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PL
Problematyka związana z kompetencjami absolwentów Politechniki Poznańskiej stanowi obecnie jeden z obszarów badań dotyczących ich szans na zdobycie wymarzonej pracy. Celem artykułu jest określenie profilu absolwentów Wydziału Inżynierii Zarządzania Politechniki Poznańskiej, którzy ukończyli studia na trzech kierunkach kształcenia, tj. na inżynierii zarządzania, logistyce i inżynierii bezpieczeństwa, oraz przedstawienie ich szans na rynku pracy. Uwagę skierowano na następujące problemy badawcze: „Czy wybrane studia spełniły oczekiwania absolwentów Wydziału Inżynierii Zarządzania?” oraz „Czy absolwenci Wydziału Inżynierii Zarządzania potrafią ocenić cechy najważniejsze zdaniem pracodawców?”. W artykule omówiono również charakterystyczne cechy pokolenia millenialsów, wskazano, jakie kompetencje są najcenniejsze zdaniem pracodawców, oraz przedstawiono zmiany percepcji kompetencji absolwentów w opinii pracodawców. Ponadto zaprezentowano propozycje współpracy firm z uczelnią w procesie kształtowania ścieżki studiów Politechniki Poznańskiej oraz działania uczelni sprzyjające znalezieniu zatrudnienia przez absolwenta
EN
The issues related to the competences of graduates of Poznań University of Technology are one of the current research areas concerning the chances of graduates finding their dream job. The article defines the profile of graduates of Poznań University of Technology and specifies the faculties of the Faculty of Management Engineering: Management Engineering, Logistics and Safety Engineering. A graduate of Management may find employment as an analyst, a designer of organizational and management systems, a sales manager and a mid-level manager of production companies. He also has the competences and skills to run his own business. People who graduated in Logistics can find employment in such positions as a manager, systems analyst, product designer, in material and technical procurement, production, transport, storage, sales and distribution of products. Safety Engineering graduates are prepared to perform functions as employees of small, medium and large enterprises as well as in state and local government, or in economic and educational administration. They will also find employment in design offices, primary, secondary and higher education, advisory institutions in the field of safety engineering. The article also describes the characteristics of the Millennial generation, the most valuable competences in the opinion of employers and changes in the perception of graduates’ competences in the opinion of employers. Proposals for cooperation between companies and the university in the process of shaping the curriculum at Poznań University of Technology and activities on the part of the university to help its graduates find employment are also presented.
EN
Purpose: The aim of this article is to show what factors contribute to women’s reluctance to work part-time and to what extent. Part-time employment is a characteristic feature of the labour market in many Western European countries. In Poland, this form of employment is much less popular, also among women whom it mainly concerns, even though from the employer’s point of view part-time employment along with other forms of flexible work could result in a greater flexibility of an organization. Design/methodology/approach: Based on the analysis of the source literature, other research and the authors own studies among women (conducted with the use of questionnaires from 71 female respondents), the text explores why this form of employment is not popular in Poland. Findings: The results of the analysis point to unsatisfactory levels of income as the main reason; however, the income factor was not the only disadvantage of part-time employment identified by the respondents. Research limitations/implications: Due to the size of the research sample, the results cannot be generalized for the whole population. This study provides a basis for further research. Practical implications: The results constitute an important contribution to this debate, both in terms of the state economy and decisions taken by entrepreneurs themselves related to part-time employment. In the light of the current problems with recruiting qualified employees, learning more about their concerns and factors that have an impact on their decisions may help employers be more effective in taking action. Originality/value: The authors’ contribution in this paper is to provide empirical insights into factors contributing to reluctance to work part-time. This paper corrects an identified lack of research into these factors in Poland.
EN
The article aims to assess the impact of the increasing scale of economic immigration into the Republic of Poland after 1989 on the level of economic security of the state. The study indicates and describes the most significant moments influencing the changing scale of immigration to Poland after 1989, and analyses selected strategic documents on security related to the phenomenon of economic immigration. Qualitative research methods were adopted, including analysis of sources, using the technique of analyzing the content of Polish and foreign literature, Polish strategic documents, legal acts, and statistical data (desk research) of the Office for Foreigners to achieve the objective.
