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EN
The article presents the issue of the transport of goods in relation to sea transport. Sea transport has been known to mankind for a long time. Currently, maritime transport is not limited only to the transport of goods and/or passengers along sea routes, which are carried out between seaports using appropriately adapted means of transport. It is a branch of transport, which consists of a very good knowledge of navigation, highly specialized staff, and a wide range of containers for transporting various types of cargo, often requiring specialized conditions. In addition, sea transport is perfectly combined with intermodal transport, so that in the end, the transport process is the most beneficial for all participants, i.e., the customers, sellers, distributors, and manufacturers. The main purpose of the article was to present the volume of goods transported in this branch of transport. The article, after introducing the issue, presents the classification of sea vessels, refers to the market of maritime transport services and its conditions for further development, and analyzes the overall volume of goods transported in the seaports of Gdańsk and Gdynia against the background of other Polish seaports in the years 2011-2021.
EN
An important role in the effective functioning and promotion of transport is played not only by transport and forwarding companies, but also by non-governmental organizations, closely cooperating with the industry and representing them in decision-making bodies. The article presents selected organizations representing the transport sector at the global and community forums. The analysis covers the influence of these organizations on establishing international law, unifying technical, organizational, operational and economic solutions, and the preparation of shipping documents. The activities aimed at standardization and unification of land transport for the purposes of intermodal transport were also discussed.
EN
The activities of transport operations exhibit both positive and negative outcomes. Its negative effects on human health and the sustainability of the environment are of interest in this study. As a result, the study investigated the influence of transport operations on the changing local climate in Nigeria's southwestern cities. It investigated motorists' socioeconomic status (SES) and travel characteristics; the salient components of transport operations contributing to greenhouse gas emissions (GHG emissions); the effect of GHG emissions from transport operations on the local climate; transport externalities contributing to local temperature changes; and the effect of GHG emissions from transport operations on human health in the research location. This study employed a cross-sectional research design, utilizing systematic sampling to collect 580 copies of questionnaires administered to commercial motorists found in queues across two randomly selected parks in each capital city within the region. Both descriptive and inferential statistics (ANOVA and Linear Regression) were used to analyze the data. The study found that 60% of the motorists were middle-aged (aged between 36 and 45). The majority (70%) drive an average of 100 to 150 km, and premium motor spirit (PMS) is the primary source of energy for 95% of them. The nature and condition of the fuel in use are the top-ranked components of transport operations contributing to GHG emissions. The result of the ANOVA revealed a significant variation among the components of transport operations contributing to GHG emissions (F = 28.302, p = 0.000<0.05). Meanwhile, the linear regression results indicate that vehicular GHG emissions have a significant impact on the local climate (F1⁄578=30.091, p=0.000<0.05). Traffic congestion and bad road conditions were the top-ranked transport externalities contributing to the changing local climate. The most common effects of GHG emissions on human health were headaches and difficulty breathing. Considering these findings, this study suggests the best tactics to lessen the effects of GHG emissions from transport operations, which adversely affect the local climate and human health in the study area.
EN
Currently, the branch of air transport is one of the most dynamically developing branches of transport. Modern air transport systems provide relatively high quality of services in terms of satisfaction, preferences, and tastes of potential recipients, passengers, and freight operators. Air transport systems use highly advanced technologies, equipment, infrastructure, and appropriate rules and procedures in order to ensure the desired quality of services. The article presents an analysis of the volume of passenger and cargo transport in air transport on the example of the Warszawa Okęcie International Airport (Poland). The analysis covered the years from 2011 to 2021. In addition, the market of air services, and air connections with Warszawa Okęcie International Airport were characterized.
EN
Rail transport is one of the branches of transport included in the group of land transport, and its operation is related to the transport of people and cargo by means of rail transport on a specially designated railroad built for this purpose. The article presents the classification of transported cargo in rail transport, the characteristics of the rail transport market in Europe, as well as the results of the analysis of the rail transport volume in Poland in 2010-2021. This analysis included an assessment of the following features: mass of transported cargo, performed transport and operational work, the average distance of cargo transport for a group of cargo transported by rail and the volume of intermodal transport. The obtained results allowed to conclude that the transport of goods by rail is systematically increasing. Moreover, intermodal transport is developing well.
