. The coronavirus pandemic has challenged global healthcare systems to cope with an unprecedented crisis while pursuing sustainable development as defined above. Findings: The pandemic has led healthcare leaders to act with agility, build resilience and adopt smarter ways of working to help future-proof care. It has also pushed them to rethink how care is delivered. Originality/value: An identification the main directions of sustainable development of Polish healthcare in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic.
EN
Purpose: Contemporary threats are characterized by unpredictability, vehemence and interpermeation, and affect almost all areas of society functioning. The emergence of the Covid-19 pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2a virus, resulted in crisis threats associated with possible loss of life, health or material possessions, destabilization of economic development, or loss of conditions for free existence. The lack of clear guidelines on how to deal with such a situation has revealed the inadequacies of the crisis management systems, which are - by design - aimed at efficient prevention of such situations as well as safety assurance and development of conditions for further advancement, i.e., containment of threat escalation, to the extent possible. The historical review of various events, analysis of the examined organizations’ practices as well as overview of the legislation have led the Authors to address the issue of personal data protection throughout the ongoing pandemic. The article is thereby aimed at cataloging the risks and development of guidelines for operation during the COVID-19 pandemic, with respect to personal data protection. Design/methodology/approach: For the purpose of the article, multiple case studies were conducted in various organizations, where one of the article co-authors acted as a professional Data Protection Officer. The research was carried out in 20 entities of different business profiles. Findings: The main problems identified involved: body temperature measurement consents, virus test result or immunization data sharing, introduction of COVID-19 questionnaires and visiting regulations, employers’ epidemiological proceedings conduct, and remote work models. Practical implications: The study resulted in the formulation of recommendations, regarding the steps to be taken by organizations in order to establish a catalog of risks via the following: identification of the actual risks, conduction of a risk assessment, development of a catalog of appropriate undertakings and procedures, preparation and maintenance of forces and resources, as well as definition of the principles for interaction of the actors involved. Further, a recommendation for implementation of a schedule of operation, based on the crisis management guidelines, has been formulated. Consequently, the basis for effective organizational operation involves ongoing verification of the procedures against the Chief Sanitary Inspector’s and the Ministry of Health’s guidelines, as well as observation and ongoing update of the trends in the crisis management changes. Originality/value: By identifying a catalogue of risks and formulating guidelines for action during a COVID-19 pandemic in relation to data protection, this article can contribute to the discussion on appropriate practices and strategies in this area. Simultaneously, it provides a valuable perspective on the adaptation of organizations to the dynamic changes in crisis management in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.
PL
Drugi rok rosyjskiej agresji na Ukrainę, wysoka inflacja, spadki kursu złotego i niełatwe do interpretowania zmiany w przepisach finansowych – wszystkie te czynniki miały w 2023 r. wpływ na polską gospodarkę, a więc też na rynek książki. Rok wcześniej obserwowaliśmy znaczący wzrost cen druku, papieru i innych materiałówpoligraficznych, co wpłynęło na wzrost kosztów produkcji książek, a w konsekwencji na wzrost ich cen detalicznych. Na statystyczne podsumowania ubiegłego roku na rynku książki musimy jeszcze poczekać, aż instytucje za to odpowiedzialne ogłoszą zebrane dane. Możemy jednak odnieść siędoroku poprzedniego, abyprzedstawićobrazo wielkości tego rynku i podstawowych tendencjach. W 2022 r. przychody wydawców europejskich wyniosły 23,9 mld EUR i w tym czasie opublikowano 575 tys. nowych tytułów, jak podsumowała Europejska Federacja Wydawców (FEP – Federation of European Publishers). W dalszym ciągu w przychodach wydawców dominują książki drukowane, a publikacje elektroniczne są dopełnieniem rynku. Nastąpiło odbicie po kryzysie covidowym, przychody wydawców wzrosły o 1,3% w stosunku do roku poprzedniego. W ogłoszonym pod koniec ubiegłego roku raporcie „Global Entertainment & Media Outlook 2023-2027”, opracowanym przez PwC Polska, prognozuje się, że przychody segmentu obejmującego gazety, czasopisma i książki będą spadać co roku o 0,4%, w tym rynek książki o 0,1%.