PL
Celem artykułu była ocena wpływu wzrastającej skali imigracji ekonomicznej na teren Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej po 1989 roku na poziom bezpieczeństwa ekonomicznego państwa. W artykule wskazano i opisano najważniejsze momenty mające wpływ na zmieniającą się skalę imigracji do Polski po 1989 r., dokonano analizy wybranych dokumentów strategicznych z zakresu bezpieczeństwa związanego ze zjawiskiem imigracji ekonomicznej. Do realizacji celu przyjęto jakościowe metody badawcze obejmujące: analizę źródeł, z zastosowaniem techniki analizy treści polskiej i zagranicznej literatury, polskich dokumentów strategicznych, aktów prawnych oraz danych statystycznych (desk research) Urzędu do Spraw Cudzoziemców.
PL
Mimo licznych głosów rozsądku nawołujących, żeby zmienić ten stan rzeczy, edukacja inżynierów w Polsce wciąż koncentruje się na przekazywaniu wiedzy teoretycznej.
EN
The aim of the article is to recognize the essence of global competence for effective functioning on the global labor market. Global competence is understood as the ability to interact effectively in international and intercultural environments. The concept of global competence is based on mutual respect and an attitude of openness to cultural diversity. Presented study refers to the significance and necessity of global competence analyzed in literature concerning contemporary educational challenges.
EN
The purpose of the study is to research the effective international practice of European integration and identify the main system priorities of an effective transformation of the state policy of labor market regulation for Ukraine. The research methods are a comparative analysis concerning the activity of the employment services, the labor market situation in Ukraine and abroad, in particular in Eastern Europe, a statistical analysis of the structure of the employment level, of annual earnings etc., and a systemic analysis, aimed to improve the direction of labor market regulation.
PL
Celem artykułu jest przedstawienie nowego sposobu badania podstaw podejmowania decyzji i zachowań młodych (pokoleń Y i Z). Kryterium różnicującym jest fakt wychowywania się w globalizującym się świecie, opartym na dynamicznym rozwoju technologii komunikacyjnych (przede wszystkim internetowych). Na podstawie badań z obszaru neuronauk przyjęto, że sposoby działania aktywizujące odpowiednie obszary mózgu i połączenia myślowe w rezultacie kształtują też mózg, co w konsekwencji skutkuje zmianą sposobów postrzegania świata, myślenia i działania. Na podstawie rozważań teoretycznych, opartych na krytycznej analizie literatury przedmiotu, głównie angielskojęzycznej, oraz na badaniach empirycznych opisanych w raportach dotyczących pokoleń Y i Z, w pierwszej części artykułu omówiono problemy charakterystyki młodych na rynku pracy. Część druga została poświęcona interpretacji z perspektywy neuronauk wybranych sposobów myślenia i zachowań osób młodych, stanowiących istotne determinanty posiadanych przez nich, a cenionych przez pracodawców, kompetencji transferowalnych oraz będących predyktorami ich zachowań na rynku pracy. Efektem przeprowadzonego wywodu jest wskazanie na istotny potencjał interpretacyjny analiz postaw młodych wobec pracy i życia kryjący się w neuronaukach.
EN
The aim of the article is to indicate a new, different way to research the foundation of decision making and behaviour of young people (generations Y and Z) on the labour market. The differentiating criterion of younger people is the fact that they are raised and educated in a globalizing world of dynamie development of information and communication technologies. Based on research in the area of neuroscience, it is assumed that the way people function activates the appropriate regions of the brain and mental connections which in consequence shape minds and, as a result, changes the way they perceive the world, think and act. The article deliberately confronts findings from various areas of knowledge related to the characterization of generations Y and Z, and is based on subject literature and empirical data presented in adequate reports. The first part of the article focuses on the challenges of young people on labour market characterizations. The aim of the second part is to interpret from the neurosciences perspective chosen modes of thinking and behaving of young people as determinants of their transferrable competencies, valued by employers, and predictors of (future) behaviours on the labour market.
