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EN
Natural hazards’ information is an obligatory element of planning acts in Poland, such as areas exposed to mass movements and flood occurrence. The paper presents provisions and manners applied in urban planning and design practise in Lesser Poland (Małopolska), region with vast share of landslides in Poland. Discussion leads to evaluation of risk management legal factors in design process, urban planning and accomplishment of building permission.
PL
Informacje o zagrożeniach naturalnych są obowiązkowym elementem opracowań planistycznych w Polsce, taką informacją jest występowanie obszarów narażonych na ruchy masowe ziemi. W pracy przedstawiono regulacje prawne oraz zapisy stosowane w miejscowych planach zagospodarowania przestrzennego. Zakres przestrzenny badań obejmuje Małopolskę, regionie o największym udziale osuwisk w skali krajowej. Przeprowadzona dyskusja prowadzi do oceny uwarunkowań prawnych zarządzania ryzykiem w procesie planowania i uzyskania pozwolenia na budowę przez inwestora.
2
Content available remote Rola instytutów badawczych we wsparciu działań adaptacyjnych do zmian klimatu
EN
A crucial part of every adaptation planning and disaster risk reduction is estimation of vulnerable areas and risk in the future. Only a well-developed monitoring system could bring valuable information to create possible scenarios to set up adaptation plans. Monitoring systems of meteorological conditions, surface water, groundwater, landslides, seacoast, agricultural drought as well as their standards and methodologies, are crucial for establishing an effective warning system of every country, and thus are the subject of research conducted by national institutes. Therefore, the conditions of this national research (getting trained staff, equipment etc.) is essential to provide reliable information for a national adaptation plan and for economic assessment of climate change impacts. Poland has significant experiences in monitoring systems, data collecting and visualizing, as well as in the development of scenarios and risk maps. Methodologies and capacity building, necessary for their use, along with experiences and lessons, learned to get valuable information for disaster risk reduction, were presented by the authors from the research during the 24th session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP 24) in Katowice (December 2018). The presentation contributed to the global adaptation process through experience sharing that is important for the relevant research conducted in the least developed countries.
3
Content available remote Primenenie svaj v kačestve protivoopolznevyh meropriâtij
RU
V dannoj rabote rassmotreny voprosy ukrepleniâ opolznej svaâmi, predstavleny teoretičeskie predposylki i komp’ûternye rasčety parnoj konstrukcii svaj, pozvolâûŝej zakreplât’ opolznevye massivy gruntov. Modelirovanie sklona možet byt’ provedeno s pomoŝ’û MKÈ v programmnom komplekse Plaxis. Bisvajnaâ konstrukciâ pozvolâet ukrepit massiv slabogo grunta, obladaŝego reologičeskimi svojstvami. Prostota montaža, men’šaâ glubina zadelki svaj v nesuŝij sloj po otnošeniû k stolbam-nadolbam i svaâm-špil’kam, a takže men’šaâ veličina poperečnogo sečeniâ železobentonnoj svai, čto svâzano s pereraspredeleniem usilij v bisvajnoj konstrukcii âvlâetsâ dostoinstvom predlagaemoj konstrukcii.
PL
Omówiono kwestie wzmocnienia masywów ziemnych zapobiegającego powstawaniu osuwisk, przedstawiono też podstawy teoretyczne i obliczenia komputerowe sparowanej konstrukcji pali, służącej stabilizowaniu zboczy zagrożonych ruchami masowymi. Modelowanie nachylenia zboczy można przeprowadzić za pomocą MES w pakiecie oprogramowania Plaxis. Konstrukcja podwójnych pali (bipali) pozwala wzmocnić słabe masy ziemne o właściwościach reologicznych. Zaletą proponowanego rozwiązania jest łatwość montażu, mniejsza głębokość posadowienia pali w warstwie nośnej w odniesieniu do pali wbijanych i mikropali, a także mniejszy przekrój pala żelbetowego, co wiąże się z rozdziałem obciążeń w zaproponowanej konstrukcji palowej.
