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EN
The publication covers the complex process of analyzing the accuracy of mapping models produced in AM (Additive Manufacturing) processes with a thermoplastic material – FFF (Fused Filament Fabrication) and polymerization of light-curing resin – PolyJet. The research was conducted with the use of an advanced optical measuring system – the GOM Atos 3D scanner. The part selected for the research in question was the water pump body as a representative example of an element with adequate dimensional and shape conditions (high degree of folding and geometric differentiation) allowing, based on the results of coordinate measurements determined in the research process, to define the potential area of application of AM models made of thermoplastic material and resin hardened with UV light. The performed tests showed the accuracy of individual AM methods at a level within the range declared by machine manufacturers. However, the PolyJet body is characterized by a much higher accuracy of the shape mapping compared to the FFF body. The dimensional accuracy is also higher for the resin model in relation to the thermoplastic model, which results primarily from the thickness of the elementary layer of the model material applied by the printing module defined for individual incremental processes – 16 μm for RGD 720 and 0.2 mm for ABS. Detailed elaboration and analysis of the research results are presented in this publication.
EN
This paper investigates the effect of additive manufacturing parameters on the manufacturing quality of selected gear mechanism components. Three input variables, and two output variables were determined. The result was the determination of the most optimal combination of key parameters and the determination of regression equations. The concept of manufacturing objects of a very complex shape, by any person, under various conditions through the use of a low-cost device became the basis for this thesis topic. Curing time, layer thickness, and lift speed are among the basic parameters, with a large range of manipulation. A hypothesis was formulated that these three parameters are crucial to produce a part with the smallest possible deviations from the computer model. A handheld scanner was used to scan the samples and compare them with the CAD model. Based on the study, optimal parameters for layer thickness, curing time and lift speed were proposed.
EN
This paper is concerned with the possibility of applying modern non-contact methods for assessing the wear as a result of tribological interaction between working bodies and the soil. An original method for wear testing using the test space discretization based on the 3D scanning technology was employed. A localized volumetric wear coefficient was proposed, allowing for wear analysis and improving the accuracy of the Holm-Archard model. The coefficient of local volumetric wear shows the influence of the nominal shape and the slip trajectory of the abrasive particle along the elementary surface on the intensity of wear. At local volumetric wear coefficient > 0.3, this factor determines the intensity of surface wear. Volumetric wear characteristics are the basis for prediction of wear consequences for different materials and techniques of reinforcement of working surfaces, subject to intensive wear in abrasive soil mass. The reliability of the study is confirmed by the comparison with the mass method for wear assessment and the results of the application of the proposed method for different conditions of abrasive wear of operating parts.
EN
A specified weight-cutting system for irregular solid materials such as rubber is important for industrial engineering. Currently, the workers’ experience is used, which has low accuracy and efficiency. A specified weight cutting system for irregular solid material based on 3D scanning is proposed in this paper, which aims to overcome the inaccuracy and inefficiency of the manual cutting process. Firstly, the surface of the irregular solid material is scanned by a tracking 3D laser scanner, and a triangular mesh file is generated. Secondly, the defects of the 3D model are repaired by reverse engineering, and then the 3D model file of the irregular objects is generated. Finally, the cutting position of the specified weight solid material is calculated by the calculation algorithm in UG software. In short, this research creates a new method for processing data collected by the 3D scanner, by working jointly with multiple devices and software, facilitating the cutting of irregular solid materials with specified weights. Additionally, the system has the advantage of accuracy and efficiency over the experience of workers.
EN
Increase of automation and autonomy of production is the latest trend incorporated into Industry 4.0 objectives. Production autonomy is very desirable in the field of damaged parts replacement. To fulfill this goal numerous reverse engineering systems have been developed that support geometry recognition from the 3D scan data. This study is focused on converting non-parametric geometry representation of shaft-type elements into a CAD model with a rebuilt feature tree. Algorithms are based on the analysis of parallel cross-sections. The proposed system is also capable of identification of additional geometric features typical for 2.5 axes milling such as pockets, islands and outer walls. The proposed algorithms are optimized to increase efficiency of the process. Initial identification parameters are selected with respect to defined criteria, e.g., identification accuracy, computing power and scanning accuracy. Described algorithms can be implemented in reverse engineering systems.
