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Content available remote Ocena wpływu fotopolimeryzacji na mikrotwardość kompozytów typu bulk-fill
PL
Przedstawiono wyniki badań mikrotwardości trzech powszechnie stosowanych kompozytów handlowych typu bulk-fill. Celem pracy była ocena wpływu fotopolimeryzacji próbek o grubości nominalnej 2 mm na wytrzymałość stykową powierzchni. Wytrzymałość stykową oceniano w testach mikrotwardości metodą Vickersa. Badano mikrotwardość na powierzchniach naświetlanej (LC) i nienaświetlanej (NLC) lampą stomatologiczną UV. W badaniach wykorzystano lampę z funkcją soft start. Próbki przed badaniem mikrotwardości kondycjonowano w sztucznej ślinie w temp. 36,7°C. Wyniki badań poddano analizie statystycznej. W przypadku jednego kompozytu B-F wykazano brak istotnych różnic mikrotwardości na powierzchni LC i NLC. Mikrotwardość kompozytów TPF i EU na powierzchni NLC była istotnie większa niż na LC. Ponadto różnica mikrotwardości powierzchni LC i NLC kompozytu EU była największa.
EN
Samples of 3 com. bulk-fill dental composites were tested for Vickers microhardness to det. the effect of photopolymn. of samples with a nominal thickness of 2 mm on the surface contact strength. Microhardness was tested on surfaces exposed (LC) and not exposed (NLC) to a UV dental lamp. Before testing the microhardness, the samples were conditioned in artificial saliva at 36.7°C. The research results were statistical analyzed. In 2 of 3 tested composites, significantly higher microhardness was found on the NLC surface than on the LC surface.
EN
Recently, dissimilar metals have found applications in the process of resistance spot welding (RSW), particularly within the electric vehicle industry. Notably, copper and aluminum have gained significant importance in these sectors due to their advantageous characteristics for the industry requirements. The mechanical behavior of these materials is essential to maintaining structural integrity. The study aims to estimate the mechanical behavior of dissimilar RSW joints and optimize welding parameters for Cu-Al joints. Hence, understanding the joining processes in the electric vehicle industry to design reliable components. Combining different types of materials, such as T2-grade commercially pure copper sheets and aluminum AA1050 with the same thickness of 1 mm has been welded. The determination of optimal welding conditions takes into account material thicknesses and types. Through tensile-shear testing, welding parameters that yield maximal joint strength were identified. Using Minitab 19 software, the Taguchi method helped achieve optimized welding parameters. The hardness, fracture characteristics, and weld strength have been investigated. Hardness measurements were conducted across the nugget thickness and surface, offering insights into potential failure modes. The welding process involves the transition to a liquid state for the aluminum components, resulting in the formation of intermetallic compounds. Consequently, crack initiation was observed within the aluminum segments, leading to a plug-out fracture mechanism. In contrast, copper exhibits superior strength and hardness compared to aluminum, where increased hardness correlates with heightened strength. The discrepancy in hardness, especially the lower values observed on the aluminum side, caused fractures to appear within the heat affected zone (HAZ). Subsequently, this fracture propagated until pull-out failure was realized. The study revealed that dissimilar joining of Cu and Al resulted in an ultimate tensile stress of 26 MPa, while similar joining of copper showcased a strength of 98 MPa. Additionally, the symmetric join in aluminum exhibited a strength of 93 MPa. The maximum tensile shear force is equal to 512 N at a maximum welding current of 14000 A. The pull-out failure mode occurs in the Cu-Al RSW joint. The maximum hardness was noted in the fusion zone (FZ). Relevant literature sources have supported and confirmed these outcomes.
EN
The article aims to characterize Hadfield steel by analyzing its chemical composition, mechanical properties, and microstructure. The study focused on the twinning-induced work hardening of the alloy, which led to an increase in its hardness. The experimental data show that the material hardness at the surface improved considerably after solution heat treatment and work hardening, reaching more than 750 HV. By contrast, the hardness of the material core in the supersaturated condition was about 225 HV. The chemical and phase compositions of the material at the surface were compared with those of the core. The microstructural analysis of the steel revealed characteristic decarburization of the surface layer after solution heat treatment. The article also describes the effects of heat treatment on the properties and microstructure of Hadfield steel. The volumetric (qualitative) analysis of the computed tomography (CT) data of Hadfield steel subjected to heavy dynamic loading helped detect internal flaws, assess the material quality, and potentially prevent the structural failure or damage of the element tested.