EN
This article presents a method for the quick assessment of the safety of the road on an active landslide on the Just mountain at Tęgoborze using the landslide hazard ratio of landslide movements. The hazard indicator for landslide traffic has been defined as the quotient of the largest displacements obtained from measurements using a terrestrial laser scanner to the largest displacement obtained from a numerical model of the worst geotechnical conditions and an unstable landslide. The application of this indicator was presented on the example of national road No. 75 along the section of the road in km from 51 + 900 to 52 + 700 at the location of the Just mountain at Tęgoborze in the south of Poland. The road is located on an active landslide and has a lot of traffic. The measurements were conducted with the RIEGL. VZ400 terrestrial laser scanner from 2012 to 2016. As a result of the measurements performed with a terrestrial laser scanner, a cloud of 3D points was obtained. Differential models of subsequent measurements were constructed and compared to the first base measurements. The results of 3D differential models obtained from terrestrial laser scanner measurements were compared with results obtained from 3D numerical modelling. Numerical calculations were conducted assuming the worst geotechnical conditions. The model of the landslide was fully saturated. A numerical simulation computed using the finite element method (FEM) in the MIDAS GTS program was applied. A result of the safety factor F = 0.8 (i.e. an unstable landslide) was obtained. In order to estimate the hazard, the values of the landslide hazard indicator were determined for each date using the measurements conducted with the laser scanner.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono metodę szybkiej oceny bezpieczeństwa drogi na osuwisku za pomocą wskaźnika zagrożenia ruchem osuwiskowym. Zdefiniowano wskaźnik zagrożenia ruchem osuwiskowym jako iloraz największych przemieszczeń wyznaczonego z pomiarów naziemnym skanerem laserowym do największego przemieszczenia wyznaczonego z modelu numerycznego dla najgorszych warunków geotechnicznych i niestatecznego osuwiska. Przedstawiono zastosowanie tego wskaźnika na przykładzie odcinka drogi krajowej nr 75 wzdłuż odcinka drogi w km od 51 + 900 do 52 + 700 w miejscowości Just-Tęgoborze na południu Polski. Droga położona jest na czynnym osuwisku i ma duże natężenie ruchu. Pomiary przeprowadzono naziemnym skanerem laserowym RIEGL. VZ400 w okresie od 2012 do 2016 roku. W wyniku pomiarów naziemnym skanerem laserowym otrzymano chmurę punktów 3D. Wykonano modele różnicowe kolejnych pomiarów w porównaniu do pierwszego bazowego pomiaru. Porównano wyniki modeli różnicowych 3D otrzymanych z pomiarów naziemnym skanerem laserowym z wynikami otrzymanymi z modelowania numerycznego 3D. Obliczenia numeryczne przeprowadzono dla najgorszych warunków geotechnicznych czyli całkowitego nasycenia osuwiska metodą elementów skończonych (MES) w programie MIDAS GTS. Otrzymano wynik współczynnika stateczności F = 0,8 czyli osuwisko niestateczne. W celu oszacowania zagrożenia wyznaczono wartości wskaźnika zagrożenia osuwiskiem dla każdej daty wynikającej z przeprowadzonych pomiarów skanerem laserowym.
EN
The paper focuses on emergencies in a particular region of the Slovak Republic. The focus is mainly on describing the emergencies to which the region is most vulnerable and classifying them, as well as specific locations or businesses where there is a high risk of an emergency occurring. From the point of view of the effects of possible emergencies on the district of Bratislava, the most likely situations are natural disasters (floods from precipitation and watercourses, hailstorms, storms, landslides, ice) and accidents (fires, explosions and releases of dangerous substances). When planning rescue work, it is necessary to start from the worst-case scenario of the emergency, while the most important measure to protect the population is issuing warnings and possible evacuation. Special attention should be paid to the following measures: checking the safety measures around hydrological structures and watercourses, carrying out checks on legal entities and natural persons – entrepreneurs who manufacture, store and handle hazardous substances, preparing controlling organizations, forces and resources to carry out rescue work, preparing the population for self-protection and mutual assistance in the event of emergencies, mutual cooperation of rescue teams in preparation for emergencies, exchange of experience and knowledge with neighbouring districts.
