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EN
One of the basic stages of mining operations is development work. During them there can occur the events that affect the process of development work as well as the safety of workers. This article conducts a process risk assessment using the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) method to identify events that disrupt the development work process, along with the causes of the occurrence of these events. The study covered the process of development work i.e. the execution of the M-2 roadway in seam 502/1 realized at a depth of about 550 m with an assumed length of about 500 m. As a result of the study, those risks for which countermeasures should be applied were identified, and measures were proposed to minimize the risks involved. As part of the research, an FMEA evaluation form was created to assess process risks in the execution of similar work. The highest process risk was identified for the drivage of the excavation with a road header, and is related to the possibility of frequent failure of hydraulic systems. Similar process risk results were obtained for the risk associated with improper execution of mining with explosives and the need to perform additional blasting work in the excavated roadway. The results can contribute to reducing the time of coal face stoppage during development work, and thus improve the process of them and reduce the costs incurred during this process.
EN
The article deals with a widely used method of measuring the overall efficiency of equipment (OEE), which in combination with technologies and software tools is gaining in importance. The overall efficiency of OEE equipment is a key performance metric for machines and equipment to identify hidden capacities and increase production productivity. The intensification of Industry 4.0 in traditional manufacturing companies supports and creates the conditions for their transformation into a smart factory. The integration of intelligent machines and devices with complex human-machine communication network systems requires a new direction in measuring and increasing OEE. Mass customization, resp. personalization of production raises a high need to monitor, improve and further maintain productivity. The aim of the article is to create a simulation model of the production process and test the energy consumption of selected equipment using TX Plant Simulation software with a proposal of measures to increase the OEE of the company.
EN
Background: The aim of the article is to examine the determinants of the digital transformation of the supply chains (DSCs) of companies. The presented research covers the stages of digital supply chain transformation, applied key technologies, and the results of implementation of DSC transformation. Methods: The research covered 235 randomly selected Polish companies of all sizes, focusing on transport and warehouse management companies (33.6%), industrial processing (15.7%), other services (11.4%) and wholesale and retail trade (11.1%). Data were acquired by the CAWI method in 2022. For statistical calculation, Pearson correlation and factor analysis were used. Results: The results of this paper indicate that the DSC transformation process is implemented with rather similar and moderate degree of intensity (mean 3.61 on a scale from 1 to 5). The transformation process of DSC is based on several interdependencies, that is, between integration of company’s technology base and other entities of the supply chain as well as with scale and improve the solutions for DSC. Moreover, DSC transformation is positive related with all of the performance measures (profit, sales, market share, ROI, and competitive advantage), while the greatest increase is noticed for ROI. Furthermore, the factor analysis confirm that a systematic and comprehensive approach to the transformation of DSC raises company performance. Conclusions: The presented research allows for a better understanding of analysed variables and the context that determines DSC transformation for both managers and practitioners. Thus, it enable building a strategy and roadmaps for the digital transformation of enterprises and mitigate associated risks.
EN
Multimedia networks utilize low-power scalar nodes to modify wakeup cycles of high-performance multimedia nodes, which assists in optimizing the power-toperformance ratios. A wide variety of machine learning models are proposed by researchers to perform this task, and most of them are either highly complex, or showcase low-levels of efficiency when applied to large-scale networks. To overcome these issues, this text proposes design of a Q-learning based iterative sleep-scheduling and fuses these schedules with an efficient hybrid bioinspired multipath routing model for largescale multimedia network sets. The proposed model initially uses an iterative Q-Learning technique that analyzes energy consumption patterns of nodes, and incrementally modifies their sleep schedules. These sleep schedules are used by scalar nodes to efficiently wakeup multimedia nodes during adhoc communication requests. These communication requests are processed by a combination of Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO) & Genetic Algorithm (GA) models, which assist in the identification of optimal paths. These paths are estimated via combined analysis of temporal throughput & packet delivery performance, with node-to-node distance & residual energy metrics. The GWO Model uses instantaneous node & network parameters, while the GA Model analyzes temporal metrics in order to identify optimal routing paths. Both these path sets are fused together via the Q-Learning mechanism, which assists in Iterative Adhoc Path Correction (IAPC), thereby improving the energy efficiency, while reducing communication delay via multipath analysis. Due to a fusion of these models, the proposed Q-Learning based Iterative sleep-scheduling & hybrid Bioinspired Multipath Routing model for Multimedia Networks (QIBMRMN) is able to reduce communication delay by 2.6%, reduce energy consumed during these communications by 14.0%, while improving throughput by 19.6% & packet delivery performance by 8.3% when compared with standard multimedia routing techniques.