EN
Modern 3D scanners can measure the geometry with high accuracy and within a short time. In turn, currently produced CNC machine tools allow for very accurate manufacturing; however, processes beyond the machining cycle remain time-consuming. This paper presents the idea and experimental tests of the scanning system in the CNC machine, which allows to speed up on-machine measurements, align clouds of 3D data points with an accuracy close to that of the machine itself, and finally set the workpiece coordinate system for machining. This modern approach is in line with Industry 4.0, combining the terms of data processing, machine vision, manufacturing automation, and human-machine interfaces. The future implementation of the proposed system as an interchangeable tool will allow performing autonomous measurements, inspection, and supervision of the workspace, without engaging the machine operator. The system calibration and experimental results using the industrial 3D scanner and CNC machine are described.
EN
The air gaps underneath clothing have a great influence on the thermal regulation of the human body. The distribution of the air gaps depends on the shape of the human body as well as on clothing style, fit, and deformation properties. This paper reports on the influence of clothing fit on thermophysiological parameters of the human body through thermal simulation. Four different fits of jacket and a test person were considered for the investigation and for simulation purposes. The results of the simulation concluded that different thermal regulations of the human body were exhibited for different fits of the jacket, which is due to distinct air gaps between the human body and clothing for each fit of the jacket. This research work presents a fast method to predict the influence of clothing fit on thermal comfort, which is usually studied by a time-consuming, laborious method – the wear trial.
EN
The paper presents and sums up the research and technical aspects of the modernization of the cutting tool of the dredger. Improper adjustment of the cutting elements not adjusted to the characteristics of excavated material is not an uncommon situation, causing versatile geological conditions. Relocation of the machines from one pit to another may result in the significant influence on the excavation process (wear, output, etc.). Common practice is the field try and error approach to obtain desired machine performance. In the paper authors present the approach with aid of cutting-edge technologies. Coupled DEM and kinematic simulations supported by the reverse engineering technologies of laser scanning were the fundamental drivers for final adjustments of the cutting tool at its present operational conditions.
EN
This article presents the significance of laser scanning as a method of acquiring spatial data and the significance of this method during the process of survey of historic monuments. The authors of the paper focus on the survey of the postern located under the eastern slope of the Kłodzko Fortress and connecting the town with the upper levels of the fortification. With the use of laser scanning, a three-dimensional image of the postern was obtained. Based on the results of measurements, it is possible to specify the dimensions of tunnel elements which are difficult to measure, such as the buried fragment of the postern and the height of the embankment located above the tunnel. The research conducted by the authors of the article has been juxtaposed with the available archival materials concerning this part of the Kłodzko Fortress.
PL
Niniejszy artykuł przedstawia znaczenie skaningu laserowego jako metody pozyskiwania danych przestrzennych oraz znaczenia tej metody podczas procesu inwentaryzacji obiektów zabytkowych. Autorzy tekstu skupiają się na badaniach inwentaryzacyjnych dotyczących poterny znajdującej się pod wschodnim zboczem Twierdzy Kłodzko i łączącej miasto z górnymi poziomami. Wykorzystując do czynności pomiarowych skaning laserowy uzyskano trójwymiarowy obraz poterny. Bazując na wykonanych pomiarach możliwe jest sprecyzowanie pomiarów dotyczących elementów tunelu o utrudnionej możliwości pomiaru jak np.: zasypanego fragmentu poterny oraz wysokości nasypu ziemnego zlokalizowanego nad tunelem. Przeprowadzone przez autorów tekstu badania zestawione zostały z dostępnymi materiałami archiwalnymi dotyczącymi tej części Twierdzy Kłodzko.
EN
This article presents architectural studies of the state of preservation of the face of the wall of the Kłodzko Fortress on the basis of the surveying works performed since 2016. These works include measurement of the entire fortress with the use of laser scanning. The analysis was carried out on the face of the wall, gradually degrading due to external factors and incorrect protection of the masonry. For detailed analysis, clouds of points from the period of 2 years (2017-2018) were used, taking into account the discussed northern part of the wall of the Great Tenaille (Wielkie Kleszcze). The paper explains the importance of the surveying process for the conservation works aiming at protection of the historical tissue from further degradation.
