Ograniczanie wyników
Czasopisma help
Autorzy help
Lata help
Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników

Znaleziono wyników: 638

Liczba wyników na stronie
first rewind previous Strona / 32 next fast forward last
Wyniki wyszukiwania
Wyszukiwano:
w słowach kluczowych:  CFD
help Sortuj według:

help Ogranicz wyniki do:
first rewind previous Strona / 32 next fast forward last
EN
This paper investigates improving the leading-edge of a hydrofoil with sinusoidal protuberances based on its hydrodynamic performance. The original hydrofoil geometry was inspired by the leading edge of the flipper of a humpback whale. A multi-step optimization process was performed for a 634-021 hydrofoil. The free-form deformation technique defined the shape parameters as a variable design, and these parameters included the amplitude of the leading-edge protuberances, which ranged from 0 to 20% of the chord length, and the corrugate span, with 3 and 4 crests. The flow characteristics of a parametric hydrofoil were examined using a CFD solver, and the lift, drag, and lift-to-drag ratio (L/D) were computed as responses to the optimization cycle. To accomplish this, two design study methods were sequentially applied at different angles of attack. A full factorial design sweep tool was applied that went through all parameter value combinations, and an RBF-based surrogate model was constructed to investigate the system behavior. The results indicated the existence of an optimum design point, and the highest L/D ratio was determined to be 10.726 at a 12° angle of attack.
2
Content available Numerical modeling of RDE
EN
The idea of using the phenomenon of rotating detonation to propulsion has its roots in fifties of the last century in works of Adamson et al. and Nicholls et al. at the University of Michigan. The idea was recently reinvented and experimental research and numerical simulations on the Rotating Detonation Engine (RDE) are carried in numerous institutions worldwide, in Poland at Warsaw University of Technology (WUT) since 2004. Over the period 2010-2014 WUT and Institute of Aviation (IOA) jointly implemented the project under the Innovative Economy Operational Programme entitled ‘Turbine engine with detonation combustion chamber’. The goal of the project was to replace the combustion chamber of turboshaft engine GTD-350 with the annular detonation chamber. This paper is focused on investigation of the influence of a geometry and flow conditions on the structure and propagation stability of the rotating detonation wave. Presented results are in majority an outcome of the aforementioned programme, in particular authors’ works on the development of the in-house code REFLOPS USG and its application to simulation of the rotating detonation propagation in the RDE.
PL
Pomysł wykorzystania zjawiska wirującej detonacji do napędu był po raz pierwszy rozważany w latach pięćdziesiątych ubiegłego wieku przez zespoły badawcze Adamsona i Nichollsa na Uniwersytecie Michigan. Badania nad silnikiem z detonacyjną komorą spalania zostały wznowione po blisko 40 latach i dziś prace prowadzone są w wielu jednostkach naukowych na świecie, a w Polsce na Politechnice Warszawskiej od 2004 roku. W latach 2010-2014 Instytut Lotnictwa oraz Politechnika Warszawska wspólnie realizowały projekt w ramach Programu Operacyjnego Innowacyjna Gospodarka ‘Silnik Turbinowy z detonacyjną komorą spalania’. Projekt zakłada zastąpienie komory spalania turbowałowego silnika GTD-350 pierścieniową komorą detonacyjną. Artykuł skupia się na badaniach numerycznych wpływu geometrii oraz parametrów przepływu na strukturę i stabilność propagacji wirującej detonacji. Przedstawione wyniki są w większości wynikiem prac autorów nad rozwojem kodu REFLOPS USG w czasie trwania projektu i koncentruje się na rozwoju i implementacji wysokowydajnych metod symulacji silnika z detonacyjną komorą spalania oraz ich zastosowaniu w symulacjach numerycznych propagacji wirującej fali detonacyjnej w silniku RDE.