6
Content available remote Zagospodarowanie przestrzenne osuwisk : nadal otwarty problem
EN
The method of landslide management raises more and more controversies and disputes, even social conflicts. At the core of these conflicts is the perception of landslide areas, which are regarded by some as favoring and suitable for habitation but by the others as a hazard. Only a deeper knowledge of their causes can lead to the development of mutual understanding and attempts to sustainable development of areas threatened by mass movements. This article presents geological and geomorphological features of landslides favorable for their management. This also describes the hazards resulting from the development of mass movements and the increasing number of populations inhabiting the landslide areas. The lack of unambiguous legal solutions (landusepolicies) is an additional factor hindering the solution of this problem. The basic way to solve conflicts should be to provide reliable information and educational campaigns.
EN
The occurrence of landforms induced by large-scale mass movements has never been reported from the SE part of the Wałbrzyskie Mts., despite detailed geological field mapping carried out twice in the 20th century. This paper provides the first description of landslide-affected slopes in this area, recognized through the combination of LiDAR DEM interpretation and field work. Fifteen landslides have been identified, ranging in size from less than 1 ha to 10.44 ha. Morphological signatures suggest that they represent various types, including minor translational slides, larger rotational complexes and valley-confined flowslides. Closed depressions typify several landslides. In a few instances the valley blocking by landslides can be inferred.
8
Content available remote Podatność osuwiskowa Polski
EN
Using the location data of landslides and information on geo-environmental conditions, the landslide susceptibility in Poland was calculated using statistical methods. It shows that 15% of the country’s area is susceptible to landslides. The greatest threats occur in the Carpathians and in many regions of the Sudetes, uplands and in the riverbanks. The most vulnerable areas are the slopes in the range of 9-30°, which are built by the flysch sediments in the faulted zones. The areas susceptible to landslides include over a million buildings and about 7,000 km of roads.
9
Content available remote Osuwiska w Polsce : od rejestracji do prognozy, czyli 13 lat projektu SOPO
EN
Theintensification of disastrous landslide movements in southern Poland occurring at the end of the 20th century, showed that there was a need to create a unified system of acquiring and collecting landslide data. It also indicated the importance of raising awareness of the existence of landslide hazard for both residents and public administration (decision-makers). This was also the reason for launching a nationwide project, the Landslide Counteracting System (LCS; SOPO in Polish). This system is a platform for acquiring and processing information about mass movements in order to support mainly for government and local administration. The main goal of the project is to reduce the landslide riskin Poland,and to limit damages caused by the development of landslides.
10
Content available remote Osuwiska : problemy prawne, społeczne i administracyjne
EN
This article presents issues and problems related to landslide hazards in the context of geology and law. Based on the previous experience, the author discusses how landslides are perceived in the practice ofgovern- ment, self-government and spatial planning. This article presents the most common problems and sources of potential conflicts that are in the scope of interest ofgeologists, administrations, investors and inhabitants ofendangered areas. The gaps and ambiguities in the regulations as well as suggestion of the proper procedure are discussed.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono doświadczenia ze stabilizacji osuwiska na historycznym wzgórzu Rotunda w Krzeszowie. Zabezpieczenie polegało na wykonaniu metodami geoinżynieryjnymi bloków gruntowo-cementowych o określonych kształcie i rozmiarach, pełniących funkcję sztywnych przypór w zboczu osuwiskowym. Przeprowadzono szczegółową analizę obliczeniową stateczności zagrożonego terenu i zaproponowano optymalny sposób zabezpieczenia z wykorzystaniem technologii wgłębnego mieszania gruntu (DSM). Układ i konstrukcję przypór z paneli DSM przyjęto według autorskiego projektu stabilizacji osuwiska. Po zakończeniu prac stabilizacyjnych historyczne wzgórze Rotunda zachowało niezmienione formę i kształt.