EN
The paper presents the results of Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) hardfacing testing performed on three grades of hot working tool steels, namely: 55NiCrMoV7, X37CrMoV5-1 and modified X38CrMoV5-3 grade. Metallographic investigations, mainly microstructural ones, were carried out and hardness profiles were analyzed. The chemical composition was investigated in each individual layer of the hardfaced deposits and the substrate material, in order to obtain a profile representation. The obtained results of profilometric evaluation of the chemical composition showed clear differences in the content of basic and alloying elements in the subsequent weld layers. The diversity of the chemical composition of the substrate material caused that the uniform chemical composition for all tested materials was achieved only in the third, upper weld layer. Despite the variable content of alloying elements and carbon, as well as slight differences in microstructure occurring for individual weld layers, a substantially stable and high hardness was maintained over the entire cross-section of the obtained hardfaced coatings. In the area of the heat-affected zone (HAZ), a decrease in hardness was observed, which is associated with the decomposition of the high-temperature tempered martensite and the spheroidization of the microstructure.
EN
As an effective surface modification technique, micro-arc oxidation (MAO) is now widely used to improve the hardness and wear resistance of Ti and its alloys by low-cost and thick ceramic coatings. In this study, MoSi2 – modified ceramic coatings were deposited on Ti–6Al–4V alloy (340 HV) by MAO using an aqueous solution of (Na2SiO3),(NaPO3)6 and (NaOH) and MoSi2 particles. MoSi2 particles (3, 5, and 7 g/l) from wastes of furnaces electrodes were introduced into the electrolyte to improve the microstructure and surface properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloys. A scanning electron microscope (SEM), dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and mechanical tests (microhardness and wear) were used to identify the coating properties, morphologies, and phases. The findings showed that the addition of (5g/l) MoSi2 increased the thickness and hardness of MAO coatings from (19.08µm) and (910 HV) to (33.12µm) and (1260 HV), respectively. Also, the wear resistance by means of weight losses of uncoated alloys enhanced by (68 %) and (100%) after MAO and (5g/l) MoSi2 modified-MAO coatings, respectively. Results of this work will promote future works in using of industrial wastes in surface engineering of Ti-6Al-4V alloys by MAO technique for wear resistance applications.
EN
Manufacturers always seek for quality and effective welding to stay competitive in the market. There is a continuous demand for a quick and efficient manufacturing set ups for new products. GMAW is among the welding processes that is wieldy used in the industry. Welding factors such as welding voltage, welding current, gas flow rate, filler wire size and welding speed play a significant role in determining the welding quality. Taguchi design uses optimization technique for the process of experimentation as an effort to improve productivity and enhance product quality. This study discusses the welding of commercial steel welded using GMAW. The welding was controlled by welding current, welding speed and groove shape to test their influence on the welding strength, tensile strength and hardness. X groove shape welding has obtained lower tensile strength and hardness than V groove shape as did higher welding current and lower welding speed. The results concluded that welding current welding had the highest influence on tensile strength and hardness of the welding, followed by groove shape, while the welding speed had the minimum influence. The optimized combination of welding factors is 170 A, V groove shape and 150 mm/min.
EN
Fine-grained high-manganese X120Mn12 grade steel was subjected to a two-stage heat treatment consisting of long-term isothermal annealing at 510°C, which was followed by resaturation in order to reduce the negative effect of the brittle carbide carbides of manganese cementite (Fe,Mn)3 C. The objective of the experiment was to elucidate the effects of distinct stages of heat treatment on the properties of high manganese steel with regard to its resistance to abrasive wear. Supersaturation was performed for eleven different variations of temperature values ranging from 600°C to 1100°C to verify its effect on the resistance to abrasion wearunder abrasion conditions. An increase in the supersaturation temperature results in the gradual coagulation and disintegration of the colonies of pearlite and needle-like carbides (Fe,Mn)3 C formed during isothermal annealing. At the same time, as a result of the PSN (particle stimulated nucleation) process, the microstructure of austenite undergoes partial refinement, which ultimately increases the resistance to abrasive wear. As a result of the final microstructural changes resulted in an increase in the resistance to abrasion of approximately 6% compared to the initial state.