EN
This work presents the results of the analysis of changes in water demand for two selected water companies in Poland caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus pandemic (first wave). Literature that's been published so far has been broadly cited in this work, together with selected evidence collected worldwide. The aim of this article is to evaluate the impact of this type of event on the spatial distribution and variability in water demand using GIS software for two selected samples. The resulting geo-statistical analysis allowed to show areas of greatest variability in water demand using measurements from water meters. In order to achieve this the following research tools developed by ESRI were utilised: "Space Time Cube", "Emerging Hot Spot Analysis" and "Local Outlier Analysis". Indicators of space-time trend were calculated by category using the ArcGIS Pro software. Additionally the knowledge base was expanded with results of a survey conducted in Poland on hundreds of water utilities concerning impacts of the pandemic related changes in how they function, their financial liquidity, threats, and challenges. Interesting conclusions from the obtained results were presented and directions of future research in connection to further development of the situation in the world were considered. Given the lack of possibility to reference events of this type from the past, this analysis should be treated as an introductory research of this issue in Poland.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wyniki analizy zmienności zapotrzebowania na wodę dla dwóch wybranych przedsiębiorstw wodociągowych w Polsce spowodowanych pandemią wirusa SARS-CoV-2 (pierwsza fala). Omówiono dotychczas opublikowaną literaturę oraz badania w tym zakresie realizowane na całym świecie. Celem artykułu jest ocena wpływu pandemii na rozkład przestrzenny i zmienność zapotrzebowania na wodę, przy wykorzystaniu oprogramowania GIS. Analizę wykonano dla dwóch jednostek osadniczych. Analiza geostatystyczna pozwoliła na wskazanie obszarów o największej zmianie zapotrzebowania na wodę, na podstawie analiza danych pomiarowych z wodomierzy. Do celu realizacji badań wykorzystano następujące narzędzia badawcze w pakiecie oprogramowania ESRI: "Space Time Cube", "Emerging Hot Spot Analysis" i "Local Outlier Analysis". Wskaźniki trendu czasoprzestrzennego obliczono według przy użyciu oprogramowania ArcGIS Pro. Dodatkowo baza wiedzy została poszerzona o wyniki badania przeprowadzonego w Polsce wśród setek przedsiębiorstw wodociągowych, na temat skutków zmian związanych z pandemią na ich funkcjonowanie, płynność finansową oraz zagrożenia i wyzwania związane z tego typu zjawiskami. Zaprezentowano ciekawe wnioski z uzyskanych wyników oraz rozważono kierunki przyszłych badań, w związku z dalszym rozwojem sytuacji na świecie. Ze względu na brak możliwości odniesienia się do tego typu wydarzeń z przeszłości, niniejszą analizę należy traktować jako wstępne badania tego zagadnienia w Polsce.
EN
The topic of the paper is the analysis of the situation in the secondary real estate market in Krakow from 2017 to 2020. The research was conducted based on data obtained from the register of real estate prices and values. The results of the research helped detect changes occurring in the indicated years; the number of transactions in the housing market in the city oscillated around the value of 4,000 for each year. The high demand for real estate was significantly disrupted by 2020 and the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite an almost 50% drop in the number of transactions and reduced interest from potential buyers, the price of 1m2 of residential space rose steadily. Thus, the pandemic only affected the number of transactions, while no deceleration of the rising trend was observed in terms of the average transaction price or the average price per square meter.
PL
Tematem pracy jest analiza sytuacji na rynku wtórnym nieruchomości w Krakowie w latach 2017- 2020. Badania przeprowadzono na podstawie danych uzyskanych z rejestru cen i wartości nieruchomości. Wyniki badań pomogły wykryć zmiany zachodzące we wskazanych latach; liczba transakcji na rynku mieszkaniowym w mieście oscylowała wokół wartości 4000 dla każdego roku. Wysokie zapotrzebowanie na nieruchomości zostało znacząco zakłócone w 2020 roku w wyniku wybuchu pandemii COVID-19. Pomimo prawie 50% spadku liczby transakcji i zmniejszonego zainteresowania ze strony potencjalnych kupujących, cena 1m2 powierzchni mieszkalnej stale rosła. W związku z tym pandemia wpłynęła tylko na liczbę transakcji, natomiast nie zaobserwowano spowolnienia rosnącego trendu w zakresie średniej ceny transakcji czy średniej ceny za metr kwadratowy.