EN
The article describes experiences from the stabilization of landslide on the historic Rotunda hill in Krzeszów. The method consisted in the fabrication of ground and cement blocks, used as the rigid supports of the slope. The calculation analysis of stability was carried out and the optimum method of protection by the Deep Soil Mixing (DSM) technology was applied. The arrangement and construction of DSM panels was adopted according to the authors’ project of landslide stabilization. After the stabilization works had been completed, the historical Rotunda hill retained its form and shape.
EN
The paper presents the final results of mapping work of the Polish Geological Institute - National Research Institute, carried out in the Krynica-Zdrój area in 2010-2012. In the Beskid Niski and Sądecki there are numerous landslides of surface sediments. They also occur in the spa zone of Krynica-Zdrój, posing a threat to its functioning. The basic problem is to recognise the nature of these geohazards and their occurrence in this region. For these reasons, a landslide inventory map was constructed for the whole study area (urban-rural commune). As a result of the analysis, a large variation in the distribution, type and range of landslides has been documented. The landslide surface index and the landslide density index were calculated, concluding that the two indexes differ from each other depending on the geographical position of the analysed area. Both indicators are 2.5-3 times higher for the Krynica-Zdrój town area than for the rural commune area. This variability is associated with different lithologies, tectonics, and geomorphologic features in the area. Krynica-Zdrój lies in the area predisposed to the development of landslides, where the overlapping effects of several passive factors causes mass movements. The Krynica-Zdrój area is composed of thick-bedded sandstones of the Krynica Sandstone Member and the Piwniczna Sandstone Member. They are underlain by variegated shales and thin-bedded turbidites of the Zarzecze Formation. In addition, tectonics of the deep basement is very important. Under the town, there is a deep Krynica fault zone additionally cut by sets of strike-slip faults that altogether cause severe disintegration of the subsurface material and the weakening of cohesive force. The area with the dense sets of faults is an active stress zone. Epicentres of earthquakes probably clustered along all these faults, causing the development and rejuvenation of many landslides in the Krynica-Zdrój area.
EN
The article presents the in-depth monitoring system, its components and practical applications. Part of the article is devoted to new directions of the system development and the main principle of designing it – the principle of uniqueness. A short characterisation of the behaviour of the rock mass at risk of landslide and the impact of this behaviour on the system’s work has also been made.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono system monitoringu wgłębnego, jego elementy składowe oraz praktyczne zastosowania. Część artykułu poświęcona jest nowym kierunkom rozwoju systemu oraz głównej zasadzie obowiązującej przy jego projektowaniu – zasadzie unikalności. Dokonano również krótkiej charakterystyki zachowania się górotworu zagrożonego osuwiskiem i wpływu tego zachowania na prace systemu.
EN
The numerous landslides which have developed in the mostly Cretaceous to Eocene turbiditic rocks of the Silesian Beskid are genetically and geometrically controlled by bedrock structural features, the Biała Wisełka Landslide Complex being no exception. Its location is in the headwater area of the Wisła River, on the slopes of Mt. Barania Góra (1220 m a.s.l.). The bedrock is represented by flysch strata of the Silesian Nappe (Outer Carpathian Fold-and-Thrust Belt), or, more specifically, the Upper Cretaceous turbiditic Upper Godula and Lower Istebna Beds of the Godula Thrust Sheet. The research work consisted in their mapping and structural analysis, facilitated by the use of a high-resolution digital elevation model based on LiDAR data. A comparative analysis enabled the determination of the relationships between landslides and the bedrock structure. The study results point to significant roles being played by the joint network, fault systems, the structural arrangement and the lithology of rock strata in the initiation and evolution of the studied landslide complex. An additional result of the methods applied methods was the identification and characterization of previously unknown fault zones in the study area.