EN
With a growing number of coronavirus patients worldwide, military and civilian transport aircraft are increasingly being used for civilian medical evacuation duties (MEDEVAC) on time-critical flights. This article deals with the possibility of converting an aircraft fleet in the Czech Republic to MEDEVAC. The indication for the analysis of the possibility of transforming transport aircraft was the past and current pandemic situation in the Czech Republic. The main research question is how to implement the modification of a selected airline of the Czech Republic to MEDEVAC. An analysis of the technical data of selected aircraft from Airbus and Boeing was used to investigate this problem. Further, an analysis of the medical equipment required for the MEDEVAC aircraft category was also performed using equipment manufactured in the Czech Republic. The results obtained by the analysis and spatial arrangement of the aircraft deck for the transport of patients with medical equipment confirmed the possibility of such a transformation within the Czech Republic. We consider it important to elaborate on a project that would solve, in detail, all the steps of the conversion of a transport aircraft to MEDEVAC.
EN
Purpose: Main aim of the following paper is to present the conception of logistics coordination from the point of view of transportation actions from the perspective of the international 3PL company. Design/methodology/approach: In the paper used the case study based on the case of chosen international 3PL, where the distribution network was analyzed. Findings: 3PL is able to support the transportation planning operation in the considered distribution network by using a developed cloud-based infrastructure that supports demand forecasting tool and transportation planning. Originality/value: Paper connects the one function of logistics coordination – transportation planning – with the demand forecasting tool and the issues of 3PL. It is also shown the case study with implemented solution based on cloud infrastructure to support the transportation operations.
EN
Purpose: The aim of this paper is to identify possible transport routes leading from Europe to Asia that bypass the territory of the Russian Federation or go through Russia and don't violate the sanctions. Design/methodology/approach: Comparative analysis, regional map analysis and case study are used. Map analysis allowed for the creation of various transport routes leading from Europe to Asia. The determining aspect affecting the course of a given route was access to transport infrastructure. The described case study shows the perspective of a small entrepreneur who wants to send his goods to Asia legally and in compliance with applicable sanctions. The comparative analysis made it possible to define new transport paths that largely coincide with the economic corridors of the New Silk Road. Findings: Possible routes for transporting goods from Europe to China were presented, with a focus on land and intermodal routes that avoided Russian Federation territory and ran through Central Asian countries. The possibility of omitting sanctions in the transport of goods from Europe to Asia was also shown. Research limitations/implications: Further research on this topic is suggested. A significant impediment in the creation of this article was the lack of access to numerical data from carriers performing the types of transport described in the article. Data worth analyzing concern the number of transports, the value and type of transported goods, transport costs, as well as qualitative data on the experience and good practices of carriers who carry out transport from Europe to China via Central Asia. Originality/value: The article describes the logistical problems of a transport nature that arose as a result of the outbreak of the Russian-Ukrainian war, which, to the author's best knowledge, have never been described in detail before, nor have possible solutions to these problems been presented. The article is addressed to small entrepreneurs trading in Asian countries who cannot afford to use the services of intermediaries and are forced to organize transport on their own. The article also highlights the benefits for carriers by presenting alternative transportation routes that do not include Russia.
EN
This article presents a description of the properties of basalt fibers and polymer composites containing basalt fibers. Basalt fibers are seen as a potentially beneficial component in composite development, especially for vehicles in transport applications. The article also presents the results of the mechanical properties investigation of the glass-epoxy and basalt-epoxy composites. The composites for testing were prepared using the popular hand lay-up method. The samples were cut from prepared plates using abrasive water jet methods. The obtained samples were tested to evaluate their flexural strength and interlaminar sharing strength. The achieved mechanical properties were compared.