PL
Niniejszy artykuł przedstawia badania architektoniczne stanu zachowania lica muru Twierdzy Kłodzko bazując na prowadzonych pracach inwentaryzacyjnych od 2016 roku. Prace te obejmują pomiar z wykorzystaniem skaningu laserowego całego założenia fortecznego. Analizie poddane jest lico muru, stopniowo degradowane poprzez czynniki zewnętrzne oraz niepoprawne zabezpieczenie elementu murowego. Do szczegółowej analizy wykorzystane zostały chmury punktów z okresu 2 lat (2017-2018) uwzględniające omawiany północny fragment muru Wielkich Kleszczy. W tekście przedstawione jest znaczenie procesu inwentaryzacyjnego przy pracach konserwatorskich mających na celu zabezpieczenie dalszej degradacji zabytkowej tkanki.
EN
The rapid development of CAD 3D systems has led to the development of solutions enabling the physical achievement of the designed object, already at the design stage. Such a solution is the rapid prototyping method, intended for fast, precise and repeatable production thanks to additive technology. The first basic step of this method is a 3D scan. It is a technique that analyzes a real object in order to collect data about its basic (geometric) and additional (e.g. color) features. The collected data is used to generate three-dimensional, virtual models. Scanning can be performed in various ways using different devices. The aim of the article is to review the available technologies for digitizing 3D objects and to compare them in the context of individual application areas. It presents selected tools and software that will economically and efficiently increase the range of applications of digitization methods in the production process and offering various services on the market.
EN
The case being studied is one of Bolivia’s most important monuments – El Fuerte de Samaipata, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. This paper proposes a new workflow for the two most important aspects of studies on cultural heritage – detailed documentation and analysis. The former includes the well-known techniques of digital photogrammetry and structured light scanning. The latter comprises polynomial texture mapping (PTM) and reflectance transformation imaging (RTI), both of which have been used since the beginning of this century. The novelty proposed by the authors is the transfer of part of the data collection process from the physical environment to the virtual space. Despite some technical problems, by eliminating the tedious and time-consuming process of shooting photos in the field using specific lighting angles, this new workflow proved to be very efficient, particularly in documenting and interpreting badly preserved examples of bas-relief rock art.
PL
El Fuerte de Samaipata to jeden z najważniejszych zabytków Boliwii wpisanych na Listę Światowego Dziedzictwa UNESCO. W artykule przedstawiono dwa sposoby dokumentacji, szczególnie istotne zarówno dla badań, jak i ochrony dziedzictwa kulturowego. Pierwszy obejmuje dobrze znane techniki cyfrowej fotogrametrii i skanowania światłem strukturalnym. Drugi dotyczy zastosowania technik polynomial texture mapping (PTM) oraz reflectance transformation imaging (RTI). Obie techniki są wprawdzie stosowane już od początku tego wieku, ale nowością zaproponowaną przez autorów jest przeniesienie części procesu zbierania danych ze środowiska fizycznego do przestrzeni wirtualnej. Mimo pewnych problemów technicznych, dzięki wyeliminowaniu żmudnego i czasochłonnego etapu fotografowania w terenie przy użyciu dokładnie zdefiniowanych kątów oświetlenia, zaproponowana metoda okazała się bardzo wydajna, szczególnie w dokumentowaniu i interpretacji silnie zniszczonych przykładów rytów naskalnych.
14
EN
This paper concerns El Fuerte de Samaipata – one of Bolivia’s most important monuments inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List. The study describes the hardware and software used in the project “Architectural examination and complex documentation of Samaipata (Fuerte de Samaipata/Bolivia) site from the World Heritage List”, as well as the workflow adopted for the terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) of the site. It also explains the important role that TLS played in the entire project.
PL
Artykuł dotyczy El Fuerte de Samaipata – jednego z najważniejszych zabytków Boliwii wpisanego na Listę Światowego Dziedzictwa UNESCO. Opisano aparaturę i oprogramowanie zastosowane w projekcie „Badania architektoniczne i kompleksowa dokumentacja stanowiska Samaipata (Fuerte de Samaipata/Boliwia) z Listy Światowego Dziedzictwa”, a także metodologię przyjętą dla naziemnego skanowania laserowego (TLS). Wyjaśniono również ważną rolę, jaką w całym projekcie odgrywa TLS.