EN
Due to the significant role and noticeable development of transportation routes running from the north to the south of central Europe, several problems related to the construction and functioning of roads in the Carpathian foothills have been revealed. Recent climate change causes areas, where transport routes are particularly exposed to hazards, to succumb to technical exploitation and degradation. The elimination of the threats related to the activation of landslide phenomena becomes particularly expensive. Old roads, which were once designed for significantly lower axle loads and less heavy traffic conditions, are predominantly exposed. At the present, these roads are heavily exploited and have become overloaded. As a result, both the roadway and the subgrade undergo damage, which causes an increase in dynamic loads, and in potentially endangered areas, the activation of landslides. Landslides in the Carpathian flysch have a peculiar susceptibility to activation due to its geological structure. This paper addresses the problem of monitoring and analysing the effects of a landslide associated with the operation of a transportation route running through the slope of the Carpathian flysch. The studies include both field work and laboratory testing of basic geotechnical parameters. The parameters obtained during the geotechnical investigations, conducted for the purpose of building a numerical model, have been completed. The field work includes surveys made by a terrestrial laser scanner. The study also includes a number of 2D and 3D numerical models. These models, along with the substrate parameters, have been introduced into the FEA package and then calibrated. Subsequently, an analysis of the effects of landslide susceptibility and the behaviour of the road and terrain surface, due to the different variants of the loads, is shown along with the results of surveys.
PL
Z uwagi na znaczącą rolę i rozwój szlaków komunikacyjnych przebiegających z północy na południe ujawniają się problemy związane z budową i eksploatacją dróg w podgórskich rejonach Karpat. Zmiany klimatyczne powodują, że obszary, w których przebiegają szlaki transportowe szczególnie narażone są na zagrożenia wynikające z ich technicznej eksploatacji i degradacji. Szczególnie kosztowna staje się likwidacja zagrożeń związanych z aktywacją zjawisk osuwiskowych. Mocno narażone pozostają stare drogi, które kiedyś projektowane były na znacznie mniejsze obciążenia osi pojazdów i inne warunki ruchu. W chwili obecnej drogi te są mocniej eksploatowane i bardziej przeciążone. Przez to zarówno jezdnia, jak i podbudowa ulega uszkodzeniom, co wywołuje zwiększenie obciążeń dynamicznych, zaś w rejonach potencjalnie zagrożonych, aktywację osuwisk. Osuwiska we fliszu karpackim charakteryzują się szczególną podatnością na aktywację ze względu na swoją budowę geologiczną. W pracy zajęto się problemem monitoringu i badania skutków wystąpienia osuwiska związanego z eksploatacją szlaku komunikacyjnego przebiegającego przez skarpę, której podłoże stanowi właśnie flisz karpacki. Dokonano zestawienia parametrów uzyskanych w trakcie badań geotechnicznych, prowadzonych na potrzeby budowy modelu numerycznego. Badania te obejmowały zarówno prace terenowe, jak i badania laboratoryjne podstawowych parametrów geotechnicznych. Prace terenowe uzupełniały pomiary geodezyjne wykonane skanerem laserowym. Zbudowano również szereg modeli numerycznych 2D i 3D. Modele te, wraz z przebadanymi parametrami podłoża zostały wprowadzone do pakietu MES, a następnie skalibrowane. W dalszej kolejności dokonano analizy skutków zagrożenia osuwiskowego i zachowania się drogi oraz podłoża przy różnych wariantach obciążeń oraz pokazano wyniki obserwacji geodezyjnych.
EN
The southern part of Poland is mostly covered by Carpathian mountains. Carpathian Flysch is especially predisposed for the landslides type of the subsoil. Around 98% of all occurring in the country landslides are located in Carpathians. Many of them became active in May 2010, when periodically dormant landslides and new landslide were activated after intensive rainfall. In addition to the main causes of landslides such as rainwater and its infiltration into the ground layers also the Carpathian Flysch tectonic construction (rock layers collapsing in one direction, with numerous jumps and discontinuity) and some anthropogenic influences (loading, slopes undercutting, improper dehydration, etc.) are typical triggering factors. Landslide activity contributes not only to a significant progress of the relief to which occur, but it also carries devastating consequences for the population living nearby. Landslides are a natural threat for economic activities and people’s lives. They are the cause of the damage not only residential buildings but also road and railways and other infrastructure. The landslide analysed here is located in Tymbark, Limanowa district. This article discusses the influence of the building foundation for initiation and growth of the landslide zone in the Carpathian Flysch. Two types of foundations are analysed – base plate foundation and a continuous footing. In both cases, there is a high risk to occur slip zones (FoS < 1.5). Base plate turns out to be more favorable foundation in this subgrade conditions. Although the displacements are relatively larger than in the other case, slip zone is located quite shallow. In the case of the continuous footing, landslide may form deeper reaching the bedrock.