EN
Recent papers and studies over the course of last three years have shown that COVID-19 has a negative impact on the speech communication quality between people. This paper presents an influence analysis of the curvature shape of protective transparent shields on the speech signal. Five shields made of the same material and dimensions but with different curvatures were analyzed, from a completely flat to a very curved shield which has the same shape of curvature at its top and bottom and covers the entire face. The influence of the shield is analyzed with two types of experiments – one using dummy head with integrated artificial voice device, and the other using real speakers (female and male actors). It has been shown that usage of protective shields results in a relative increase in the speech signal level, in the frequency range of around 1000 Hz, compared to the situation when protective shields are not used. The relative increase in speech signal levels for large-curvature shields can be up to 8 dB. The possible causes of this phenomenon have been analyzed and examined.
EN
Every year, a large number of traffic accidents occur on Polish roads. However, the pandemic of recent years has reduced the number of these accidents, although the number is still very high. For this reason, all measures should be taken to reduce this number. This article aims to forecast the number of road accidents in Poland. Thus, using Statistica software, the annual data on the number of road accidents in Poland were analyzed. Based on actual past data, a forecast was made for the future, for the period 2022-2040. Forecasting the number of accidents in Poland was conducted using selected neural network models. The results show that a reduction in the number of traffic accidents is likely. The choice of the number of random samples (learning, testing and validation) affects the results obtained.
EN
With a growing number of coronavirus patients worldwide, military and civilian transport aircraft are increasingly being used for civilian medical evacuation duties (MEDEVAC) on time-critical flights. This article deals with the possibility of converting an aircraft fleet in the Czech Republic to MEDEVAC. The indication for the analysis of the possibility of transforming transport aircraft was the past and current pandemic situation in the Czech Republic. The main research question is how to implement the modification of a selected airline of the Czech Republic to MEDEVAC. An analysis of the technical data of selected aircraft from Airbus and Boeing was used to investigate this problem. Further, an analysis of the medical equipment required for the MEDEVAC aircraft category was also performed using equipment manufactured in the Czech Republic. The results obtained by the analysis and spatial arrangement of the aircraft deck for the transport of patients with medical equipment confirmed the possibility of such a transformation within the Czech Republic. We consider it important to elaborate on a project that would solve, in detail, all the steps of the conversion of a transport aircraft to MEDEVAC.
EN
Airports, as a component of air transport, combine air transport with other modes of transport to strengthen the transportation accessibility of a place in space, attract investors, and stimulate the development of the area. Taking into account that these issues are less exposed in relation to their immediate surroundings, research was undertaken to determine how representatives of the authorities and residents of communes (taking into account the nature of the communes and the size and location of the airport) perceive airports, located within their communes, in the context of their impact on the socio-economic situation in the communes. This was achieved by analysing the communes' strategic documents and data on the operation of communes and airports from 2016 to 2021. These data were obtained from the Civil Aviation Authority, the Central Statistical Office, the International Air Transport Association, and the International Airports Council. In an effort to better understand the relationship between the airport and the commune in which it is located, poll research was carried out using survey and interview techniques. The research focused on 10 airports spread across Poland. A total of 1,200 surveys were conducted among residents of communes, and 10 interviews were conducted with representatives of local governments and the port. To analyse the collected data and present the results, Statistica v.13.3 and R/RStudio software were used.