EN
Efficiency is a crucial parameter for an airplane to reduce both cost of operations and emission of pollutants. There are several airplane concepts that potentially allow for increasing the efficiency. A few of them were not investigated thoroughly enough yet. The inverted joined wing configuration, with the upper wing in front of the lower one is an example of such concept. Therefore, a project consisting of development of an experimental scaled demonstrator, and its wind tunnel and flight testing, was undertaken by consortium: Institute of Aviation, Warsaw University of Technology, Air Force Institute of Technology and a MSP company. Results led to a conclusion, that the inverted joined wing configuration allows to build an airplane with excellent performance, but its advantage against the conventional airplane is marginal because of large trimming drag of the configuration with relatively high position of the thrust vector in pusher configuration. It was applied because the demonstrator was a flying model of manned airplane and the tractor configuration would affect the pilot’s field of observation. However, in case of the UAV, this reason becomes insignificant. Therefore two configurations of tractor propulsion were tested to see, if their performance is better than the performance of original design.
PL
Doskonałość jest kluczowym parametrem samolotu decydującym o redukcji kosztów operacyjnych i ilości emitowanych zanieczyszczeń. Istnieje kilka układów samolotu, które potencjalnie pozwalają na zwiększenie doskonałości. Kilku z nich nie przebadano dotychczas dogłębnie. Konfiguracja odwróconego płata zespolonego, gdzie przednie skrzydło w układzie górnopłata łączy się z tylnym w układzie dolnopłata, jest dobrym przykładem takiej koncepcji. Stąd, projekt mający na celu zbudowanie skalowanego demonstratora oraz przetestowanie w tunelu aerodynamicznym i w locie, został wykonany przez powołane do tego celu konsorcjum w składzie: Instytut Lotnictwa, Politechnika Warszawska, Instytut Techniczny Wojsk Lotniczych i firma MSP. Rezultaty dowiodły, że zastosowanie odwróconej konfiguracji połączonych skrzydeł pozwala na zbudowanie samolotu o doskonałych osiągach. Jego przewaga nad samolotami konwencjonalnymi jest jednak marginalna ze względu na duży opór konfiguracji w warunkach równowagi. Wynika on z konieczności zrównoważenia momentu od relatywnie wysoko położonego napędu. Napęd tak umiejscowiono ze względu na to, że demonstrator był modelem zdalnie sterowanym samolotu załogowego, w którym przedni napęd znacząco ograniczałby pole widzenia załogi. W przypadku bezzałogowca argument ten traci na istotności. Dlatego wybrano i przebadano obliczeniowo dwie konfiguracje napędu ciągnącego, sprawdzając, czy ich osiągi poprawią się względem oryginalnej konstrukcji.
EN
Increasingly high demands on environmental protection are intensifying the development of sustainable construction. Ventilated facades can provide an energy-efficient alternative to standard facades, that is, external thermal insulation composite systems (ETICS). The article compares standard facades, which was a reference, to ventilated facades in two variants: closed joints and open joints. The comparison was made by means of numerical simulations of computational fluid dynamic (CFD), under conditions of high outside temperature and high sunshine. The results showed great benefits of using ventilated facades in such external climate conditions. It was also observed that the selection of the variant of ventilated facade in the system of close or open joints has minimal influence on thermal efficiency of the whole partition.
PL
Zjawiska lewitacji stanowią potencjalnie interesującą alternatywę dla wielu rozwiązań tradycyjnych i są przedmiotem szerokich badań. Istota lewitacji polega na równoważeniu siły grawitacji innym oddziaływaniem, np. magnetycznym. Jako przykład praktycznego wykorzystania tego fenomenu można wymienić chociażby łożyska wykorzystujące zjawisko lewitacji magnetycznej. Inną metodą uzyskania efektu lewitacji jest oddziaływanie falą akustyczną. Powstająca w tym przypadku siła nośna wywołana jest niezerową wypadkową sumarycznego ciśnienia wywołanego oddziaływaniem fali akustycznej na powierzchni lewitującego ciała. W pracy omówiono podstawy fizyczne zjawiska lewitacji akustycznej oraz potencjalny obszar jego zastosowań w energetyce. Przedstawiono również wstępne wyniki badań modelowych, obejmujących wyznaczenie wpływu podstawowych parametrów środowiskowych, w tym względnego położenia lewitującego ciała, częstotliwości fali akustycznej oraz wilgotności gazu roboczego, na wartości charakterystycznych parametrów zjawiska, w tym maksymalnej siły nośnej. Otrzymane wyniki wskazują na możliwość wykorzystania zjawiska przy zmiennych właściwościach fizycznych gazu roboczego, pod warunkiem ograniczenia masy lewitującej drobiny. Rezultaty wykazują jednocześnie graniczne wartości parametrów środowiskowych, które można uznać za akceptowalne w przypadku wykorzystania omawianego fenomenu. Zebrane dane uwidaczniają fundamentalną zależność siły nośnej od położenia lewitującej drobiny w kanale akustycznym oraz częstotliwości fali akustycznej. Wyniki badań prezentują także ograniczony wpływ wilgotności gazu na parametry zjawiska.