PL
Szczególnie predysponowanym obszarem na terenie Polski do powstawania osuwisk są Karpaty fliszowe. Właśnie na tym obszarze zlokalizowanych jest ok 95% wszystkich osuwisk występujących w kraju. Wzmożona aktywizacja osuwisk na tym terenie miała miejsce w maju 2010 roku, kiedy po intensywnych opadach atmosferycznych doszło do aktywizacji wielu okresowo nieaktywnych osuwisk oraz do inicjacji nowych stref osuwiskowych. Oprócz głównej przyczyny powstawania osuwisk jaką jest woda opadowa oraz jej infiltracją wgłąb warstw gruntowych wyróżnić możemy również budowę tektoniczną Karpat fliszowych (warstwy skalne zapadające się w jednym kierunku, liczne uskoki i nieciągłości) oraz wpływy antropogeniczne (obciążenie, podcinanie skarp, błędne odwodnienie itp). Aktywność osuwisk przyczynia się nie tylko do znacznego rozwoju rzeźby terenu w jakim występują, ale również niesie za sobą katastrofalne skutki dla ludności zamieszkującej pobliskie tereny. Osuwiska są naturalnym zagrożeniem dla działalności gospodarczej oraz życia ludzi. Są przyczyną uszkodzeń nie tylko budynków mieszkalnych ale również m.in. elementów infrastruktury drogowej i kolejowej. Analizowane osuwisko zlokalizowane jest w Tymbarku, w powiecie limanowskim. W artykule omówiono wpływ warunków posadowienia na inicjację i rozwój strefy osuwiskowej we fliszu karpackim. Przeanalizowano dwa przypadki posadowienia obiektu budowlanego – posadowienie na płycie fundamentowej oraz na ławach fundamentowych. W obu przypadkach istnieje duże ryzyko wystąpienia stref poślizgu (FoS < 1,5). Korzystniejszym warunkiem posadowienia okazuje się płyta fundamentowa. Pomimo, że występujące przemieszczenia są stosunkowo większe od przemieszczeń w przypadku posadowienia na ławach fundamentowych mamy do czynienia ze strefą osuwiskową zlokalizowaną dość płytko. W przypadku posadowienia na ławach fundamentowych może dojść do wystąpienia głębokiego, strukturalnego osuwiska sięgającego warstw skalnych.
EN
Recognition and precise delimitation of landslide-affected areas, especially in the mountains, have been a challenge so far. New opportunities emerged after dissemination of high- resolution Digital Elevation Models generated by Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS), which are also used to processing and visualization of geological data. This paper touches the issue in both aspects mentioned above, and presents results of morphometric analysis of a landslide on the northern slope of the Drogosz hill within the Zawory Range, in the southern part of the Krzeszów Basin (Central Sudetes). Attempts ofreconstruction ofthe slip surface and estimation oftotal volume of the landslide colluvialfill were undertaken. Furthermore, differential maps were compiled. They were a basis for the spatial distribution of thickness evaluation. The Drogosz hill landslide seems to be strictly related to the geological structure of the research area. The Zawory Range is composed of Upper Cretaceous, Lower Triassic (Buntsandstein) and Permian (Rotliegendes) rocks. Lack of recognition of landslide phenomena was probably the main reason of misleading interpretations of the Krzeszów area geology. The paper also provides comments on the existing concepts of the geological structure of the Krzeszów Basin, especially of the Łączna Anticline.