EN
This paper describes the process of creating a digital model of spiroid gears used in the defense industry. This is where the precise measurement of the parts with the highest requirements for accuracy is of great importance. The construction of a computational model of a physical object was carried out using an optical three-dimensional scanner. Based on the cloud of points obtained in the process of scanning, a spatial digital model reflecting the geometry of an existing element was developed. Polygonization and mesh reconstruction allowed to create a finite element method model that enabled the precise reproduction of the scanned object. The created model was subsequently used to conduct appropriate analysis and simulation to verify the correctness and possible modification of the construction of both elements of spiroid gears: worm thread and face gear
16
Content available remote Pomiary geometryczne łapek sprężystych przytwierdzeń szyn kolejowych
PL
W artykule zaprezentowano i zinterpretowano wyniki pomiarów geometrycznych łapek sprężystych typu SB4, stosowanych w przytwierdzeniach szyn kolejowych. Pomiary wykonano zgodnie z wytycznymi opracowanymi przez PKP PLK S.A., jednak przy użyciu metody bezkontaktowej. Polega ona na zastosowaniu optycznego skanera 3D oraz oprogramowania do kontroli jakości wymiarowej. Tym sposobem dokonano zautomatyzowanego i dokładnego sprawdzenia wszystkich wymiarów tolerowanych, ujętych w dokumentacji rysunkowej łapki SB4. Wykazano, że niektóre wymiary znacząco odbiegają od nominalnych, wskutek czego geometria rzeczywistych łapek jest częściowo uproszczona. Perspektywę dalszych prac autorzy dostrzegają w znaczącym zwiększeniu populacji badanych łapek, jak i obserwacji zmian ich geometrii w warunkach eksploatacyjnych.
EN
Measuring results of SB4 clips geometry that are used to fasten rails to sleepers have been presented in this paper. The measurements were carried out in compliance with suggestions presented by PKP PLK S.A., with the use of contactless method. This method uses 3D optical scanner along with dedicated software to precisely measure the geometry of the clip. It allowed authors to check if all dimensions of the clip whose parameters are specified in its data sheet are within tolerance limits. It turns out that some dimensions significantly differ from their nominal values. It results from the fact that the geometry of real clips is partially simplified. In the future, authors are going to increase the population of examined clips and the period of observation of the change of their dimensions.
PL
W artykule opisano wdrożoną w firmie Tricomed S.A., wspomaganą komputerowo metodę wytwarzania opasek uciskowych, przeznaczonych do rehabilitacji blizn pooparzeniowych i pooperacyjnych. Etapy procesu technologicznego obejmują: skanowanie 3D, pobieranie parametrów sterujących autogenerującym szablonem CAD z pliku STL, przeliczenie wartości parametrów sterujących w zależności od stopnia kompresji i rodzaju dzianiny, generowanie plików DXF, będących daną wejściową dla maszyny tnącej wykroje, oraz szycie.
EN
The article describes a computer-aided manufacturing of compression garments used for rehabilitation of burn and post-operative scars implemented in Tricomed S.A company. Steps of manufacturing processes include 3D scanning, obtaining control parameters for a self-generating CAD templates from STL file, conversion control parameters depending on the degree of compression and type of knitwear, generating DXF files for the cutting machine, sewing.
EN
A functional modelling of supportive clothing is proposed in this paper. Body forms and measures were analysed. The digitisation of the human body was performed by 3D scanning, and based on point clouds measurements were taken. and the forms of body parts for which the pattern of clothing was developed, were defined. Pattern parts of the male supportive underwear model proposed were translated into numeric form, and a program was developed in the C++ programming language through which the pattern parts are adjusted to individual measurements and to the material used for the compression of parts of the body. Since clothing can be used post-operatively as well, an analysis of the biodegradable Tencel® materials proposed to be used for these applications was conducted. Material samples were subjected to steam sterilisation at 134 °C, after which tests of microbial barrier permeability were performed using the new method. Aerobic bacterial endospores were used. Based on the samples tested and their properties, the construction of supportive medical clothing which, by their design, enhance the functionality and possibility of preventing infections of a body part subjected to surgery was carried out.