10
PL
Zrównoważona mobilność to najważniejszy element nowoczesnego transportu, której celem jest zmniejszenie podróży realizowanych transportem indywidualnym, a zwiększenie liczby podróży innymi, bardziej ekologicznymi środkami transportu. Miasta coraz bardziej rozbudowują swoją infrastrukturę dla podróży pieszych i rowerowych, ale w dalszym ciągu są obszary, w których występują problemy związane z niesprzyjającymi warunkami dla takiego ruchu. W wielu miejscach nie ma również odpowiednich warunków dla przemieszczania się osób o ograniczonej mobilności. W niniejszym artykule został przedstawiony, na podstawie obserwacji przeprowadzonych podczas inwentaryzacji, obszar Prądnik Czerwony Wschód w Krakowie. Oprócz inwentaryzacji, jako element wspomagający w planowaniu koncepcji zmian transportu indywidualnego, transportu publicznego oraz poprawy warunków dla ruchu rowerowego, podróży pieszych i osób o ograniczonej mobilności, przeprowadzono badanie ankietowe wśród osób zamieszkujących oraz odwiedzających analizowany obszar.
EN
Sustainable mobility is the most important element of modern transportation, with the goal of reducing trips made by individual transportation and increasing travel by other, cleaner modes. Cities are increasingly expanding their infrastructure for pedestrian and bicycle travel, but there are still areas with problems related to unfavorable conditions for such movement. In many places there are also inadequate conditions for the movement of people with limited mobility. Based on observations made during the inventory, the article presents situation in the area of Prądnik Czerwony Wschód in Kraków. In addition to the inventory, a survey of people living in and visiting the analyzed area was conducted as a supporting element in planning the concept of changes in individual transportation, public transportation and improving conditions for bicycle traffic, pedestrian travel and people with limited mobility.
11
Content available remote Optimizing Municipal Waste Collection: a Case Study of a City in Poland
EN
The main problem of waste management is the increasing amount of municipal waste, and one of the key processes generating high costs is the waste collection process. The aim of the article was to optimize the route of a garbage truck using information technology (IT) software in one of the most populated Polish cities. The article tests the study hypothesis: the use of route optimization software will reduce the route length traveled by the garbage truck of the MZO in Pruszków. The data for the study was made available with the consent of the Municipal Treatment Plant in Pruszków. The received materials included information on, among others, Global Positioning System (GPS) readings of the garbage truck, including route start and end times, route length, average speed, driving time, and time of stops, points selected by the planners to collect waste along the route, information on the amount of waste collected during the implementation of the route, technical data on the moving vehicle and characteristics of the sorting plant were received. The article proposes the optimization of the routes of collection and transportation of municipal waste using the traveling salesman problem (TSP). The minimization of route length was assumed as the optimization criterion. All calculations were made in the Routimo program dedicated to route planning and optimization. As a result of the optimization, the route length was reduced by nearly 32%, and the working time by 9%. Thus, the research hypothesis stated in the article was positively verified.
PL
Głównym problemem gospodarki odpadami jest rosnąca ilość odpadów komunalnych, a jednym z kluczowych procesów generujących wysokie koszty jest proces zbierania odpadów. Celem artykułu była optymalizacja trasy przejazdu śmieciarki z wykorzystaniem oprogramowania informatycznego w jednym z najbardziej zaludnionych miast Polski. W artykule weryfikowano hipotezę badawczą: zastosowanie oprogramowania optymalizującego trasę skróci długość trasy pokonywanej przez śmieciarkę MZO w Pruszkowie. Dane do badań zostały udostępnione za zgodą Miejskiego Zakładu Oczyszczania w Pruszkowie. Otrzymane materiały zawierały informacje m.in. o odczytach Global Positioning System (GPS) śmieciarki, w tym o czasie rozpoczęcia i zakończenia trasy, długości trasy, średniej prędkości, czasie jazdy i czasie postojów, zbiór wybranych przez planistów punktów odbioru odpadów na trasie, informację o ilości odpadów zebranych w trakcie realizacji trasy, dane techniczne poruszającego się pojazdu oraz charakterystykę sortowni. W artykule zaproponowano optymalizację trasy odbioru i transportu odpadów komunalnych z wykorzystaniem problemu komiwojażera (TSP). Jako kryterium optymalizacji przyjęto minimalizację długości trasy. Wszystkie obliczenia wykonano w programie Routimo przeznaczonym do planowania i optymalizacji tras. W wyniku optymalizacji długość trasy uległa skróceniu o blisko 32%, a czas pracy o 9%. Tym samym zweryfikowano pozytywnie postawioną w artykule hipotezę badawczą.