EN
Purpose: This article aims to provide an overview of the current situation of COVID-19 in the Republic of Poland, including the measures taken by the government to combat and prevent the virus epidemic. Methodology: The authors conducted a review of available literature and data sources related to the COVID-19 situation in Poland. Information was gathered from official government websites, academic journals, news articles, and other relevant sources. Findings: Poland is actively taking steps to combat the COVID-19 pandemic, including enhancing testing facilities, increasing the budget for infectious hospitalization, initiating a national immunization program, and implementing strict regulatory measures against SARS-CoV-2. However, despite these efforts, the country is currently facing a surge in cases due to the emergence of the Omicron variant. Practical implications: The information presented in this article can be useful for policymakers, healthcare professionals, and the general public in understanding the current COVID-19 situation in Poland and the measures being taken to combat the virus. This knowledge can help inform decisions related to public health policies and individual behaviors to prevent the spread of COVID-19. Originality: While there are many articles available on the COVID-19 pandemic, this article specifically focuses on the situation in the Republic of Poland, providing a detailed overview of the measures being taken by the government and the available facilities to the public. This article also highlights the impact of the Omicron variant on Poland, which is a current and rapidly evolving situation.
EN
Purpose: Managing a pandemic in individual countries is a concern not only of governments but also of WHO and the entire international community. The pandemic knows no bounds. In this context, India is a special country - with a huge population and a very large diversity of cultural, geographic, economic, poverty levels, and pandemic management methods. In this work, we try to assess the sum of the impact of these factors on the state of the epidemic by creating a ranking of Indian states from the least to the most endangered. Design/methodology/approach: As a method of creating such a ranking, we take into account two very, in our opinion, objective variables - the number of deaths and the number of vaccinations per million inhabitants of the region. In order not to make the usually controversial ascribing of weights to these factors, we relate them to the selected reference region - here to the capital city - Delhi. We apply a logical principle - the more vaccinations, the better and the more deaths - the worse. Findings: The results are rather surprising. Many small regions are safe regions, such as Andaman, Tripura or Sikkim, many large or wealthy states are at the end of this ranking, such as Delhi, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Tamil Nadu. What was found in the course of the work? This will refer to analysis, discussion, or results. Originality/value: The method enables an indirect assessment of the quality of pandemic management in a given region of the country. It can be used for any country or even a group of countries or a continent. According to this criterion, the best state/region is intuitively the safest for residents. A small number of deaths and a large number of vaccinations may positively indicate the state of public health and good management of the fight against the pandemic by local and/or central authorities.
EN
Purpose: Determining and discussing selected aspects of the functioning of Compliance management systems in Polish enterprises in perspective of challenges resulting from the current crises. Design/methodology/approach: The research method used in the paper is the author's observation and interviews with companies with whom she cooperates in the implementation and operation of the compliance management system. The analysis of the results of research conducted on the basis of a standardized survey based on a questionnaire containing closed and open questions carried out in exemplary enterprises was involved as well. Findings: Research results confirmed the dynamic development of Compliance management in Polish enterprises, which is accompanied by a preventive approach with a key role played by the management in building culture and awareness of compliance in the enterprise. Research implications: Future research directions should focus on further, expanded research exploration in the area, taking into account international perspective. Practical implications: The results of the research discussed in the paper have a number of practical implications mainly for the management staff in terms of implementation of compliance management and development of its areas. Social implications: Building awareness of compliance management system and the advantages of implementing it. Originality/value: The paper has cognitive value for the development of knowledge, science and further development of the compliance management system in enterprises in Poland.
EN
During the COVID-19 pandemic, public transport played a crucial role in maintaining essential services while ensuring the safety of both passengers and staff. As the world gradually resumes operations, the impact of the pandemic is expected to persist for some time. Existing studies focus on virus transmission in vehicles, with limited knowledge about post-pandemic passenger flow, safety, and satisfaction. This paper presents a model of passenger movement in public transport, considering factors like boarding times, movement within stops, and the impact of crowding and delays. To reduce transmission at bus stops, we developed a simulation-based passenger flow model using PTV Vissim. The program was used to simulate passenger exchange scenarios, using data collected from real data. The goal was to create a model that minimizes the risk of infection. By understanding passenger flow and interactions with the public transport system, effective measures can be implemented to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 and other infectious diseases.