PL
Czym jest projekt budowlany? Czy jest to stworzone wyłącznie na podstawie wielu przepisów opracowanie będące podstawą realizacji obiektów budowlanych? W istocie dla inwestorów tak jest, jednak proces sporządzania projektu budowlanego jest, w przekonaniu autorów, skomplikowaną siatką powiązań wielu zależności i relacji między różnymi obszarami wiedzy, umiejętności i uwarunkowań. Zaniechania w którymś z wymienionych obszarów prowadzą często do powstawania elementów ryzyka w realizacji inwestycji. Ryzyko to dotyczyć może wszystkich uczestników procesu budowlanego: inwestora, inspektora nadzoru inwestorskiego, projektanta oraz kierownika budowy lub kierownika robót [1]. Stąd badania zostały skoncentrowane na próbie zebrania i przeanalizowania istotnych danych, a następnie ukazaniu ich wzajemnych relacji i powiązań. Dzięki współczesnej technologii i dziedzinie, jaką jest wizualizacja danych, można w obrazowy sposób ukazać wzajemne powiązanie danych przy jednoczesnym uporządkowaniu pozornego chaosu. W pierwszej części artykułu opisano projekt budowlany jako proces i jego części składowe, bazując na przepisach wyjściowych w zakresie wyłącznie podstawowym. W dalszej części scharakteryzowano metodę wizualizacji danych, jej zalety i możliwości. W końcu na potrzeby artykułu przedstawiono wyniki badań nad możliwościami prezentacji procesu projektowego na wybranych przykładach, stanowiących część szerszego obszaru badawczego. Wnioski z zaprezentowanych przykładów i dotychczasowych badań stanowią podsumowanie artykułu.
EN
What is a construction project? Is it only a development based on many regulations that is the basis for the construction works? In fact, this is the case for Investors, but the process of drawing up a construction project is, in the opinion of the authors, a complex network of connections of many dependencies and correlations between different areas of knowledge, skills and conditions. Omissions in any of these areas often lead to risk areas in the implementation of investments. This risk may affect all participants in the construction process: the investor, the investor supervision supervisor, the designer and the site manager or works manager. Therefore, the research focused on trying to collect and analyze relevant data and then show their interrelationships and connections. Thanks to modern technology and the field of data visualization, it is possible to visualize the interconnection of data while at the same time ordering the apparent chaos. The first part of the article describes the construction design as a process and its components based on the basic rules only. Further, the data visualization method, its advantages and capabilities are characterized. Finally, for the purpose of the article, the results of studies on the possibilities of presenting the design process on selected examples, which are part of a wider research area, are presented. Conclusions from the presented examples and previous studies are a summary of the article.
EN
The paper aims to determine the criteria and sub-criteria for evaluating the contractor’s performance and finalize a master list of the criteria and sub-criteria to be used for evaluating contractor’s performance with their respective weights. The method is incorporated in the framework proposed for the evaluation of the contractor’s performance during the execution phase. An exploratory study has been opted, using a structured, close-ended multiple-choice questionnaire survey approach. The questionnaire survey was conducted in two phases, i.e. validation survey, and reliability survey. Fifteen experts responded to the validation survey, and thirty experts to the reliability survey. The experts were from Government and public sectors in India, working at various senior levels. The weights of criteria and sub-criteria were calculated from data collected in the survey, relative importance was calculated through the relative importance index and criteria were ranked. The paper provides criteria and sub-criteria which were finalized through a questionnaire survey by classification of criteria identified in literature and tender review. The respective weights were finalized, which can be measured while evaluating contractors’ performance. The weights assigned to criteria through the survey are; health and safety is 13.19%, followed by finance 11.93%, time 11.93%, quality 13.38%, client satisfaction 12.42%, environmental safety 12.32%, productivity 12.51% and regulation 12.32%. The paper provides the criteria and sub-criteria with their weights needed for evaluating the performance of contractors during the project execution phase. This research can lead to a culture of continuous measurement of performance for the satisfactory completion of projects.