PL
Drobnoziarnistą stal wysokomanganową gatunku X120Mn12 poddano dwustopniowej obróbce cieplnej złożonej z długoterminowego izotermicznego wygrzewania w temperaturze 510°C, a następnie ponownemu przesycaniu w celu zredukowania negatywnego wpływu kruchych wydzieleń węglików cementytu manganowego (Fe,Mn)3 C. Eksperyment miał na celu poznanie wpływu poszczególnych etapów obróbki cieplnej na właściwości stali wysokomanganowej w kontekście odporności na zużycie ścierne. Etap przesycania zrealizowano dla jedenastu różnych wariantów wartości temperatury z zakresu od 600°C do 1100°C w celu zweryfikowania jej wpływu na odporność na zużycie ścierne. Wzrost temperatury przesycania skutkuje stopniową koagulacją oraz rozpadem powstałych w trakcie wyżarzania izotermicznego kolonii perlitu oraz iglastych węglików (Fe,Mn)3 C. Jednocześnie w wyniku procesu PSN (ang. particles stimulated nucleation) mikrostruktura austenitu ulega częściowemu rozdrobnieniu, co finalnie wpływa na wzrost odporności na zużycie ścierne. W wyniku końcowych zmian mikrostrukturalnych uzyskano wzrost odporności na ścieranie o około 6% w porównaniu do stanu wyjściowego dla wariantu obróbki cieplnej złożonego z etapu długoterminowego izotermicznego wyżarzania w temperaturze 510°C oraz następującego po nim przesycania w temperaturze 750°C. Wzrost odporności wywołany został wydzieleniem globularnych węglików (Fe,Mn)3 C oraz powstaniem nowych ziaren austenitu.
EN
Based on the commercial aluminium alloy powder blend (Alumix 431D) metal matrix composites reinforced with particles of SiC as well as TiC were produced by conventional powder metallurgy technology and the effect of the type and amounts of reinforced particles on the selected properties and microstructure of sintered composites were investigated. In particular, the densification behaviour, the wear resistance and the corrosion resistance in 3.5% NaCl solution were identified. It was stated that both the type and the weight fraction of carbide used as particulate reinforcement have a great impact on the properties of aluminium alloy matrix composites. It was shown that the introduction of titanium carbide has a more favourable effect on the properties of sintered Alumix 431D matrix composites in comparison to silicon carbide and the optimum content of TiC in composite is 4 wt. % due to the highest hardness, wear resistance (wear rate of 2.865­­·10 ̄ ³ mm³/m) and simultaneously the best corrosion resistance (corrosion rate of 0.005 mm/year).
EN
The article presents research methods and appropriate equipment for conducting experiments, as well as the analysis of the results. Studies on the hardness of the microstructure, elastic deformation and parts and samples were carried out using hardness testers, microscopes PMT-3, MIM-8 and devices for measuring the “force-strain” characteristic. The results of the study wer used to establish the dependence of the elastic properties of Belleville springs on the heat treatment modes, while also determining the microstructure and layer depth using various research methods. Every work studying the elastic properties and measurement of the static compressive force of a spring at a given strain value has been studied theoretically. Depending on the operating conditions, disc springs can be installed singly or assembled into packages, forming an elastic element working under compression. The research materials will be used in the work to improve the tightness of straight-through valves and the durability of the shut-off assembly parts. The dependence of the spring compression force and its deformation on the geometrical parameters of the disc springs has been established. Comparison of experimental and theoretical dependences has been made. It has been established that the residual deformation of the Belleville spring after captivity has a negative effect on the tightness of the shut-off valve assembly. The influence of various technological processes and modes of thermal treatment of disc springs on their elastic properties has been studied. Practical recommendations for improving the technological process of thermal treatment of Belleville springs have been proposed. The tasks of further research and implementation of the obtained results have been determined. Search work has been carried out to improve the technology of hardening processing of parts of the shut-off unit (gate and seat) of direct-flow valves. The possibility of using accelerated nitrocarburizing in a triethanolamine medium with induction heating by high-frequency currents at a temperature range of 950°С for boriding and borochroming has been established. Samples were made from standard steel grades 40, 40Kh and 38Kh2MYuA, subjected to hardening by the considered methods, and a study was made of the hardness, depth and microstructure of the hardened layer. Research in this direction should be continued in order to study the tribological characteristics (friction coefficient and wear resistance) of hardened parts. Each operation of the spring manufacturing technology has been studied, and deviations that have a significant impact on the operation of the spring and the sealing of the shut-off valve assembly have been identified.