12
Content available Safety analysis of complex multistate ageing system
EN
Recent developments of an innovative own earlier approach to safety analysis of a complex multistate ageing system impacted by its operation processes are presented. A safety function and other safety indicators are defined for a complex multistate ageing system changing its functional structure and consequently its safety structure and its components safety parameters during the operation and determined under the assumption that its components have piecewise exponential safety functions. Results are applied to examine safety of port and maritime transportation systems.
13
Content available remote Zielony wodór : krótka monografia. Część 2, Kierunki stosowania
PL
Dokonano przeglądu metod wykorzystania zielonego wodoru w energetyce, transporcie, przemyśle chemicznym oraz w metalurgii. W szczególności przedstawiono przemysłowe procesy produkcji energii elektrycznej w elektrowniach wodorowych oraz wykorzystanie wodoru do napędu pojazdów, do wytwarzania zielonego metanolu i amoniaku, a także do wytwarzania metali (żelazo, metale kolorowe). Omówiono również problemy magazynowania i transportu wodoru.
EN
A review, with 59 refs., of trends in industrial use of H₂ in energetics, transportation, chem. industry and metallurgy. In particular, industrial processes for prodn. of electric energy in H₂ power stations, for powering the transport facilities (cars, trains), for prodn. of green MeOH and NH₃ as well as for prodn. of metals (Fe, non-ferrous metals) were presented. Storage and transportation of H₂ were also taken into consideration.
PL
W artykule autorzy przedstawiają problem wzrostu kosztów w budownictwie na przykładzie kluczowych materiałów budowlanych, takich jak cement, kruszywo, transport bądź stal. Zostały przeanalizowane ostatnie lata, w których wykazano duże wzrosty cen na przestrzeni ostatnich lat, oraz oceniono perspektywę budownictwa w następnych latach.
EN
In the article entitled the authors present the problem of increasing costs in construction using the example of key building materials such as cement, aggregate, transport or steel. Recent years were analyzed, which showed significant price increases over recent years, and the prospects for construction in the coming years were assessed.
EN
The subject of the article is the analysis of solutions and applications of modern information and communication technologies (ICT) in urban centers and the measurement of transport quality indicators, taking into account the requirements of the ISO 37120 standard: Sustainable cities and communities – indicators for city services and quality of life. The article consists of two parts. In part I of the article, the subject of smart cities was introduced, including the functioning concepts of smart city. A description of the shaping of urban spaces and the quality of life in the smart aspect was made, taking into account the issues of sustainable development. The characteristics of the ISO 37120 standard, used to measure the level of services and living conditions in cities, are presented. The basic and auxiliary indicators in the field of city services and quality of life, including those related to transport, were presented. Polish cities that received the smart city certificate were listed. At the end of part I, there was a review of experiences and solutions that improve mobility that operate in selected cities around the world and in Europe.
PL
Przedmiotem artykułu jest analiza rozwiązań i zastosowań nowoczesnych technologii informacyjno-komunikacyjnych (ICT; ang. information and communication technologies) w ośrodkach miejskich oraz pomiar wskaźników jakości transportu, z uwzględnieniem wymagań normy ISO 37120: Zrównoważony rozwój społeczny – wskaźniki usług miejskich i jakości życia. Artykuł składa się z dwóch części. W części drugiej szczegółowo opisano wskaźniki z obszaru transportu wraz ze stosowaną metodyką pomiaru, w tym dobór danych źródłowych niezbędnych do obliczeń wskaźników. Dla wybranych siedmiu polskich miast wojewódzkich (Kraków, Poznań, Szczecin, Białystok, Rzeszów, Olsztyn, Opole) przedstawiono istniejące rozwiązania z obszaru smart mobility. Głównym elementem tej części artykułu jest zaprezentowanie wyników obliczeń wskaźników przewidzianych w normie ISO 37120 w zakresie transportu wraz z omówieniem i porównaniem wyników. Na zakończenie przytoczono główne wnioski z przeprowadzonych analiz i badań.