7
Content available National security challenges and threats
EN
The catalogue of threats which currently exist in the national security environment and may occur in the future is constantly growing. These phenomena are characterized by diversity, intensity, as well as unpredictability of the scale and consequences of their occurrence. The diversity of threats results from the fact that they are a consequence of mutually interacting political, military, economic and social, demographic and environmental processes and phenomena. Their character causes that they increasingly often lead to the occurrence of a crisis situation, and thus to the disruption of the normal functioning of the state. The article attempts to analyze the specific determinants of national security.
EN
The economic progress of recent years has contributed to the fact that both the quality of products and services offered and ISO standardization have become priority criterion that determines the success of manufacturing enterprises. Therefore, the monitoring and supervision of processes carried out in manufacturing companies is a key issue. These aspects support the achievement of key economic and quality objectives. The paper presents the results of a study on manufacturing enterprises in the context of process monitoring maturity. The research objective of the study was to determine the level of maturity in the use of process monitoring techniques and methods in manufacturing enterprises. The subject of the research were the techniques and methods used by the surveyed enterprises in such areas as: production management, machinery park management, warehouse management, transport management, inventory and supply management and IT tools. In order to determine the level of maturity, the author’s model was used, according to which the level of maturity of a manufacturing enterprise in the area of process monitoring depends on the instrumentation that is used in it.
EN
The article presents problem of customer service excellence as apart of management process. By given overview of Customer Service Excellence and management process definitions the work provides methodology of study based on digital Deloitte Report from 2022. The main goal of the elaboration is to present overview statistics based on survey to provide whole range of numbers from study of customer service excellence. The methodology is based on the analysis of empirical data presented in the report and the presentation of far-reaching conclusions. The main outcomes are: self-service is rising, time to increase focus on personalization and customer care, independent and empowered customer service centers are the most effective, regional and industry variances. As a summary there is forecast for 12 months period provided by boards of international companies.
PL
W artykule opisano problem doskonałości obsługi klienta w ramach procesu zarządzania. Za pomocą omówienia definicji doskonałości obsługi klienta i procesów zarządzania w pracy przedstawiono metodologię badań opartą na cyfrowym raporcie Deloitte z 2022 roku. Głównym celem opracowania jest zaprezentowanie statystyk przeglądowych na podstawie ankiety w celu pokazania całego zakresu liczb z badania dostarczonego przez firmę Deloitte w formie zdigitalizowanej. Metodologia oparta jest na analizie danych empirycznych zaprezentowanych w raporcie oraz przedstawieniu daleko idących wniosków. Główne wyniki to: rosnąca skala samoobsługi, czas na zwiększenie nacisku na personalizację i obsługę klienta, niezależne i upoważnione centra obsługi klienta są najbardziej efektywne, różnice regionalne i branżowe. Podsumowanie zawiera prognozę na okres 12 miesięcy dostarczaną przez zarządy międzynarodowych firm.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono działania Komisji Europejskiej ujęte w planie REPowerEU, mające na celu z jednej strony zapewnienie bezpieczeństwa energetycznego krajów członkowskich UE po agresji Rosji na Ukrainę i nałożeniu sankcji na Rosję, a z drugiej – ograniczenie nasilających się obecnie coraz bardziej negatywnych zmian klimatycznych. Aby przeciwdziałać tym zmianom, koniecznością jest odejście od wykorzystywania paliw kopalnych na rzecz odnawialnych źródeł energii (OZE). Scharakteryzowano udział energii OZE w bilansach energetycznych wybranych krajów europejskich i pozaeuropejskich poprzez przedstawienie wielkości zainstalowanej mocy energii elektrycznej pochodzącej z poszczególnych typów źródeł energii: wiatru, promieniowania słonecznego, wody, biomasy (biopaliwa stałe, ciekłe i gazowe) oraz z zasobów geotermalnych. Dane te pochodzą z roku 2021 i dotyczą krajów najbardziej zaawansowanych we wdrażaniu technologii OZE. Drugim analizowanym parametrem jest wielkość ciepła wygenerowanego ze źródeł odnawialnych oraz pozyskanego w procesie wysokosprawnej kogeneracji. W rozdziale dotyczącym udziału energii odnawialnej w strukturze polskiej energetyki przedstawiono wyniki z I półrocza 2022 r., wskazujące, że zielona energetyka stanowiła tylko 22,5% całej wyprodukowanej energii, przy największym udziale elektrowni wiatrowych (11,9%) i instalacji fotowoltaicznych (4,4%). Podkreślono ogromny rozwój w kraju fotowoltaiki (liczba instalacji w maju 2022 r. wynosiła 1 083 600 szt.) oraz duży potencjał rozwojowy pomp ciepła. Omówiono wybrane dokumenty krajowe mające wpływ na powstawanie nowych źródeł OZE, konieczność ich dostosowania do aktualnych potrzeb, a także wprowadzenia uproszczonych procedur i skrócenia terminów udzielania zezwoleń na inwestycje OZE.