PL
Artykuł przedstawia metody badawcze i odpowiednie wyposażenie służące do przeprowadzania eksperymentów, a także analizę wyników. Badania przyprowadzono przy użyciu testerów twardości, mikroskopów PMT-3, MIM-8 oraz urządzeń do pomiaru charakterystyki “siła-odkształcenie”. Wyniki tych badań wykorzystano do ustalenia zależności właściwości elastycznych sprężyn Belleville od parametrów obróbki cieplnej, jednocześnie określając mikrostrukturę i głębokość warstwy za pomocą różnych metod badawczych. Każdy przypadek badania właściwości elastycznych i pomiaru statycznego siłowego odkształcenia sprężyny przy danej wartości odkształcenia był analizowany teoretycznie. W zależności od warunków pracy sprężyny tarczowe mogą być montowane pojedynczo lub w pakietach, tworząc element elastyczny podlegający ściskaniu. Materiały badawcze mogą zostać wykorzystane w pracach mających na celu poprawę szczelności zasuw oraz trwałości części zespołu zamykającego. Ustalono zależność między siłą kompresji sprężyny i jej odkształceniem a parametrami geometrycznymi sprężyn tarczowych. Dokonano porównania wyników eksperymentalnych i teoretycznych. Ustalono, że szczątkowe odkształcenie sprężyny Belleville po jej zamontowaniu ma negatywny wpływ na szczelność zespołu zaworu zamykającego. Zbadano wpływ różnych procesów technologicznych i trybów obróbki cieplnej sprężyn tarczowych na ich właściwości elastyczne. Zaproponowano praktyczne zalecenia w celu poprawy procesu technologicznego obróbki cieplnej sprężyn Belleville. Określono cele dalszych badań i sposób wdrożenia uzyskanych wyników. Przeprowadzono prace badawcze w celu poprawy technologii hartowania części zespołu zamykającego (zasuwy i gniazda) zasuw klinowych. Sprawdzono możliwość zastosowania przyspieszonego azotonawęglania w środowisku trietanoloaminy z indukcyjnym ogrzewaniem prądem o wysokiej częstotliwości w zakresie temperatury 950°C w procesie borowania i borochromowania. Wykonano próbki ze standardowych gatunków stali 40, 40Kh i 38Kh2MYuA, które poddano hartowaniu przy rozważanych metodach, przeprowadzono badanie twardości, głębokości i mikrostruktury warstwy hartowanej. Badania w tym kierunku powinny być kontynuowane w celu zbadania charakterystyk tribologicznych (współczynnika tarcia i odporności na zużycie) hartowanych części. Przeanalizowano każdą fazę technologii produkcji sprężyny i zidentyfikowano odchylenia, które mają znaczący wpływ na działanie sprężyny i uszczelnienie zespołu zaworu zamykającego.
EN
In this paper the influence of cladding method - laser and TIG - on microstructure and properties of Stellite 694 coatings deposited onto DS200+Hf nickel based alloy substrate is presented. Manual TIG cladding process were carried out using LORCH V24 DC, laser cladding process was carried out using Yb:YAG, TruDisk 1000 TRUMPF. Cobalt alloy - Stellite 694 was used as a filler material. Effect of different cladding methods was examined based on chemical composition and microstructure analysis as well as hardness measurements of the deposited layers.
PL
W niniejszej pracy prowadzono ocenę morfologii składników fazowych mikrostruktury i właściwości warstwy ochronnej Stellite 694 na podłożu z żarowytrzymałego nadstopu niklu DS200+Hf, wytworzonej w procesach napawania elektrycznego (TIG) i laserowego. Napawanie elektryczne metodą TIG przeprowadzono z użyciem spawarki LORCH V24 DC, natomiast laserowe - za pomocą lasera dyskowego Yb:YAG, TruDisk 1000 firmy TRUMPF. Materiałem dodatkowym był stop kobaltu Stellite 694. Określono stopień oddziaływania źródła ciepła i warunków procesu na skład chemiczny napoiny, jej mikrostrukturę oraz twardość w mikroobszarach.