9
EN
The aim of the article is to present and discuss the results of pilot studies conducted among students of three faculties of Silesian University of Technology: Faculty of Organization and Management; Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Computer Science; Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. The paper presents a thesis assuming that temporary work is a frequently chosen form of employment among students. The aim of the pilot studies was to analyse the preferred employment types among students and to indicate the factors and conditions that influence the choice of temporary work.
10
Content available Social innovations as support for Industry 4.0
EN
The main subject for consideration concentrates on the social innovation defined as a tool to support the change related to Industry 4.0. It seems obvious that the Fourth Industrial Revolution transforms social life, the Internet of things (IoT), cloud data, big data, autonomous robots, additive manufacturing, augmented reality, etc., which are listed as basic elements of Industry 4.0. It also transforms the economic sphere, especially work organisation and the labour market. Current prognoses of the possible economic and social impact of digital technology often highlight positive aspects, but we also need to predict and study possible negative consequences. In order to design a 'more satisfactory' social environment that takes into account the needs of the present, we need new ways of social functioning. It is assumed that social innovations can be treated as instruments useful for overcoming challenges posed by Industry 4.0. The analysis will be theoretical, hence such notions as social innovations, Industry 4.0 and others will be defined. This discussion will help to understand and solve future social problems.
11
Content available Professional activity of women in Polish enterprises
EN
During the last years, there has been visible growth in the professional activity of women in Polish enterprises. In the Polish market, specialists in several given areas are needed, and there are more and more highly educated and qualified women entering the workforce. In the article, the main focus is on showing the differences in the employment possibilities of men and women in Polish enterprises. The differences were examined between women and men working in enterprises of the same size, and of different sizes. Age, education and origin of respondents were analyzed. The analyzes allow to judge further the economic development of Polish enterprises from the point of view of gender hiring practices.
EN
The paper presents results of the nationwide questionnaire survey of trade unions on the five leading megatrends: automation, decarbonisation, demography, digitisation, globalization. The aim was to investigate and complete analysis of the labour market participants' competences and the attitudes to the key problems of the contemporary world.
13
Content available Dual education system in a knowledge-based economy
EN
The article focuses on the subject of training qualified staff and profiling of vocational training fields. As researchers note, there is currently no doubt that for the effectiveness of the vocational training system to be as high as possible, it is necessary to bring the vocational school closer to the world of work, the labour market and businesses to school. In the 21st century, an employee must be a well-educated expert. In today's economies, where knowledge is a key resource, there is a characteristic pattern. Finding a job is determined 70% by professional knowledge (hard competences) and 30% by soft skills (social competences). However, 70% of work is lost due to a lack of soft skills and 30% due to a lack of professional expertise. Against this background, the author of the article - analysing the dual education system - indicates that coordinating vocational training with the needs of the labour market is an extremely effective method.
EN
The article presents the results of surveys focusing on the impact of digitalization on the labor market. The conducted research and analyzes show that breaking the mental barriers to digitalization in order to strengthen its acceptance may play a decisive role in creating development within the labor market. As evidenced by numerous sources cited in the text, the pursuit of development, in the phase of digitalization growth, directly leads to economic growth in the dimension of both the state and local communities. This, in turn, favors the social dimension of the individual and strengthens the human feeling of fullness of life.
EN
The issues of the labor market in Poland in recent years have been the subject of interest of many researchers. The occurring changes necessitate the verification of previously used theories for its interpretation. The purpose of the article is an attempt to capture the problems of general interpretation of the labor market, which does not reflect the diversity of behaviors in its space resulting from the socio-economic conditions of individual as well as individual preferences of labor market participants. To analyze the problem, the GUS statistics on the labor market and unemployment will be used, as well as the literature on the subject to understand the broader conditions on the labor market and behavioral factors. The analysis will allow to answer the question whether the general definition of today's labor market in Poland as an employee market refers to the entire labor market or only reflects certain trends of leading regions.