EN
The article presents the actions of the European Commission included in the REPowerEU plan, intended on the one hand to ensure the energy safety of the EU member states after the Russian aggression against Ukraine and regarding the sanctions imposed on Russia, and on the other hand – to limit the currently intensifying and increasingly negative climate changes. In order to counteract these changes, it is necessary to phase out the utilisation of fossil fuels in favour of renewable energy sources (RES). The share of RES energy in the energy balances of selected European and non-European countries has been characterised by presenting the magnitude of the installed power of electricity originating from the individual types of energy sources: wind, sunlight, water, biomass (solid, liquid and gaseous biofuels), as well as from geothermal resources. These data originate from 2021, and they refer to the most advanced countries in the implementation of RES technologies. The second analysed parameter is the amount of heat generated from renewable sources and acquired in the process of high-efficiency cogeneration. The chapter involving the share of renewable energy in Polish energy structure presents the results from the 1st half of 2022, pointing out that green energy amounted to only 22.5% of the entire produced energy, with the highest percentages of wind farms (11.9%) and photovoltaic installations (4.4%). The enormous growth of photovoltaics in the country (the number of installations in May 2022 was 1,083,600) is emphasised along with the high development potential of heat pumps. Selected national documents having an impact on the creation of new RES are discussed along with the necessity to adjust them to the current needs, and to introduce simplified procedures and reduction of the times of granting permits for RES investments.
11
Content available Efficiency of preparation for solid fuel burning
EN
The research presented in this study focuses on solid fuel and the process of preparing it for combustion. This topic is highly relevant as it plays a significant role in providing energy to the population and contributes to Ukraine's independence in the economic and energy sectors. Understanding the processes involved in solid fuel preparation is crucial for ensuring efficient energy production and minimizing negative environmental impacts. Therefore, this study aims to provide valuable insights into this area of research. The purpose of the work is to analyze the efficiency of preparation for burning solid fuel and to introduce effective tools that will allow to increase the efficiency of preparation to a new level. The article employed various methods to analyze the topic at hand, including the analytical method, deduction method, functional method, statistical method, synthesis method, and other relevant approaches. In the course of the research, the peculiarities of solid fuel and its differences with other sources from which energy is obtained were noted, errors in the preparation for the burning process of this object and the reasons for their appearance were analyzed. Ineffective methods of increasing the efficiency of preparation for burning solid fuel and their impact on the quality of this process were identified. It was determined that the process of burning solid fuel plays the most important role in increasing the efficiency of power plants of industrial enterprises and not only that.
EN
Ensuring the process0capability currently means the warranty, that produced products will be0in accordance with requirements – from company´s side or from customer´s side. This study focuses on the statistical control of flange shaft proces capability by serial production0in company focused on products for automotive. The flange shaft proces is evaluated by control charts,0specifically by control chart for average and range ([iks z kreską poziomą u góry], R). As the results showed, based on diagram for average and range we are able0to say that the turning process is under the statistical control. Also, we had finished the0reguest for capability of process, where0the indexes of capability process Cpk1 and Cpk2 are higher than the determined value on 1.33 point. The normality of the measured values was verified by histogram. Obtained values are: Cpk1 = 1.645 a Cpk = 1.52. Therefore, we can consider the process as capable.