EN
This paper presents the results of flow forming tests for the 6060 aluminum alloy in the T5 heat treatment condition. The tests were conducted on a cylindrical mandrel using two forming rollers without the use of a cooling agent. The purpose of the study was to conduct two experiments. In both experiments, the final gap between the roller and the mandrel was designed to be the same. The impact of the deformation value on the change in the mechanical properties of the material with the simultaneous impact of the number of forming passes was determined. In addition, the effect of the elimination of a coolant on the process was analyzed. The material temperature rise caused by friction between a pair of working parts: the roller—and the workpiece—were examined with a thermal imaging camera. This paper presents the results of microhardness tests and analyzes the impact of the forming parameters on the strength properties of the alloy. Because the forming process was done without cooling, the impact of the temperature prevailing during the deformation process on the change in the strength of the alloy was studied and analyzed. The deformation zone in which intensive grain deformation took place was determined.
EN
This study investigates the blast mitigation capabilities of A286 steel micro-lattice structures produced through additive manufacturing. The research explores the effects of different manufacturing conditions, such as stress relief and heat treatment, on the mechanical properties and blast resistance of honeycomb and gyroid lattice structures in correlation with armour steel structures. Comprehensive evaluations, including surface morphology, corrosion resistance, and compressive residual stress analysis, reveal notable findings for micro-lattice structures. Micro-lattice structures demonstrated 57.23% higher corrosion resistance compared to conventional materials, presently available in the form of rolled homogeneous armour, medium hardness armour, and high-nitrogen steel. Additionally, honeycomb lattice structures exhibit compressive residual stresses of up to 581.90 MPa, providing significant advantages in blast mitigation potential. These results underscore the significance of lattice geometry, material microstructure, and residual stress in enhancing blast resistance. The research offers valuable insights into optimizing additive manufactured structures as an alternative modular solution for defence applications.
EN
Numerous factors play a pivotal role in shaping the mechanical and corrosion resistance properties of electrodeposited Ni-Cr alloy coatings. This study delves into the deposition of Ni-Cr alloy coatings on AISI 1040 steel, examining the influence of saccharin additives within the electrodeposition bath. Specifically, the concentration of saccharin within the solution was varied over a range of 0 to 2 g/l. Following the electrodeposition process, a comprehensive array of characterization techniques was employed, encompassing 2D surface roughness analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, nanoindentation, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and assessments of wear and corrosion performance. The characterization results of this article reveal a compelling difference between saccharin-free Ni-Cr coatings and their saccharin-modified counterparts. Notably, microcracks, a common occurrence in saccharin-free coatings, were suppressed in the saccharin-modified Ni-Cr coatings. Additionally, the latter exhibited a smoother and more uniform surface texture. A crucial observation was that the introduction of saccharin into the bath was directly associated with an increased incorporation of chromium within the coatings, resulting in higher nanohardness values. Furthermore, the residual stress within the coatings shifted from tensile to compression as saccharin concentrations increased. Concurrently, surface roughness and wear rates exhibited a consistent downward trend with increasing saccharin concentrations in the solution. The most significant findings were seen in the domain of corrosion resistance. Saccharin-modified Ni-Cr coatings outperformed the bare steel substrate and saccharin-free Ni-Cr coatings. Intriguingly, the enhancement of corrosion resistance was not linearly proportional to saccharin concentration; the optimal corrosion resistance was achieved at a concentration of 1 g/l.