EN
Since the levitation phenomena are potentially interesting alternative to many traditional solutions, they state currently a subject of extensive research. The principle of the levitation consists in balancing the force of gravity with another interaction, e.g. magnetic. As an example of the use of this phenomenon, the bearings using the phenomenon of magnetic levitation might be mentioned. Another method of obtaining the effect of levitation is acoustic wave interaction. The lift force generated in this case is caused by a non-zero resultant vector of the total pressure caused by the impact of the acoustic wave on the surface of the levitating body. The paper discusses the physical foundations of the phenomenon of acoustic levitation and the potential area of its applications in energy. Preliminary results of model tests, including determination of the impact of basic environmental parameters, including the relative position of the levitating body, frequency of the wave and humidity of the gas, on the values of the characteristic parameters of the phenomenon, including the maximum lift are presented. The obtained results indicate the possibility of using the phenomenon with variable physical properties of the working gas, provided limited the mass of levitat-ing particles. Simultaneously, the results show the limit values of environmental parameters that can be considered acceptable when the phenomenon in question is used. The collected data show the fundamental dependence of the lift force on the position of levitating particles in the acoustic channel and the frequency of the acoustic wave. The test results also present a limited effect of gas humidity.
EN
Comfort of the train passengers is the main priority of modern mass rapid transit (MRT) management. Objective of this paper is to investigate the thermal comfort of the elevated MRT station in tropical climate. The first step of this study was to conduct literature review on human thermal comfort, environment ergonomics, computational fluid dynamic (CFD), computational aeroacoustics (CAA), and predicted mean vote (PMV). Air quality in elevated MRT station was measured based on several parameters: relative humidity, wind speed, temperature, and wind direction. A 3D model of MRT designed was used to describe existing condition prior to simulations with CFD and CAA softwares. Predicted mean vote is arranged based on the value of metabolism, wind speed, ambient temperature, mean radiant temperature, amount of insulation from clothing, and relative humidity. Whereas predicted percentage of dissatisfi ed (PPD) can be derived from PMV calculations. The analysis shows that the average PMV of existing condition for elevated outdoor MRT station is 3.6 (extremely hot) with PPD is 100% (all passengers felt discomfort). Some recommendations to reduce heat stress were addressed such as: adding plant, changing materials of the MRT station, and change the design of the elevated MRT station. Modifying open elevated MRT station into indoor elevated MRT station with installing six units of AC (2pk, ±23°C) can improve air quality and maintain the thermal comfort scale of PMV to be –0.04 (comfort) with PPD of < 8%. Based on the analysis, it can be concluded that the most suitable design for elevated MRT station in tropical climate (hot and humid) is indoor MRT station with pay attention to both direct and indirect heat exposure that hit the station.
EN
As a very important element of most water supply systems, valves are exposed to the effects of strong hydrodynamic forces. When exposed to large physical quantities, the valve and piping can be damaged, which could endanger the performance of a water supply system. This is the main reason why it is necessary to foresee and determine the maximum values of velocity, pressure and other physical quantities that can occur in the system under certain conditions. Predicting extreme conditions allows us to correctly size the valve for the expected conditions to which the valve might be exposed, which is also the main objective of this paper. One of the methods for predicting and determining extreme values on a valve is to perform a simulation with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This is exactly the method used in the preparation of this paper with the aim of gaining insight into the physical magnitudes for models of gate valves positioned inside a pipe under characteristic degrees of valve closure. The Ansys CFX 19.1 and Ansys Fluent 19.1 software was used to simulate the hydrodynamic analysis and obtain the required results. The hydrodynamic analysis was performed for four opening degrees of gate valve
EN
In order to quickly obtain practical ship forms with good resistance performance, based on the linear wave-making resistance theory, the optimal design method of ship forms with minimum total resistance is discussed by using the non-linear programming (NLP) method. Taking the total resistance as the objective function (the Michell integral is used to calculate the wave-making resistance and the equivalent plate friction resistance formula is used to calculate the frictional resistance), the hull surface offset as the design variable and appropriate displacement as the basic constraints, and considering the additional constraints, the hull bow shape and the whole ship are optimised, and an improved hull form is obtained. The resistance of the ship before and after optimisation is calculated by the CFD method to further evaluate the resistance reduction effect and performance after optimisation. Finally, an example of optimisation calculation of an actual high-speed ship is given. The obvious resistance reduction results confirm the reliability of the optimisation design method.
