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EN
Four municipal waste incineration plants were visited in Belgium. Facilities mainly consist of grate furnaces. During stopping for maintenance, in situ observations were mainly realized in two plants, refractory and slag samples were collected. These samples were observed and analysed in laboratory: ICP chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, EDS analysis, thermo-optical analysis. Three mechanisms of degradation were identified. Their appearance mainly depends on the location in the furnace. On site observation and laboratory investigations allow to understand and to model the degradation mechanisms of materials versus composition, temperature, and their locations in the furnaces.
PL
Odwiedzono cztery belgijskie spalarnie odpadów komunalnych. Obiekty składają się głównie z pieców rusztowych. Podczas postoju z powodu konserwacji w dwóch zakładach przeprowadzono głównie obserwacje in situ i pobrano próbki materiałów ogniotrwałych i żużla. Próbki te obserwowano i analizowano w laboratorium: analiza chemiczna ICP, dyfrakcja rentgenowska, skaningowa mikroskopia elektronowa, analiza EDS, analiza termooptyczna. Zidentyfikowano trzy mechanizmy degradacji. Ich występowanie zależy głównie od lokalizacji w piecu. Obserwacje na miejscu i badania laboratoryjne pozwalają zrozumieć i modelować mechanizmy degradacji materiałów w zależności od składu, temperatury i ich lokalizacji w piecach.
EN
The effect of sintering time on the chosen mechanical and tribological properties of silicon nitride (Si3N4) with 5 wt.% of yttrium aluminium garnet (Y3Al5O12) ceramics was investigated. The Si3N4 ceramics sintered for shorter time contained a larger portion of untransformed a-Si3N4 phase which has higher hardness compared to the tougher β-Si3N4 phase. The fracture toughness of Si3N4 ceramics increased with the prolongation of its sintering time. The microcutting wear mechanisms predominated during the grinding of the Si3N4 ceramics with the Al2O3 abrasives. The hardness of ceramic material had a great effect on its wear resistance. The wear of ceramics at friction with 18Cr-8Ni type of austenitic stainless steels was several times higher compared to friction with 14Cr type of ferritic stainless steel. Under these conditions, the microcracking wear mechanisms predominated.
EN
The effect of mechanical properties on wear resistance of Si3 N4 – SiC composite materials with different portions of SiC strengthening phase was investigated. Properties of monolithic silicon nitride were compared to ceramic composites consisting of Si3 N4 matrix with 10 and 20 vol.% SiC. The SiC strengthening phase had a positive effect on the hardness of Si3 N4 – SiC ceramic composite materials. Wear resistance of tested ceramic materials was mainly influenced by their fracture toughness. The highest wear resistance value was achieved for material with the highest fracture toughness. Worn surfaces of all experimental ceramic materials were damaged by both microcutting and microcracking mechanism. Microcracking was the predominant wear mechanism mainly at ceramic composites. The wear resistance of SiC-Si3 N4 ceramic composites can be described by the model W ~ HV/KIC.
4
Content available remote SiN/SiO2 passivation stack of n-type silicon surface
EN
The SiN/SiO2 stack is widely used to passivate the surface of n-type monocrystalline silicon solar cells. In this work, we have undertaken a study to compare the stack layer obtained with SiO2 grown by both rapid thermal and chemical ways to passivate n-type monocrystalline silicon surface. By varying the plateau time and the plateau temperature of the rapid thermal oxidation, we determined the parameters to grow 10 nm thick oxide. Two-step nitric acid oxidation was used to grow 2 nm thick silicon oxide. Silicon nitride films with three refractive indices were used to produce the SiN/SiO2 stack. Regarding this parameter, the minority carrier lifetime measured by means of QSSPC revealed that the refractive index of 1.9 ensured the best passivation quality of silicon wafer surface. We also found that stacks with nitric acid oxidation showed definitely the best passivation quality. In addition to produce the most efficient passivation, this technique has the lowest thermal budget.
EN
Silicon nitride powder with a small addition of magnesium oxide and yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia fine particles was used as a starting material. Multilayer graphene nanoplatelets were used as filler for silicon nitride based composites. Graphene content in the mixtures was 0‒2 wt. %. The composites were obtained by the Spark Plasma Sintering method at 1650°C under 35 MPa of uniaxial pressure. Separation of the agglomerated graphene platelets in the matrix was observed for these materials. Insufficient dispersity of graphene slightly decreased the mechanical properties of Si3N4 ceramics. The SEM and TEM microstructural analysis of sintered materials show that the applied pressure during the sintering process leads to the orientation of the graphene phase and in consequence causes anisotropy of properties. The differences of friction coefficients were examined with the Ball-on-Disc method for the two directions (parallel and perpendicular to the pressing axis). Also the specific wear rate of the ball for the direction parallel to pressing axis differ significantly in comparison to the wear for the direction perpendicular to the pressing direction.