EN
Increasing global competition, changes in the environment and the increasing complexity of supply chains force companies to look for more effective solutions that meet the needs and requirements of customers. The development of information and communication technologies (ICT) can help to cope with these challenges. It can be observed that automation and industrial robotics in production are increasingly attracting the attention of scientists and practitioners. The article presents the situation of selected production companies in terms of readiness and the level of interest in the implementation of solutions that automate manufacturing processes.
PL
Celem artykułu jest wykazanie związków praw harmonii z wybranymi aspektami doskonalenia podejścia procesowego. W realizacji celu wykorzystano metody badawcze: analizy piśmiennictwa, analizy i konstrukcji logicznej. Artykuł przedstawia współczesny kontekst praw harmonii Karola Adamieckiego w podejściu procesowym. Przedstawiono wybrane definicje procesu oraz zarys charakterystyki podejścia procesowego. Wyjaśniono związki podejścia procesowego z zarządzaniem procesami. Wskazano główne determinanty podejścia procesowego. Omówiono pojęcie doskonalenia, jak i jego aspekty w ujęciu organizacji. Stwierdzono, że wszystkie prawa harmonii znajdują uzasadnienie we współczesnym podejściu do doskonalenia procesów w organizacji, tym samym są jedną z teoretycznych podstaw zarządzania procesami w ujęciach: operacyjnym (podejście procesowe), strategicznym (podejście systemowe) oraz doskonalenia.
EN
The aim of the article is to show the relationship between the laws of harmony and selected aspects of improving the process approach. In order to achieve the goal, the following research methods were used: literature analysis, analysis and logical construction. The article presents the contemporary context of Karol Adamiecki’s laws of harmony in a process approach. Selected process definitions and an outline of the process approach characteristics are presented. Relationships between the process approach and process management were explained. The main determinants of the process approach were indicated. The concept of improvement was discussed, as well as its aspects in terms of organization. It was found that all the laws of harmony are justified in the modern approach to process improvement in the organization, thus they are one of the theoretical foundations of process management in terms of: operational (process approach), strategic (system approach) and improvement.
EN
Sanitation and water are one of those problems which have been given top priority in the sustainable agenda. However, scanty resources, geographical condition, natural environment, tradition, institutional and financial constraints lead to several challenges of feasibility, affordability, availability,and acceptability. This study reveals the inequality in the access to improved toilet facilities based on wealth index and locality of households using National Family Health Survey (NFHS) data. These problems can be addressed by applying different types of social innovations in which novelty in product and process can play a crucial role. This paper critically examines the role of innovation which can play in expanding transition to sustainable development in the sanitation sector which needs some financial, organizational, and institutional agreement. The progress in sanitation sector is dependent on the consumer behavior. However, it still lacks a variety of quality-price ranges and its utility as the basic needs of dignified life.
PL
Warunki sanitarne i woda to jedne z najważniejszych wyzwań w kontekście zrównoważonego rozwoju. Zarazem skąpe zasoby, warunki geograficzne, środowisko naturalne, tradycja, ograniczenia instytucjonalne i finansowe prowadzą do kilku wyzwań związanych z wykonalnością, przystępnością cenową, dostępnością i akceptowalnością. Badanie to ujawnia nierówności w dostępie do ulepszonych toalet w oparciu o indeks zamożności i lokalizację gospodarstw domowych na podstawie danych National Family Health Survey (NFHS). Problemy te można rozwiązać, stosując różne rodzaje innowacji społecznych, w których nowość w produkcie i procesie może odgrywać kluczową rolę. W artykule krytycznie przeanalizowano rolę innowacji, które mogą odegrać istotną rolę w przejściu do zrównoważonego rozwoju w sektorze sanitarnym, które wymaga finansowego, organizacyjnego i instytucjonalnego zabezpieczenia. Postęp w sektorze sanitarnym zależy też od zachowań konsumentów. Jednak nadal brakuje tu różnych przedziałów jakościowo-cenowych i użyteczności zapewniających podstawowe potrzeby godnego życia.
EN
The aim of the article is to present the results of a case study focused on the implementation of the Six Sigma methodology in order to improve the quality and increase the efficiency of furniture production processes. Positive results of implementation after the implementation of corrective measures were achieved in the values of process capability coefficients, reduction of nonconformities and subsequent reduction of DPMO, increase of the values of the level of efficiency and sigma of the critical process.In the processing of the results, classical methods of research work were used such as analysis, synthesis, comparison, descriptive statistics, coefficients Cp a Cpk, DPMO, level of efficienty and sigma,and also graphic methods.