PL
W artykule przeprowadzono analizę wpływu potencjalnych źródeł ciepła występujących w pomieszczeniu, zabezpieczanym stałym urządzeniem gaśniczym gazowym, na rozkład stężenia gazu gaśniczego, a tym samym na skuteczność gaśniczą systemu. W badaniach wykorzystano komorę badawczą wyposażoną w stałe urządzenie gaśnicze na dwutlenek węgla oraz aparaturę umożliwiającą dokonywanie pomiarów zmian stężenia gazu gaśniczego w czasie. Badania zostały wykonane w trzech wariantach: przy braku obecności źródeł ciepła; z uwzględnieniem pożaru oraz z uwzględnieniem pożaru i stałego źródła ciepła, w postaci elektrycznej płyty grzewczej, umieszczonego w komorze badawczej. Na podstawie przeprowadzonych analiz stwierdzono znikomy wpływ źródeł ciepła na rozkład stężenia gazu gaśniczego w zaproponowanym układzie przestrzeni chronionej.
EN
This article undertakes to conduct an experimental analysis of the impact of potential heat sources occurring in the room protected by FES-gaseous on the distribution of extinguishing gas concentrations, and thus on the extinguishing efficiency of the system. The research used a test chamber equipped with a fixed gaseous extinguishing system on carbon dioxide and apparatus enabling measurements of changes of extinguishing gasconcentration over time. The tests were carried out in three variants: in the absence of heat sources, with the presence of fire and taking into account the fire and a constant heat source in the form of an electric hobin the test chamber. Based on the analyzes carried out, a slight impact of the heat sources on the distribution of extinguishing gas concentrations in the proposed arrangement of protected space was found.
PL
W artykule zaprezentowano ocenę nowego podejścia do przewidywania zmian ciśnienia podczas wyładowania gazu gaśniczego do pomieszczenia chronionego stałymi urządzeniami gaśniczymi gazowymi za pomocą symulacji numerycznych CFD (ang. Computational Fluid Dynamics). Program badawczy składał się z dwóch etapów: pierwszy poświęcony był eksperymentalnym pomiarom zmiany ciśnienia podczas uwolnienia gazu gaśniczego do komory badawczej w skali rzeczywistej (70 m3) z zastosowaniem otworu odciążającego. Drugim etapem było wykonanie symulacji CFD pozwalających wyznaczyć zmiany ciśnienia podczas wyładowania gazu do reprezentowanej numerycznie komory testowej. Oszacowanie poprawności i użyteczności modelu CFD polegało na porównaniu wyników CFD ze standardowymi obliczeniami i pomiarami eksperymentalnymi.
EN
The aim of the article is to investigate and evaluate a new approach for prediction of changes of pressure during gas discharge inside the room protected by fixed gaseous extinguishing system by means of CFD simulations (ang. Computational Fluid Dynamics).The research program consisted of two stages. The first stage was dedicated to the experimental measurements of pressure changes during extinguishing gas discharge into the test chamber in a real scale (70 m3) with use of relief opening. The next step was about performing CFD simulations allowing to determine pressure changes during gas discharge into the numerically represented test chamber. Estimation of the correctness and usefulness of the CFD model was based on a comparison of the CFD results with standard calculations and experimental measurements.
11
EN
This paper analyzes the instantaneous and averaged velocity field in the area of the Dar- rieus wind turbine. The analyzed two-dimensional rotor model consists of two NACA0018 airfoils and a rotating shaft. The working parameters of the rotor correspond to modera- te aerodynamic loads of the blades. The research has been carried out with an innovative method called the Actuator Cell Model. The initial results obtained were compared with the author’s earlier results obtained with the SST k-! model and with experimental studies taken from the literature.