EN
Purpose The present study aims to evaluate the effect of montmorillonite nanoclay (MMT) and waste glass powder (WGP) on the hardness and thermal conductivity of PMMA polymer composites. Thus, this study concentrates on the potential use of MMT and WGP as reinforcements, in different concentrations, in PMMA polymer matrix, with the expectation of improving the performance of PMMA polymer composites in various applications. Design/methodology/approach There is a growing demand for PMMA with increased mechanical properties and thermal stability for applications where inorganic glass would fail. Montmorillonite (MMT) clay and Waste Glass Powder (WGP) have physical and chemical properties compatible with PMMA. Therefore, they could potentially enhance PMMA’s hardness and thermal conductivity. Silicon dioxide in glass silica and MMT and octahedral aluminium hydroxide sheet in MMT can strengthen both covalent and hydrogen bonding architecture in PMMA composite for better mechanical strength and thermal conductivity. Thus, PMMA composites were designed by combining MMT powder and WGP powder in different ratios before being incorporated into the PMMA polymer matrix and tested for hardness and thermal conductivity. Findings The present study measured Brinell Hardness (HB) and electrical conductivity values of four PMMA composites containing different proportions of MMT and WGP. MMT/WGP filler mix had optimal hardiness (HB number = 74) when glass content was 1% (3MMT1G) or better still (HB number = 63) when an equal mix ratio was used (1MMT1G). PMMA composite with 3MMT1G also had the highest thermal conductivity (0.01899W/m.K-1). However, the higher the glass content, the lower the thermal conductivity of the PMMA composite. Thus, the present study has demonstrated that 3MMT1G filler was the best for enhancing the thermal and mechanical properties of PMMA composite. Research limitations/implications The results of this study demonstrate the potential of this new composite material for a variety of applications. Further research is needed to explore the full potential of this material and to develop new and improved versions. Practical implications Reusing waste glass as filler materials in composites requires minimal processing and therefore has lower environmental impacts than synthetic options. Originality/value Experimental data from the present study has provided new insights into Glass/MMT mix design in PMMA composites. The PMMA composite containing 3MMT1G exhibited the best hardness and thermal conductivity characteristics. Thus, the present study has successfully optimised Glass/MMT mix design for PMMA composite for applications requiring these features.
PL
W artykule zaprezentowano wyniki badań twardości, odporności na pękanie oraz odporności na zużycie ścierne stopu Ti24Nb4Zr8Sn po obróbce cieplnej, tj. przesycaniu z temp. 850°C i starzeniu w 350, 450 i 600°C. Wykazano, że w stanie przesyconym, gdy w mikrostrukturze jest obecna jedynie faza β, stop charakteryzuje się najmniejszą twardością i największą odpornością na pękanie. Zastosowanie zabiegu starzenia, skutkujące wydzielaniem fazy α z przesyconej fazy β, silnie zmniejsza jego odporność na pękanie. Badany stop wykazuje istotnie różną odporność na zużycie ścierne i różny współczynnik tarcia, zależnie od mikrostruktury i twardości. Minimalną wartość współczynnika tarcia odnotowano po starzeniu w temp. 450°C, w której dochodzi do wydzielania w mikrostrukturze fazy α o dużej dyspersji, tj. przy maksymalnej twardości stopu.
EN
The article presents the results of hardness, fracture toughness and abrasive wear resistance tests of the Ti24Nb4Zr8Sn alloy. These results were obtained after its heat treatment, i.e. solution from 850°C and aging at 350, 450 and 600°C. It has been shown that in the supersaturated state, when only the β phase is present in the microstructure, the alloy is characterized by the lowest hardness and the highest fracture toughness. The application of the aging treatment, resulting in the separation of the α phase from the supersaturated β phase, strongly reduces its fracture toughness. The tested alloy shows significantly different resistance to abrasive wear and a different friction coefficient, depending on the microstructure and hardness. The minimum value of the friction coefficient was noted after aging at 450°C, at which the α phase with high dispersion was precipitated in the microstructure, i.e. at the maximum hardness of the alloy.
PL
Na przykładzie kilku rur okrągłych wyznaczono relacje między granicą plastyczności i wytrzymałością doraźną na rozciąganie stali, z której zostały wykonane rury, a jej twardością Brinella, pomierzoną bezpośrednio na rurowych elementach konstrukcyjnych (in situ). Znajomość tych relacji jest niezbędna w pośrednich badaniach wytrzymałości stali, poprzez nieniszczące pomiary twardości, w przypadku konstrukcji wykonanych z rur okrągłych. Relacje te zdecydowanie różnią się od odpowiednich relacji znanych z badań stali niestopowych w stanie surowym lub normalizowanym, w wyrobach płaskich po walcowaniu na gorąco. Pracę zakończono wnioskami i zaleceniami o charakterze praktycznym.