PL
Standaryzacja procesów informacyjnych BIM jest istotnym elementem sukcesu wdrażania metodyki BIM poziomu dojrzałości 2 w projektach inwestycyjnych na całym świecie. W roku 2018 międzynarodowa organizacja standaryzacji ISO opublikowała długo oczekiwany międzynarodowy standard procesów informacyjnych BIM znany jako norma ISO 19650, a dokładniej dwie pierwsze normy z tej serii, czyli ISO 19650-1 i ISO 19650-2. Polski Komitet Normalizacji wydał je w styczniu oraz lutym 2019 roku jako PN-EN ISO 19650-1 i PN-EN ISO 19650-2, jednak bez tłumaczenia na język polski treści normy. Ponieważ aplikacja procesów BIM w krajowych projektach inwestycyjnych na podstawie anglojęzycznej wersji normy jest utrudniona przez jej hermetyczne słownictwo, łączące terminologię z obszaru prawa, techniki budowlanej, technologii informatycznych oraz metod zarządzania pochodzących z obcych systemów prawnych, uregulowań branżowych, a nawet zasad zwyczajowych dla środowisk zawodowych z obszaru budownictwa, głównie z Wielkiej Brytanii, niniejszy artykuł jest propozycją polskiego tłumaczenia terminologii normy ISO 19650 dostosowanego do realiów krajowych procesów inwestycyjnych. Celem tej propozycji jest z jednej strony wsparcie osób czynnie zaangażowanych w przygotowanie i realizację projektów BIM na krajowym rynku budowlanym, a z drugiej animowanie dyskusji nad wypracowaniem oraz ustabilizowaniem polskiej terminologii norm BIM z serii ISO 19650 i w konsekwencji przygotowanie wysokiej jakości tłumaczenia polskich wersji norm ISO 19650.
EN
Standardisation of BIM information processes is a significant element of successful implementation of BIM level 2 information management procedures all over the world. Back in 2018, the International Standardisation Organisation (ISO) has published a long awaited ISO 19650 BIM information standard, to be precise the two first standards of the ISO 19650 family, namely the ISO 19650-1 and ISO 19650-2. Polish Standardisation Committee (PKN) has published those two standards in January and February of 2019 as PN-EN ISO 19650-1 and PN-EN ISO 19650-2, but without translation to Polish of the standards’ content. Because implementation of the BIM information standards into the Polish domestic projects based on the English version of the standards faces severe obstacles due to hermetic terminology that includes terms from the area of foreign law, construction technic, information technology, project management and even professionally settled/agrees terminology, this paper focuses on bringing a proposal of establishing official Polish terms of the ISO 19650 standards by either translating or localising original English terms into the Polish language and/or construction market culture. The objectives of this paper are twofold: firstly, empower the Polish professionals active both in implementing BIM information management processes into the construction projects or delivering the actual solutions with a precise and profound understanding of the ISO norms principles and rules to leverage the BIM success ratio, secondly to animate an industry-wide discussion on the official Polish ISO 19650 terminology that will help to provide high quality translation of the ISO 19650 standards into Polish.
EN
The current focusing of market on customer comfort demands that service providers orienconstantly modernize their structures and methods of operation. Due to the progressive digitization of various areas of business activity it is necessary to know and regularly implement up-to-date technological aids available to maintain competitiveness and build long-term relationships with the client. Delivering products to the point of consumption is an extremely important element in the supply chain and transport companies play the role of both intermediaries and service providers. This article is a framework proposal of a methodological solution for entities dealing with transport services in terms of building long-term relationships with the client with the help of modern technologies and methodologies. The findings show strategies and systems with which transport companies can strive to build a competitive offer in the logistics chain. A process portal was proposed as the target solution as an internet base of the transport offer using big data as a means to optimize the service. The study was devoted to analysing multi-criteria decision-making methods with a view to using solutions in the process of developing methodologies for building customer relations in the field of transport services.