PL
Podczas pandemii COVID-19 transport publiczny odegrał kluczową rolę w utrzymaniu podstawowych usług, zapewniając jednocześnie bezpieczeństwo zarówno pasażerów, jak i personelu. W miarę jak świat stopniowo wznawia działalność, oczekuje się, że skutki pandemii utrzymają się przez jakiś czas. Istniejące badania koncentrują się na przenoszeniu wirusów w pojazdach, przy ograniczonej wiedzy na temat przepływu pasażerów, bezpieczeństwa i satysfakcji po pandemii. W artykule przedstawiono model poruszania się pasażerów w transporcie publicznym, biorąc pod uwagę takie czynniki, jak czas wejścia do pojazdu, ruch w obrębie przystanków oraz wpływ zatłoczenia i opóźnień. Aby ograniczyć przekazywanie zakażeń na przystankach autobusowych, opracowaliśmy model przepływu pasażerów oparty na symulacji przy użyciu PTV Vissim. W programie przeprowadzono symulację scenariuszy wymiany pasażerów, wykorzystując dane zebrane z danych rzeczywistych. Celem było stworzenie modelu, który minimalizuje ryzyko infekcji. Rozumiejąc przepływ pasażerów i interakcje z systemem transportu publicznego, można wdrożyć skuteczne środki ograniczające rozprzestrzenianie się Covid-19 i innych chorób zakaźnych.
PL
W czasie pandemii COVID-19 banki spółdzielcze w Polsce podejmowały różne działania CSR, mające na celu przeciwdziałanie skutkom kryzysu i ochronę interesów społeczności lokalnych. Banki te przejawiały zaangażowanie w społeczności lokalne poprzez udzielanie wsparcia finansowego dla lokalnych przedsiębiorców i organizacji non-profit, które znalazły się w trudnej sytuacji. Przeznaczały one środki na wsparcie sektora medycznego, dostarczając niezbędny sprzęt medyczny, testy oraz środki ochrony osobistej dla personelu medycznego. Działania CSR banków spółdzielczych miały istotny wpływ na bezpieczeństwo państwa. Poprzez udzielanie wsparcia finansowego dla przedsiębiorców i organizacji non-profit, banki te przyczyniały się do utrzymania miejsc pracy i stabilności gospodarczej. Wsparcie dla sektora medycznego pozwoliło na efektywniejsze zarządzanie pandemią, zapewniając odpowiednie środki ochrony i sprzęt medyczny dla personelu medycznego. Działania CSR banków spółdzielczych w Polsce w czasie pandemii COVID-19 miały istotny wpływ na bezpieczeństwo państwa. Banki te aktywnie angażowały się w pomoc społecznościom lokalnym, wspierały sektor medyczny i prowadziły kampanie edukacyjne. Ich zaangażowanie przyczyniło się do utrzymania miejsc pracy, stabilności gospodarczej oraz zwiększenia świadomości społecznej, co przyczyniło się do ogólnego bezpieczeństwa państwa w trudnym okresie pandemii COVID19. W artykule przedmiotem rozważań są przedsięwzięcia filantropijne realizowane przez wybraną grupę spółdzielni, jaką są banki spółdzielcze, funkcjonujące na rynku usług finansowych w Polsce. Problem badawczym jest zrozumienie, jakie konkretnie działania CSR podejmowane przez banki spółdzielcze w Polsce miały na celu wsparcie lokalnej społeczności i gospodarki w trakcie pandemii COVID-19. Zasadniczym celem niniejszego artykułu jest wskazanie czynności z obszaru społecznej odpowiedzialności biznesu, które zostały zrealizowane przez banki spółdzielcze podczas pandemii COVID-19. Do realizacji głównego celu wykorzystano źródło pochodzące ze strony Krajowego Związku Banków Spółdzielczych oraz dokonano przeglądu literatury przedmiotu. Metoda, która została użyta w badaniu to analiza dokumentów.