PL
W pracy zaprezentowano wyniki oznaczania zawartości węgla całkowitego oraz węgla wolnego w materiałach zawierających węglik krzemu, azotek krzemu i tlenoazotki krzemu. Otrzymane zawartości C wykorzystywano do oznaczenia zawartości SiC w badanych materiałach. Prezentowana metoda oznaczania SiC jest dużo szybsza od klasycznych metod analitycznych. Otrzymane wartości stężenia SiC porównywano z danymi z certyfikatów oraz z wynikami otrzymanymi metodą klasyczną. Poprawność stosowanej metody oznaczania zawartości SiC została potwierdzona. W celu oznaczenia zawartości pierwiastków cięższych od fluoru zastosowano metodę fluorescencji rentgenowskiej. Przedstawiono wyniki uzyskane dla certyfikowanych materiałów odniesienia.
EN
The results of total and free carbon determination in materials containing silicon carbide, silicon nitride and silicon oxynitrides have been presented. This method of SiC determination is much faster than the classical analytical method. The obtained C contents were used to determine SiC concentration in the examined materials. These concentrations were compared with certified values and concentrations obtained by the classical analytical method. The correctness of the method used to determine SiC content was proved. To determine the total concentrations of elements heavier than fluorine, X-ray fluorescence was used. The results obtained for certified reference materials have been presented.
7
Content available remote Mechanical properties of hot-pressed Si3N4-TiN grain composites
PL
W pracy zbadano właściwości mechaniczne kompozytów ziarnistych Si3N4-TiN otrzymywanych metodą prasowania na gorąco z komercyjnych proszków. Drobnoziarnisty azotek tytanu był homogenicznie rozmieszczony w mikrostrukturze spieków. Zaobserwowano poprawę wytrzymałości na zginanie materiałów. Odporność na kruche pękanie kompozytów nie uległa poprawie.
EN
Dense Si3N4-TiN composites were prepared from commercial powders using hot pressing method. Titanium nitride grains were homogenously distributed in material’s microstructure. Flexural strength of materials increased with TiN amount and reached 880 MPa. Fracture toughness of materials varied between 7 and 8 MPa m0,5.
EN
The aim of this was to evaluate influence of different heat treatment conditions on microstructure and hardness of surface layer of cast iron elements. The molecular CO2 laser with 2600W output power and TEM01 mode was used to perform surface modification. An optical and scanning microscopes, Auger electron spectroscope, X-ray diffractometer, EDS microanalyser and hardness Vickers tester were used to assess the result of the surface modification. The research showed, that it is possible to modify the surface layer of cast iron by laser alloying with silicon nitride. After laser alloying it is possible to achieve the alloyed zone (containing nitrogen and silicon) with uniform, fine, dendritic microstructure similar to the hardened white cast iron. Microstructure of alloyed zone as well as its size depended on laser heat treatment parameters. In case of alloyed zones formed with higher laser power density and its smaller interaction time (which generate higher cooling rates) it was noted higher amount of undiluted graphite and new-formed phases like Fe1,94C0,055, FeN0,032, FeN0,076, FeSi, Fe2Si. In case of alloyed zone formed with higher cooling rate alloyed zone microstructure was finer and more homogenous. The average hardness of alloyed zone with silicon nitride was 5-times higher than matrix of the bulk material. Improved hardness of surface layer of cast iron by laser alloying with silicon nitride should favor better wear resistance of machine part cast iron treated in this way.
PL
Celem badań była ocena wpływu różnych warunków laserowej obróbki cieplnej na mikrostrukturę i twardość warstwy wierzchniej elementów żeliwnych. Do modyfikacji powierzchniowej wykorzystano laser molekularny CO2 o pracy ciągłej firmy Trumpf, o maksymalnej mocy 2600W i modzie TEM01. Oceny przeprowadzonej modyfikacji dokonano za pomocą mikroskopu optycznego, skaningowego, spektroskopu elektronów Auger, mikroanalizy rentgenowskie oraz dyfrakcji rentgenowskiej, a także mikrotwardościomierza metodą Vickersa. Badania wykazały, że istnieje możliwość modyfikacji warstwy wierzchniej żeliwa za pomocą stopowania laserowego żeliw azotkiem krzemu. Po stopowaniu laserowym można uzyskać strefę stopowaną (zwierającą azot i krzem) o jednorodnej, drobnej, dendrytycznej mikrostrukturze, o charakterze zbliżonym do zahartowanego żeliwa białego. Mikrostruktura strefy stopowanej, jak i jej rozmiar zależały od zastosowanych parametrów laserowej obróbki cieplnej. W strefach powstałych z zastosowaniem większej gęstości mocy i krótszego czasu oddziaływania, generujących większą prędkość chłodzenia na materiał odnotowano większą zawartość nie rozpuszczonego grafitu, a także większą zawartość nowopowstałych faz jak: Fe1,94C0,055, FeN0,032, FeN0,076, FeSi, Fe2Si. W przypadku stref uzyskanych z większą prędkością chłodzenia odnotowano większe rozdrobnienie i ujednorodnienie mikrostruktury. Średnia twardość stref stopowanych azotkiem krzemu była około 5-krotnie większa od twardości osnowy rdzenia. Zwiększenie twardości warstwy wierzchniej żeliw przez stopowanie laserowe azotkiem krzemu powinno sprzyjać zwiększeniu odporności na zużywanie obrobionych w ten sposób żeliwnych części maszyn.