EN
Purpose: The aim of the research was to assess the effectiveness of implementing Lean Manufacturing (One-Piece-Flow) elements in a company producing shock absorbers. Design/methodology/approach: With the help of VSM, the most important problem in the production process was diagnosed, and by using the 5 Whys tool, the root causes of the problems were identified. A simulation of introducing the One-Piece-Flow system into the production line was then used to estimate the most optimal solution. After choosing the solution, it was implemented, and the results obtained were verified. Findings: As a result of the conducted analyses, the most important problems related to planning, scheduling and the flow of intermediates were identified. The 5 Whys analysis allowed for the grouping of individual problems by common causes. Detailed solutions to the problems were proposed, which were included in the future Value Stream Map. Research limitations/implications: Conducting research in a working production process is limited and faces significant resistance from managers. Practical implications: The most important effects of implementing an improvement plan were minimising inventory from 138,062 units to 25,000 units, which reduced costs and indicates reduced waste. Lead time was limited to 9.67 days from 56.96 days. Originality/value: Research results confirm the effectiveness of introducing only some solutions of the Lean philosophy. This is particularly important if the enterprise is unable to comprehensively implement the Lean Manufacturing concept due to organisational or financial reasons.
PL
Obiekty budowlane powstają podczas realizacji przedsięwzięć budowlanych. Uczestnicy tych przedsięwzięć są zainteresowani podejmowaniem systematycznych działań na rzecz poprawy stanu bezpieczeństwa pracy i ochrony zdrowia. Skuteczność tych działań wymaga, aby były prowadzone w ramach kompleksowego systemu zarządzania procesem realizacji przedsięwzięcia budowlanego. System zarządzania bezpieczeństwem i ochrony zdrowia jest częścią ogólnego systemu zarządzania przedsięwzięciem, który obejmuje: strukturę organizacyjną, planowanie, odpowiedzialności, zasady postępowania, procedury, procesy oraz zasoby i wymaga analizy zagadnień bezpieczeństwa i ochrony zdrowia w poszczególnych jego obszarach, fazach, etapach. Wynika to przede wszystkim z faktu, że właściwe zarządzanie jest najskuteczniejszym sposobem zapewnienia odpowiedniego poziomu bezpieczeństwa i ochrony zdrowia (bioz), pożądanego zarówno ze względu na konieczność przestrzegania przepisów prawnych obowiązujących w budownictwie, oczekiwania społeczne, jak i na możliwość uzyskania pozytywnych efektów ekonomicznych przez poszczególnych uczestników procesu w skali całego przedsięwzięcia budowlanego. W artykule zaproponowano model teoretyczny przedsięwzięcia budowanego, który może posłużyć do rozpoznania stanu bioz. W modelu wyróżniono części, czynności i obszary zgodnie z logicznym przebiegiem procesu, które przyporządkowano poszczególnym etapom realizacji przedsięwzięcia. Do rozpoznania czynników mających wpływ na bioz opracowano narzędzie badawcze – RADAR BIOZ. Do oceny stanu bioz sformułowano model analityczny i matematyczny badanego przedsięwzięcia, aby ostatecznie określić kierunki działań profilaktycznych w zakresie bezpieczeństwa i ochrony zdrowia w poszczególnych etapach, fazach, obszarach procesu realizacji przedsięwzięcia budowlanego.
EN
Construction objects arise during the implementation of construction projects. Participants in these projects are interested in taking systematic actions to improve the state of occupational safety and health protection. The effectiveness of these activities requires that they be carried out as part of a comprehensive system of managing the construction project implementation process. The safety management and health protection system is part of the overall project management system, which includes: organizational structure, planning, responsibility, rules of conduct, procedures, processes and resources and requires analysis of safety and health protection issues in its individual areas, phases and stages. This is primarily due to the fact that proper management is the most effective way to ensure an adequate level of safety and health protection (bioz), desirable both due to the need to comply with legal provisions in force in construction, social expectations, and the possibility of obtaining positive economic effects by individual process participants in the scale of the entire construction project. The article proposes a theoretical model of the built undertaking that can be used to recognize the state of bioses. The model distinguishes parts, activities and areas in accordance with the logical course of the process, which was assigned to individual stages of the project. A research tool – RADAR BIOZ – was developed to identify the factors affecting bioz. To assess the condition of bioses, an analytical and mathematical model of the examined undertaking was formulated to ultimately determine the directions of preventive actions in the field of safety and health protection at individual stages, phases and areas of the construction project implementation process.
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