PL
W artykule zaproponowano projektowanie funkcjonalnej bielizny męskiej. Analizowano kształt ciała i wymiary. Digitalizacja ludzkiego ciała została przeprowadzona za pomocą skanowania 3D, wykonano pomiary na podstawie „chmur” punktów i określono kształt ciała, dla których opracowano wzór bielizny. Proponowane fragmenty męskiego modelu bielizny zostały przekształcone na postać numeryczną, a program został opracowany w języku programowania C++, dzięki czemu części wzoru zostały dostosowane do indywidualnych pomiarów i materiału użytego do kompresji ciała. Ponieważ bielizna funkcjonalna może być również używana pooperacyjnie, przeprowadzono analizę materiałów biodegradowalnych Tencel® proponowanych do zastosowania w tych przypadkach. Próbki materiału poddano sterylizacji parowej w temperaturze 134 °C, po czym przeprowadzono testy przepuszczalności barier mikrobiologicznych przy użyciu nowej metody. W oparciu o przebadane próbki i ich właściwości wykonano funkcjonalną bieliznę medyczną, która poprzez swoją funkcjonalną konstrukcję poprawiła możliwość zapobiegania zakażeniom części ciała po zabiegach chirurgicznych.
19
Content available remote The use of 3D scanning technology in measurements of welding distortions
PL
Przedstawiono podstawową problematykę związaną z pomiarem odkształceń spawalniczych metodami skanowania 3D. Dokonano przeglądu dostępnych rozwiązań przemysłowych na rynku skanerów 3D oraz wykonano analizę wyników badań eksperymentalnych wielkości odkształceń stali o wysokiej wytrzymałości S960QL napawanej metodą SAW. Dobrano technikę skanowania dla prostokątnych próbek stalowych, wykorzystując następujące technologie: Kinect dla systemu Windows v1 oraz v2, DAVID SLS-3. Podczas pomiarów odkształceń wykorzystano skaner GOM ATOS III Triple Scan. Wyniki badań uzasadniają zastosowanie przemysłowego skanera 3D do pomiaru wielkości odkształceń, który pozwala na rejestrację najmniejszych różnic pomiędzy próbką przed i po napawaniu.
EN
The article describes primary issues related to measurements of welding distortions performed using 3D scanning methods. The study includes a review of available industrial 3D scanning solutions. The research involved the experimental investigation of high-strength steels containing welding distortions as well as the SAW surfacing of steel S960QL steel performed using various welding parameters. The research-related tests included the selection of an appropriate 3D scanning technology. During the tests, steel plates were measured using GOM ATOS III Triple Scan and 3D scans were obtained using Kinect for Windows v1 and v2, DAVID SLS-3. The research results demonstrated that the choice of a metrology-grade 3D scanner used for measurements of weld distortions ensured the obtainment of required accuracy of measurements.
EN
The article presents the techniques of AE and thermography to assess the level, volume and shape of sludge inside a storage tank. The thermographic method is used to assess the amount of sludge (height) along the tank's shell. In this case, the technique AE is used in a different way than usual. A special sensor system was used on the wall and roof of the tank. The sensors generate AE pulses in accordance with the established algorithm. The algorithm allows the recording of AE signals as a result of propagation and reflection of AE waves (including deposits) in the stored product between the sensors. Based on differences in the wave propagation time, sludge thickness is calculated at various points on the bottom of the tank.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono techniki AE i termografii do oceny poziomu, objętości i kształtu osadów w zbiorniku magazynowym. Metoda termograficzna służy do oceny poziomu osadu (wysokości) wzdłuż płaszcza zbiornika. Technika AE jest w tym przypadku wykorzystywana w inny sposób niż zwykle. Zastosowano specjalny układ czujników na ściance i dachu zbiornika. Czujniki generują impulsy AE zgodnie z ustalonym algorytmem, który pozwala na rejestrację sygnałów AE w wyniku propagacji fal i odbicia fal AE (w tym od osadów) w magazynowanym produkcie pomiędzy czujnikami. W oparciu o różnice w czasie propagacji fal są obliczane wysokości osadu w różnych punktach na dnie zbiornika.
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