EN
Although transport is the largest industrial RandD investor in the European Union (EU), there is little research that relates directly to innovation in the transport sector, especially studies combining the issues of strategy and process innovation. Therefore, the article's novelty is related to the fact that no research on the impact of innovative strategies on the implementation of process innovations in the transport sector has been conducted so far. Moreover, previous studies treated process innovations as one construct without referring to particular types of innovations. Consequently, the article aims to analyse the relationship between six specific innovation strategies and three types of process innovations introduced by transport companies. In the empirical part, investigate a set of microdata is investigated from 14 EU countries derived from the 2016 wave of the Community Innovation Survey. Using the estimation of probit regression models, obtain the following main conclusions were obtained. The EU transport sector needs innovative strategies to support process innovations, although the impact of individual innovative strategies on the implementation of process innovations varies. The following three types of innovation strategies increase transport companies' process innovation: 1) in-house RandD, 2) acquisition of machinery, equipment, software and buildings, and 3) training for innovative activities.
PL
Chociaż transport jest największym przemysłowym inwestorem B+R w Unii Europejskiej (UE), niewiele badań dotyczy bezpośrednio innowacji w sektorze transportu, zwłaszcza tych łączących zagadnienia strategii i innowacji procesowych. Dlatego też niniejszy artykuł ma na celu analizę zależności pomiędzy sześcioma konkretnymi strategiami innowacyjnymi a trzema typami innowacji procesowych wprowadzanych przez przedsiębiorstwa transportowe. W części empirycznej badamy zestaw mikrodanych z 14 krajów UE pochodzących z badania Community Innovation Survey (CIS) z 2016 roku. Korzystając z estymacji modeli regresji probitowej, uzyskujemy następujące kluczowe wnioski. Sektor transportu UE potrzebuje innowacyjnych strategii wspierających innowacje procesowe, chociaż wpływ poszczególnych strategii innowacyjnych na wdrażanie innowacji procesowych jest różny. Następujące trzy rodzaje strategii innowacyjnych zwiększają innowacyjność procesową przedsiębiorstw transportowych: 1) wewnętrzne badania i rozwój, 2) nabywanie maszyn, urządzeń, oprogramowania i budynków oraz 3) szkolenia w zakresie działań innowacyjnych.
EN
In the past ten years, InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattice has emerged as a promising technology for high-temperature mid-wave infrared photodetector. Nevertheless, transport properties are still poorly understood in this type of material. In this paper, optical and electro-optical measurements have been realised on InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattice midwave infrared photodetectors. Quantum efficiency of 50% is measured at 150 K, on the front side illumination and simple pass configuration. Absorption measurement, as well as lifetime measurement are used to theoretically calculate the quantum efficiency thanks to Hovel’s equation. Diffusion length values have been extracted from this model ranging from 1.55 μm at 90 K to 7.44 μm at 200 K. Hole mobility values, deduced from both diffusion length and lifetime measurements, varied from 3.64 cm²/Vs at 90 K to 37.7 cm²/Vs at 200 K. The authors then discuss the hole diffusion length and mobility variations within temperature and try to identify the intrinsic transport mechanisms involved in the superlattice structure.
19
Content available Laserowe spawanie stali niskowęglowej
PL
W pracy przestawiono badania wpływu wybranych parametrów spawania laserowego na własności mechaniczne spoiny. Badano wpływ dwóch parametrów: prędkości posuwu oraz mocy wiązki. Na badania własności spoiny oraz stref do nich przyległych składały się następujące pomiary: statycznej próby rozciągania i twardości oraz obserwacje mikroskopowe. Przeprowadzone badania wykazały, że spoiny otrzymane przy różnych parametrach spawania charakteryzują się zbliżonymi własnościami mechanicznymi.