12
Content available remote Thermal energy storage in rock bed - CFD analysis
EN
This article reports on an analysis of the possibility of storing thermal energy in a rock bed. The calculations were made in Ansys CFX 18.0 CFD. The analysis determined the charging time of a packed bed of granite rocks in variable flow conditions for the assumed geometry of the energy storage system. The model was 2-dimensional, consisting of two domains connected by an interface. The packed bed was modelled using a porous model approach. The inlet velocity was varied in the range 0.25-4 m/s. The total charging time was 70 to 1100 min, depending on inlet velocity.
EN
Pathological conditions of a male urethra, including fibrosis, have a mechanical background along the entire length of the urethra. They may be caused by excessive deformation of the urethra locally or globally. The condition of prolonged overload causes abnormal tissue remodelling and, consequently, the formation of a thick layer of scar tissue differentiated from the connective tissue of the urethra. This tissue, which has higher mechanical properties, is not highly deformable and therefore, causes a decrease in the diameter of the urethra, which results in conditions that disturb the natural flow of urine. In this paper, it was decided to determine the deformation conditions in the proximal part of the urethra. The study was conducted in three main stages. Transverse sections of the animal urethral tissues were prepared in order to examine mechanical properties and perform histological examinations. On the basis of these examinations, material models which fitted best for the experimental results were sought. Material constants of the Mooney-Rivlin material model with the best fit ratio were determined for further research. On the basis of histological photographs, a geometrical and numerical model of the urethra was developed. The urethra was tested in a flat state of deformation. The strain and stress fields of the Caucha tensor were examined. The methodology of testing the dynamics of the urine flow in the highly deformable urethra was proposed. This is important for the analysis of the influence of at excessive pressure on pathological tissue remodelling leading to fibrosis.
EN
The article presents the mechanisms of heat exchange in building partitions along with a description of the phenomena occurring there.The methods of heat transport on selected examples of the construction of sandwich building walls were presented and discussed. A review of the methods allowing to determine the heat fluxvalue by means of analytical methods and simulations based on numerical analyzes was carried out. The methodology of solving thermal problems has been presented, indicating the complexity of the phenomena occurring at the contact points of surfaces, for which the correct characteristics should be selected in more than one selected form of determining temperature distributions.Heat transport simulation was performed in ANSYS Fluent 2020 R2 software. The value of the heat flux density flowing through the outer wall of a single-family house located in Lublin, Poland was analytically determined. Three different structural wall solutions were adopted: one, two and three-layer. The obtained results were presented in a tabular manner, allowing for a clear verification of the correctness of the calculations performed with both selected methods.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono mechanizmy wymiany ciepła w przegrodach budowlanych wraz z opisem zjawisk tam zachodzących. Przybliżonoi omówiono sposoby transportu ciepła na wybranych przykładach konstrukcji warstwowych ścian budowlanych. Przeprowadzono przegląd metod pozwalających na wyznaczenie wartości gęstości strumienia ciepłana drodze metod analitycznych oraz symulacji opartych na analizach numerycznych. Przedstawiono metodologięrozwiązywania zagadnień cieplnych wskazując na złożoność zjawisk zachodzących w miejscach kontaktu powierzchnidla których poprawnej charakterystyki należy przyjąć więcej niż jedną wybraną formę wyznaczenia rozkładów temperatury. Wykonano symulację transportu ciepła w oprogramowania ANSYS Fluent 2020 R2 oraz wyznaczono analitycznie wartość gęstości strumienia ciepła przepływającego przez ścianę zewnętrzną domu jednorodzinnego posadowionego w Lublinie w Polsce. Przyjęto trzy różne pod względem konstrukcyjnym rozwiązania ścian: jedno, dwu i trój warstwowe. Otrzymane wyniki przedstawione zostały w sposób tabelaryczny umożliwiając przejrzystą weryfikację poprawności wykonanych obliczeń obydwoma wybranymi metodami.