EN
During the COVID-19 pandemic, cooperative banks in Poland undertook various CSR activities aimed at counteracting the effects of the crisis and protecting the interests of local communities. These banks showed commitment to local communities by providing financial support to local entrepreneurs and non-profit organizations that found themselves in a difficult situation. They allocated funds to support the medical sector by providing the necessary medical equipment, tests, and personal protective equipment for medical staff. CSR activities of cooperative banks had a significant impact on state security. By providing financial support to entrepreneurs and non-profit organizations, these banks contributed to maintaining jobs and economic stability. Support for the medical sector allowed for more effective management of the pandemic, providing appropriate protection measures and medical equipment for medical staff. The CSR activities of cooperative banks in Poland during the COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on state security. These banks were actively involved in helping local communities, supporting the medical sector, and conducting educational campaigns. Their involvement contributed to maintaining jobs, economic stability and increasing public awareness, which contributed to the overall security of the state during the difficult period of the COVID-19 pandemic. The article considers philanthropic projects carried out by a selected group of cooperatives, which are cooperative banks operating on the financial services market in Poland. The research problem is to understand what specific CSR activities undertaken by cooperative banks in Poland were aimed at supporting the local community and economy during the COVID-19 pandemic. The main purpose of this article is to indicate activities in the area of corporate social responsibility that were carried out by cooperative banks during the COVID-19 pandemic. To achieve the main objective, a source from the website of the National Association of Cooperative Banks was used and the literature on the subject was reviewed. The method that was used in the study was document analysis.
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EN
This study analyses the solutions adopted by the legislator in Poland in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic. Taking up the topic concerning civil rights and freedoms in the conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic was primarily dictated by the need for a post-factum assessment of the solutions adopted by the Polish legislator to combat the effects of the pandemic in terms of compliance with the Polish and international legal order.
PL
Od 2020 r. Wrocław jest w trakcie ogromnego procesu inwestycyjnego w obszarze infrastruktury tramwajowej. Ze względu na ogólnoświatowy kryzys surowcowy, wywołany szeregiem zdarzeń bezpośrednio lub pośrednio związanych z pandemią zdolności produkcyjne zakładów oraz dostępność surowców uległy drastycznemu zmniejszeniu. Część dostawców była zmuszona do czasowego lub całkowitego przerwania swojej działalności produkcyjnej. Zredukowana podaż doprowadziła również do drastycznego wzrostu cen, a w niektórych przypadkach do przerwania dostaw. W niniejszym artykule przeanalizowano wpływ zmian gospodarczo-politycznych na branżę transportową oraz inwestycyjną, a w rezultacie na transport publiczny oraz realizację inwestycji tramwajowych we Wrocławiu.
EN
Since 2020 Wroclaw has been undergoing a huge investment process in the area of a tram infrastructure. Due to the global raw material crisis, caused by a number of events directly or indirectly related to the pandemic, the production capacity of the plants and the availability of raw materials have been drastically reduced. Some suppliers were forced to temporarily or completely stop their production activities. The reduced supply has also led to a drastic increase in prices and, in some cases, to interruptions of supplies. This article analyzes the impact of economic and political changes on the transport and investment industry, and, as a result, on public transport and the implementation of tram investments in Wroclaw.
EN
There have been a number of changes in organizations in the context of anti-epidemic measures, so the authors aim to examine the level of engagement of civil servants before the pandemic and now and to examine the correlation between engagement and burnout syndrome. Based on a review and analysis of the available Czech and foreign literature, a questionnaire survey was prepared, and a survey was conducted on a sample of 984 respondents (civil servants) in the Czech Republic. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and a questionnaire assessing burnout syndrome were used. The data were processed using statistical methods. In addition, parametric paired t-test and one-way ANOVA were used. This study provides insight into the current state of the issue and possible changes caused by the covid-19 pandemic. For the observed sample of respondents, it was found that burnout syndrome had no impact on the engagement of civil servants; age had no impact on the burnout syndrome of civil servants, and the level of engagement of civil servants was higher in 2022 than before the pandemic. The novelty of the study is the focus on the measurements mentioned above, as similar research has not been conducted in the Czech Republic yet. The findings from this research may be useful for practitioners and the management of public institutions if a similar situation arises in the future.