EN
On the example of several pipes, the dependences between the yield strength and ultimate strength of the steel which the pipes were made from and its Brinell hardness measured directly on the tubular structural elements (in situ) was determined. Knowledge of these dependences is essential in indirect steel strength tests, through non-destructive hardness measurements, in the case of structures made of circular hollow sections. These relations differ significantly from the corresponding relations known from the tests of unalloyed steels in the raw or normalized state in hot-rolled flat elements. The work was completed with conclusions and recommendations of a practical nature.
EN
The processes of water purification with increasing selection of permeate were studied, considering selectivity and productivity of membranes, dynamics of changes of contents of components in the concentrate. It is shown that when chlorides and sulfates are removed from water, the increase in their content in the concentrate does not differ practically from the measured and calculated values. At the same time, the nature of dependences on the change in hardness, concentration of calcium and magnesium ions, alkalinity obtained experimentally differ significantly from the dependences obtained by theoretical calculations at permeate selection levels of > 70%. А significant difference in the determined and calculated concentrations of hardness ions in the concentrates was observed after hardness values greater than 30–40 mg-eq/dm3. This indicates the partial removal of hardness ions and carbonates from the concentrates, which may be the reason for the formation of deposits on the membrane. Permissible values of the degree of permeate selection were determined, at which there is no intense deposition of carbonates and hydroxides of hardness ions on the membrane. With the initial water hardness > 8 mg-eq/dm3, the degree of permeate selection could reach 60–70% without the risk of sedimentation on the membrane. Effectiveness of the low-pressure reverse osmosis membrane in the purification of mine water with an increased level of mineralization and hardness was determined. A significant difference between the determined and calculated hardness in concentration was observed already at the degree of permeate selection of 22–33%.
EN
We study the hardness of the non-preemptive scheduling problem of a list of independent jobs on a set of identical parallel processors with a makespan minimization objective. We make a maiden attempt to explore the combinatorial structure of the problem by introducing a scheduling solution space tree (SSST) as a novel data structure. We formally define and characterize the properties of SSST through our analytical results. We show that the multiprocessor scheduling problem is N P-complete with an alternative technique using SSST and weighted scheduling solution space tree (WSSST) data structures. We propose a non-deterministic polynomial-time algorithm called magic scheduling (MS) based on the reduction framework. We also define a new variant of multiprocessor scheduling by including the user as an additional input parameter, which we called the multiuser multiprocessor scheduling problem (MUMPSP). We also show that MUMPSP is N P-complete. We conclude the article by exploring several non-trivial research challenges for future research investigations.
EN
The present study focuses on the fabrication and characterization of novel hybrid Al matrix composites with a combination of two ceramic reinforcements, i.e. Al2O3, SiC and one solid lubricant, i.e. WS2. This hybrid composite was fabricated by means of the powder metallurgy process. The impact of the hybrid combination of reinforcements in different wt.% on the properties of the hybrid composites was studied. The density of the composites increases from 2.689 to 2.796 g/cm3 with an increase in wt.% of WS2. Uniform distribution of the reinforcing particles in the matrix phase was determined by SEM. The results of, for instance, density measurements and microstructural analysis indicate significant improvement in the physical and mechanical properties with the increase in the wt.% of WS2. The microhardness of the as-fabricated composites rises from 98 HV to 119.7 HV with the increase in the wt.% of WS2 from 0 to 6 wt.%. The novel combination of Al with SiC, Al2O3 and WS2 can be used to create a suitable and sustainable hybrid metal matrix composite for the automotive industry as a replacement for single ceramic and single solid lubricant composites.
EN
This paper presents the results of studies on the consolidation of metallic and composite powders by the hot isostaticpressing (HIP) process intended for electrical contact materials. Ag, Cu metallic powders, as well as AgW48Re2, AgRe1 and CuW47Re3 composite powders were used in the investigations. Green compacts for consolidation and hot sintering under pressure were prepared by double-sided axial pressing in steel dies. The density, electrical conductivity, and hardness were measured on the obtained sinters after the HIP process, and the microstructure was examined on selected ones. The research indicates that applying this technology allows good quality electrical material to be obtained, intended for electrical contact material.
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