EN
In the paper studies of the influence of selected laser welding parameters on the mechanical λproperties of welds is presented. The study examined the effect of two parameters: feed speed and beam power. The tests of the properties of the weld and the adjacent zones consisted of the following measurements: static tensile test, hardness and microscopic observations. A TRUMPF CO2 laser, Lasercell 1005 (wavelength λ = 10, 6 μm) was used for welding. The samples were made of 0,8 mm thick DC04 low carbon steel. The static tensile test was carried out on the LabTest 5. 20SP1 tensile and compressive test bench. The hardness tester NEXUS 4304 was used to the hardness tests. Microscopic observations were performed using a Joel scanning microscope type JSM-5400. Conducted tests show that welds obtained with different welding parameters are characterized by similar mechanical properties.
PL
Uwarunkowania ekologiczne, ale także polityczne, a w ostatnim czasie również ekonomiczne związane z galopującym wzrostem cen surowców energetycznych, jak i samej energii, stały się powodem silnie rosnącego zainteresowania zarówno wydajnymi źródłami energii, jak też „czystymi” paliwami, w tym wodorem. Wprowadzenie wodoru do powszechnego użytku w transporcie i energetyce wiąże się jednak z szeregiem problemów natury technicznej, często rozwiązanych w skali laboratoryjnej, jednak ciągle oczekujących na wdrożenia. Katalog zagadnień związanych z wykorzystaniem wodoru jako paliwa do powszechnego użytku jest bardzo długi, jednak w niniejszej pracy skupiamy się na przybliżeniu problematyki dotyczącej przechowywania wodoru. Jako istotne omówione są kwestie metod sprężania, skraplania i lokalnego wytwarzania wodoru, a także przechowywania go i transportu w postaci związków chemicznych o różnej budowie. Pośród omówionych związków znalazły się między innymi wodorki metali o wysokiej aktywności chemicznej, borowodorek sodowy, amidoborany. Jako osobna grupa organicznych nośników wodoru mogą być rozpatrywane związki takie jak kwas mrówkowy, toluen, naftalen, a także inne mogące ulegać odwracalnemu uwodornieniu, jak pary aren–cykloalkan. Naświetlone zostały także problemy technologiczne związane z wykorzystaniem wspomnianych związków w przechowywaniu i transporcie wodoru. Istotną kwestię stanowią także metody wielkoskalowego magazynowania tego gazu, dlatego też w artykule zasygnalizowane zostały zagadnienia dotyczące problematyki podziemnych magazynów gazu (PMG) wykorzystywanych do magazynowania wodoru czy wreszcie – magazynowania go w istniejącej infrastrukturze przesyłowej. Ponadto przybliżony został zarys najistotniejszych uwarunkowań prawnych oraz strategii dotyczących wodoru, zarówno w skali kraju, jak i wspólnoty europejskiej.
EN
Environmental, political, and currently also economic factors related to the galloping increase in prices of raw materials and energy have become the reason for the growing interest in both efficient energy sources and so-called “clean” fuels, including hydrogen. However, the introduction of hydrogen for widespread use in transport and energy sectors is associated with several technical difficulties and challenges, often solved at the laboratory scale but still awaiting industrial implementation. The catalogue of issues related to the introduction of hydrogen as a fuel of general use is quite extensive. However, this paper focuses on explaining the problems associated with hydrogen storage. These include methods of hydrogen compression, liquefaction and in situ production as well as its storage and transportation in the form of various chemical compounds. The compounds discussed include metal hydrides of high chemical activity, sodium borohydride, and amidoboranes. As a separate group of organic hydrogen carriers compounds such as formic acid, toluene, and naphthalene as well as other capable of reversible hydrogenation such as arene-cycloalkane pairs, can also be considered. The paper also discusses technological issues related to the use of these compounds. The issue of customization and development of underground gas storage (UGS) towards hydrogen storage and storing it in the existing transmission infrastructure and the methods critical for a large-scale storage of this gas are also covered. Furthermore, an overview of the most critical legal regulations and strategies for hydrogen on the national and European Community level is provided.
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