PL
Autorzy przedstawiają wyniki badań terenowych i analiz geomorfometrycznych nieznanych form osuwiskowych położonych w dolinie Kaczawy pomiędzy Sędziszową a Nowym Kościołem na Pogórzu Kaczawskim w Sudetach Zachodnich. Na obszarze badań rozpoznano zespół osuwisk o łącznej powierzchni ok. 21 ha na północnych stokach wzgórza Wielisławka (376,3 m n.p.m.), a także kilka mniejszych form na wschodnich stokach góry Wołek (381,7 m n.p.m.), Wygorzel (333,5 m n.p.m.) oraz osuwisk położonych w miejscowości Różana i na południowych zboczach doliny Piekiełko. Morfologia osuwisk sugeruje ich różną genezę. Rozpoznano osuwiska rotacyjne i translacyjne, jak i koluwia płytkich zsuwów i spływów gruzowo-błotnych. Rozpoznanie i wyznaczenie zasięgu form osuwiskowych w dolinie Kaczawy ma znaczenie dla dalszego poznania geologicznych i geomorfologicznych uwarunkowań rozwoju ruchów masowych w Sudetach.
EN
The authors present the results of field studies and geomorphometric analyzes of unknown landslide forms located in the Kaczawa river valley between Sędziszowa and Nowy Kościół (Kaczawskie Foothills, Western Sudetes). In the study area we recognised a landslide complex with a total area of about 21 ha on the northern slopes of Wielisławka hill (376.3 m a.s.l.), as well as several smaller forms on the eastern slopes of Wołek (381.7 m a.s.l.) and Wygorzel (333.5 m a.s.l.) hills and landslides located in the town of Różana and on the southern slopes of the Piekiełko valley. Morphology of recognized landslides provides evidence of different types of gravitational movements including rotational and translational landslides as well as shallow slides and earthflows. Recognition and delimitation of the landslide extent in the Kaczawa river valley is significant for further investigations of the geological and geomorphological conditioning of mass movements in the Sudetes area.
EN
Our dendrogeomorphological analysis was completed for 4 landslides, situated in the municipality of Węgierska Górka in the Beskid Śląski Mountains in Southern Poland. The local landslides pose a direct threat to the newly designed S-69 expressway running through the north-western part of the municipality. The research material consisted of 127 samples, collected with the use of a Pressler increment borer, from three species of coniferous trees (Norway spruce, Scots pine, and Silver fir). The landslide activity periods were identified on the basis of the splitting of the dendrochronological curves representing the upslope and downslope parts of the tree trunks. The largest number of the studied trees indicated reactions to substrate mass movements in 1964, 1971, 1972, 1984, 1994, 1997, 1998, and 2010. The detailed locations of the sampled trees allowed us to reconstruct the activities of particular landslide sections in time. We identified the fact that parts of the landslides located downslope of the planned road S-69 are more active than parts of the same landslides located above it on the slope. Geological conditions in the studied area favour landslide activity while precipitation is the main triggering factor of landslides.
EN
In the course of fieldwork based on geological and landslide mapping and spatial analyses of map information at least 2 types of landslides were identified. Type I: simple landslides developed in homogeneous and undisturbed rocks, for instance – loams, clays and sands. This type of landslide includes many examples developed mainly on the stretch (segment of the studied area) approximately between 132.25 and 133.50 km and 128.50 and 129.50 km of the Polish coastline. Type II: complex landslides in which the movement and displacement of rock masses occurs under complex geological and hydrogeological conditions. The complex factors are determined by phenomena such as glaciotectonics, discontinuities of rock layers and thrust zones; the slip surface occurs at considerable depths, and sometimes several slip surfaces can be distinguished. These landslide types are located in the vicinity of Jastrzębia Góra and Rozewie, near km 134 and 131.5. Prediction of the formation of this landslide types is difficult. Even if long-term observations are available, the mass movement, variable over time, is difficult to interpret. It is clear that the changes are continuous, but occur with varying intensity. Proper recognition of the types of mass movement is crucial to establishing the appropriate methods to prevent their development.
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