EN
The authors of the article, based on literature studies, notes a current significant increase in the role and importance of professional preparation of employees, which is closely related to the rate of civilizational progress, including the extremely dynamically developing automation of numerous industrial and non-industrial areas. In this light, it seems that breaking the mental barriers to the automation process in order to strengthen its acceptance could play a decisive role in creating the development of the labor market and education
EN
This article focuses on presenting the opinion of Generation Z, in terms of attributes of uniformed services as employers on the Polish labour market. The article was prepared on the basis of the results of empirical research carried out by means of a diagnostic survey method using the questionnaire technique, and was conducted in January 2019 on a sample of 100 people.
EN
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as an innovative part of the continuously improving HR management has become a common practice for socially and environmentally friendly business organisations in 21st century. CSR is a corporate-level contribution to sustainable development, but also a tool for social responsibility, prestige building, improvement of stakeholders’ satisfaction and loyalty, thereby increasing the value of the company. Over the past decades, it has been a key factor to show how the company's activities have an impact on environment, and what kind of social problems it can contribute to by charity actions. Internal CSR activities are also known to increase efficiency, but the intensity of their use is related to the labour market situation. Significant wage differences, increasing labour demand, free labour flow have intensified labour competition, resulting significant fluctuation in several sectors in CEE region. Therefore, these new challenges put pressure on companies to engage in CSR and focus on their human resources. The main purpose of this study is to draw attention to the potential role of internal CSR in reduction of labour shortages. The research is based on systematic review of relevant scientific literature, content analysis of multinational companies’ good practices and descriptive analysis of statistical data collected from Eurostat Database (2019) and the Hungarian Central Statistical Office (2019). Through main findings Authors indicate that ethical leadership behaviour, moral recognition of employees, and empathy towards people with personal or health problems still offer new opportunities for solving labour problems. A more efficient use of internal CSR requires a change of attitude and a new leadership style for both large companies and SME sector.
PL
Społeczna odpowiedzialność biznesu (CSR) jako innowacyjna część stale ulepszanego zarządzania zasobami ludzkimi stała się powszechną praktyką organizacji biznesowych przyjaznych społecznie i środowiskowo w XXI wieku. CSR to wkład na poziomie korporacyjnym w zrównoważony rozwój, ale także narzędzie do społecznej odpowiedzialności, budowania prestiżu, poprawy satysfakcji i lojalności interesariuszy, zwiększając tym samym wartość firmy. W ciągu ostatnich dziesięcioleci kluczowym czynnikiem było pokazanie, w jaki sposób działania firmy mają wpływ na środowisko i jakie problemy społeczne mogą przyczynić się do działań charytatywnych. Wiadomo również, że wewnętrzne działania CSR zwiększają wydajność, ale intensywność ich wykorzystania jest związana z sytuacją na rynku pracy. Znaczne różnice w płacach, rosnący popyt na pracę, swobodny przepływ pracy nasiliły konkurencję na rynku pracy, co spowodowało znaczne wahania w kilku sektorach w regionie CEE. Dlatego te nowe wyzwania wywierają presję na firmy, aby angażowały się w CSR i koncentrowały się na swoich zasobach ludzkich. Głównym celem tego badania jest zwrócenie uwagi na potencjalną rolę wewnętrznego CSR w zmniejszaniu niedoborów siły roboczej. Badania opierają się na systematycznym przeglądzie odpowiedniej literatury naukowej, analizie treści dobrych praktyk firm międzynarodowych i analizie opisowej danych statystycznych zebranych z Bazy danych Eurostatu i Węgierskiego Głównego Urzędu Statystycznego. Dzięki głównym odkryciom Autorzy wskazują, że etyczne zachowania przywódcze, moralne uznawanie pracowników i empatia wobec osób z problemami osobistymi lub zdrowotnymi wciąż oferują nowe możliwości rozwiązywania problemów związanych z pracą. Bardziej efektywne wykorzystanie wewnętrznej CSR wymaga zmiany nastawienia i nowego stylu przywództwa zarówno dla dużych przedsiębiorstw, jak i sektora MŚP.