EN
Investigations of the flow in a building system are crucial for understanding the fundamental basis of the aerodynamic structure characteristics. The CFD simulations were conducted using ANSYS Fluent 17.0 software, which solves the Navier-Stokes equations in conjunction with different turbulence models and by a finite volume discretization method. Particularly, a comparison between the experimental and standard k-ω, BSL k-ω, SST k-ω, standard k-ɛ, RNG k-ɛ and Realizable k-ɛ turbulence model has been developed. The comparison between the founded results affirms that the standard k-ω turbulence model is the most efficient to model the air flow in the present application. Indeed, the numerical results compared using the experimental data developed in the LASEM laboratory confirms the validity of the numerical method. The good agreements validate the considered computational method.
EN
FEM (finite element method) is an essential and powerful numerical method that can explicitly optimize the design process of electrical devices. In this paper, the employment of FEM tools such as SolidWorks, COMSOL and ANSYS is proposed in order to aid electrical apparatuses engineering and modeling – those are arc chambers of modular circuit breakers. Procured models of arc chambers have been undergoing simulations concerning heating, electric potential distribution, electric charge velocity and traverse paths. The data acquired has been juxta-positioned against experimental data procured in the Short-Circuit Laboratory, Warsaw University of Technology. The reflection of the theoretical approach was clearly noted in the experimental results. Mutual areas of the modeled element expressed the same physical properties and robustness errors when tested under specific conditions – faithfully reflecting those which were experimented with. Moreover, the physical phenomena essential for electrical engineering could be determined already at the model stage. This procedure proved highly valuable during designing/engineering work in terms of material economy.
EN
The work is devoted to modelling Twin Fresh ventilator efficiency. The main aim is to simulate heat exchanged in a heat regenerator in variable conditions. The mathematical model is based on Navier-Stokes equations for laminar flow. The model is designed to achieve an adequate time for calculation and sufficient precision. The results show high efficiency of heat recovery in the order of 97.4%.
EN
The aerodynamics of powerboats used in inshore powerboat racing has a significant impact on their performance. The aerodynamic drag forces generated on individual elements of this type of boats were tested. The solid model of the boat developed in the CAD software was used for the calculations. The computational grid was generated, as well as the boundary conditions and the turbulence model, were determined. On the basis of such assumptions, the numerical calculations were carried out using the CFD method. The results from the numerical simulations consist of a description of the velocity and pressure distribution around the tested object and identification of the drag force on the components of the powerboat with a description of the relationship between them. Additionally, the variation of the drag force as a function of speed in the range from 0 to 60 m/s was presented. The tests were performed for 5 values of the angle of attack of the boat to the surface of water in the range from 0° to 12°. The scope of the research allowed for the development of a drag force map depending on the defined parameters. The test results can be used to optimize the shape of the boat structure in order to reduce the aerodynamic drag generated on its individual elements.
EN
This article focuses on the cavitation mechanism from the perspective of utilizing the effect of gas desorption from the solution with nucleation of gas bubbles. This effect is an innovative approach to improving the operating parameters, including emissions parameters, in the compression-ignition engines. The article presents the concept of applying this process in practice and draws attention to the problems associated with its practical implementation. With regard to this issue, an original pump design with a hypocycloid power transmission, enabling application of the desorption effect, was presented. The second part of the article focuses on evaluating the possibility of cavitation occurring in the pump. This task was realized by simulating the cavitating flows in the pump’s return valve – the site at the greatest risk of formation of the first nuclei of this unfavorable phenomenon.
EN
Low controllability under strong winds presents a problem for the operation of inland vessels, which can be improved using passive bow rudders and transverse thrusters. Bow thrusters can sufficiently improve the manoeuvrability at low speeds, but an unsolved problem is course maintaining and yaw checking of a vessel at medium and high speeds. This paper proposes the use of a bow steering system in which the bow rotors generate a Magnus force. The first physical test model of the system showed promising results and that much more research must be performed before this system can be used in industrial applications. The paper presents the results of a numerical study on the flow field generated by bow rotors. The first stage of a ship’s turn using the bow rotors was used to determine the dependence of the expected steering force on the inflow velocity and rotational speed of the rotors. The influence of the flow generated by the bow steering system on river banks and quay walls during manoeuvres was also discussed.
first rewind previous Strona / 32 next fast forward last
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.