PL
W organizacjach nastąpiło wiele zmian w kontekście przeciwdziałania epidemii, dlatego autorzy postawili sobie za cel zbadanie poziomu zaangażowania urzędników służby cywilnej przed pandemią i obecnie oraz zbadanie korelacji między zaangażowaniem a syndromem wypalenia zawodowego. Na podstawie przeglądu i analizy dostępnej literatury czeskiej i zagranicznej przygotowano ankietę kwestionariuszową i przeprowadzono badanie wśród 984 respondentów (urzędników służby cywilnej) w Czechach. Wykorzystano Utrechcką Skalę Zaangażowania w Pracę oraz kwestionariusz oceniający syndrom wypalenia zawodowego. Dane zostały przetworzone przy użyciu metod statystycznych. Ponadto zastosowano parametryczny sparowany t-test i jednokierunkową ANOVA. Niniejsze badanie zapewnia wgląd w aktualny stan zagadnienia i możliwe zmiany spowodowane pandemią COVID-19. W przypadku obserwowanej grupy respondentów stwierdzono, że syndrom wypalenia zawodowego nie miał wpływu na zaangażowanie urzędników służby cywilnej; wiek nie miał wpływu na syndrom wypalenia zawodowego urzędników służby cywilnej, a poziom zaangażowania urzędników służby cywilnej był wyższy w 2022 r. niż przed pandemią. Nowatorstwo badania polega na skupieniu się na wyżej wymienionych pomiarach, ponieważ podobne badania nie zostały jeszcze przeprowadzone w Czechach. Wyniki tego badania mogą być przydatne dla praktyków i kierownictwa instytucji publicznych, jeśli podobna sytuacja wystąpi w przyszłości.
EN
The present research aimed to explore the impact of sales promotions on consumer behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study analyzed consumer reactions to various promotion types such as bonuses, coupons, buy one get one free, vouchers, free samples, and price discounts. The aim was to investigate if these promotions positively influence consumer purchasing behavior and if the pandemic has induced over purchasing behavior due to panic. During the research, 541 randomly selected respondents from Azerbaijan and Poland were involved and the results showed that sales promotions have a positive effect on the consumer buying behavior and lead to an increase in purchases beyond the consumers’ actual needs. This is particularly true during times of economic uncertainty when consumers are searching for discounted products to save money and minimize household spending.
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Content available Crisis Communication During the Covid-19 Pandemic
EN
Crisis communication is an important element in the fight against the Covid-19 pandemic. It allows for efficient exchange of information between the government and society. The crisis situation caused by Sars-CoV-2 has a negative impact on human life and health as well as on the information environment. Institutions and specially appointed teams responsible for providing information are obliged to provide reliable information based on expert knowledge. A dangerous phenomenon is disinformation, which, combined with the pandemic, may cause an increase in the crisis situation and the risks associated with it. Crisis communication based on principles and goals will lead to overcoming the effect of panic, fear and ignorance among the public. The aim of the article is to present the methods of crisis communication during the Covid-19 pandemic. In order to draw conclusions about the researched problem, the method of analysis of sources conducted with the technique of desk research secondary data analysis was used. Existing materials, including developed reports and summaries, were analysed.
EN
Since March 11, 2020, the global community has faced the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic. In response, numerous countries, including the Republic of Lithuania, mandated the wearing of face masks to curb the virus’s spread. Yet, a section of the Lithuanian populace resisted this move, voicing concerns about the inconvenience of mask-wearing and potential privacy infringements. These concerns endured, even amidst debates on the masks’ effectiveness. This article explores how the Lithuanian public responded to mask-wearing protocols during the pandemic. Survey analysis highlighted a troubling trend: many individuals dispose of face masks with their regular trash, often without proper packaging. Most masks are sourced from pharmacies or are provided by employers and are typically thrown away after just one day of use. The data underscores a significant knowledge gap in correct mask disposal, as a significant portion ends up mingled with general household waste, without proper containment. Moreover, many people keep used masks in pockets or bags. Notably, during the pandemic, an estimated 2 mln adult Lithuanians may have generated roughly 15.24 Mg of hazardous plastic waste through mask disposal.
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