EN
Differentiation of the level of labor productivity has a direct impact not only on the level of wages, but also on the formation of labor market. The growth of labor productivity, mechanization, automation and digitalization of economy contribute to the release of part of labor resources. On the other hand, motivation of workers in various sectors of economy contributes to the outflow of people to more paid and prestigious industries. The study of trends in motivation of workers, the redistribution of labor resources between sectors of economy in connection with a significant differentiation of productivity and wages is of high importance. The purpose of this research is to study the trends and structure of the labor market in Russian Federation in conjunction with productivity and wages, as well as to identify factors affecting the growth of labor productivity. The research methodology includes the analysis of secondary data of official statistics for the period from 1995 to 2017, institutional analysis, binary regression models, as well as the results of own research. It was established that labor market has changed. The number of employed labor resources increased in financial activity, public administration, wholesale and retail trade, hotels and restaurants, health care, education, construction and mining. At the same time, the number of people employed fell in research and development, real estate operations, manufacturing industries, agriculture, the provision of other services (municipal, social and personal), transport and communications.
PL
Zróżnicowanie poziomu wydajności pracy ma bezpośredni wpływ nie tylko na poziom płac, ale także na kształtowanie rynku pracy. Wzrost wydajności pracy, mechanizacja, automatyzacja i cyfryzacja gospodarki przyczyniają się do uwolnienia części zasobów pracy. Z drugiej strony motywacja pracowników z różnych sektorów gospodarki przyczynia się do odpływu ludzi do bardziej płatnych i prestiżowych branż. Bardzo ważne jest badanie trendów w motywowaniu pracowników, redystrybucji zasobów pracy między sektorami gospodarki w związku ze znacznym zróżnicowaniem wydajności i płac. Celem tych badań jest badanie trendów i struktury rynku pracy w Federacji Rosyjskiej w połączeniu z produktywnością i płacami, a także identyfikacja czynników wpływających na wzrost wydajności pracy. Metodologia badań obejmuje analizę wtórnych danych z oficjalnych statystyk za okres 1995-2017, analiza instytucjonalna, modele regresji binarnej, a także wyniki własnych badań. Ustalono, że rynek pracy się zmienił. Wzrosła liczba zatrudnionych zasobów pracy w działalności finansowej, administracji publicznej, handlu hurtowym i detalicznym, hotelach i restauracjach, służbie zdrowia, edukacji, budownictwie i górnictwie. Jednocześnie zmniejszyła się liczba zatrudnionych osób w pracach badawczo-rozwojowych, nieruchomościach, przemyśle wytwórczym, rolnictwie, świadczeniu innych usług (komunalnych, społecznych i osobowych), transporcie i łączności.
EN
When enrolling at university, student candidates assume that by the time they graduate, they will have acquired competencies that significantly improve their future employability. It is therefore worth verifying whether the human capital developed by students in the course of their studies really does facilitate better employment. The aim of the article is to identify the key elements of the human capital of tertiary graduates in the context of their employability. The analysis will utilise data collected in the course of a study conducted in 2017 by the provincial Labour Office in Lublin and covering 1,375 cases of Lublin University graduates residing and employed within Lubelskie province. The respondents indicated human capital elements such as education, experience, skills, and personal attributes as those that significantly influenced their employability. The study revealed that the greatest barrier to good employment is the lack or insufficiency of professional experience. In turn, the greatest advantages, significant in terms of professional activity, include the following personal and practical skills: diligence and accuracy, self-reliance, work organisation, communication skills, resilience to stress, and engagement. The respondents also mentioned the importance of availability and readiness to improve the already possessed qualifications.
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