EN
This paper presents the results of nanohardness measurements of silicon nitride (SiNx) and two types of diamond-like carbon films (DLC) deposited by radio-frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF PECVD) method. In order to accurately determine hardness of SiNx and DLC films two approximation methods have been applied, where first includes an effect of the substrate (layer/substrate system), and the second takes into account an additional silicon dioxide (SiO2) interlayer (layer/SiO2/substrate system). In this work thickness and roughness of the films has also been investigated. The study has shown that the DLC films are slightly harder than SiNx films.
PL
Praca ta dotyczy badań twardości warstw azotku krzemu (SiNx) oraz warstw diamentopodobnych (DLC, ang, diamond-like carbon films) osadzanych metodą chemicznego osadzania z fazy lotnej wspomaganego plazmą. W celu dokładnego wyznaczenia twardości warstw SiNx i DLC zastosowano dwa rodzaje metod aproksymacji wyników pomiarów metodą nanoindentacji. Pierwsza z nich uwzględniała jedynie wpływ podłoża (warstwa/podłoże) natomiast w drugiej metodzie uwzględniono także wpływ dodatkowej warstwy SiO2 (tlenku krzemu) (warstwa/SiO2/podłoże). W niniejszej pracy badane były również grubość oraz chropowatość warstw. Badania wykazały, że warstwy DLC są nieco twardsze od warstw SiNx.
EN
The application of structural non-oxide ceramics is at present a common trend in machines and the construction of mechanical devices. Dense ceramic sinters made of silicon carbide or silicon nitride very often replace metallic parts. The advantages of ceramics are especially evident when they work as parts of machinery exposed to the action of loose and hard particles. The paper compares the abrasive wear susceptibility of both the mentioned phases and two particulate composites made on SiC and Si3N4 matrices. Two types of tests were performed. The Dry Sand Test, which indicates the wear susceptibility of the material to wear during the abrasive action of hard particles without any lubricant, was the first one. The Miller Test was the second. This test examined the wear of materials during the action of hard particles in a wet environment (pulp). In both tests the same abrasive, silicon carbide powder, was used.
PL
Zastosowanie ceramiki nietlenkowej jest obecnie powszechnym trendem w konstruowaniu części maszyn i urządzeń. Gęste spieki z węglika krzemu i azotku krzemu bardzo często zastępują części metaliczne. Zalety materiałów ceramicznych są wyraźnie widoczne wówczas, gdy części maszyn są narażone na działanie luźnych, twardych cząstek. Prezentowany artykuł porównuje podatność na zużycie ścierne obu wymienionych faz, a także kompozytów na ich osnowach. Wykonano dwa rodzaje testów zużycia. Pierwszy to tzw. Dry Sand Test, który mierzy podatność na zużycie ścierne luźnym ścierniwem, w warunkach suchych, bez smarowania. Drugim testem był tzw. test Millera, który pozwala uzyskać informacje na temat zużywania się materiałów podczas działania luźnych, twardych cząstek w środowisku mokrej pulpy, tj. gęstej zawiesiny. W obu testach użyto tych samych ziaren ściernych, gruboziarnistego węglika krzemu.
PL
W pracy zbadano wybrane właściwości fizyczne i mechaniczne materiałów otrzymanych z komercyjnie dostępnego azotku krzemu (Si3N4). Próbki azotkowe formowane metodą prasowania izostatycznego spiekano swobodnie w atmosferze azotu, następnie część próbek została poddana spiekaniu w warunkach ciśnienia izostatycznego (HIP). Dla obu serii próbek, różniących się procesem spiekania określono: gęstość pozorną, wytrzymałość na zginanie, twardość oraz krytyczny współczynnik intensywności naprężeń. Na podstawie otrzymanych wyników badań przeprowadzono analizę porównawczą materiałów uzyskanych w różnych procesach technologicznych i określono wpływ rodzaju spiekania na właściwości materiału.
EN
In the presented paper mechanical properties of silicon nitride (Si3N4) material were studied. Silicon nitride samples were obtained from commercially available powder. Two paths of ceramic manufacturing were applied to obtain fully densified bodies. All of the samples were sintered in nitrogen in atmospheric pressure. Part of the samples were additionally subjected to Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP). Apparent density, bending strength, Vickers hardness and fracture toughness were measured for the two set of samples, which differed in preparation path. The results were analyzed in order to estimate the influence of pressure assisted post-sintering (HIP process) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of silicon nitride material.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań nad nanoszeniem i własnościami warstw ceramicznych TiN- Si3N4 na tkaninach technicznych. Do nanoszenia warstw użyto impulsowego rozpylania magnetronowego średniej częstotliwości (MF). Tarcze wykonano ze spieków tytanowo-krzemowych zawierających do 10% at. krzemu. Spieki otrzymano techniką prasowania na gorąco. Naniesione cienkie warstwy zawierały azotek tytanu oraz azotek krzemu. Przeprowadzone badania przy użyciu mikroskopu elektronowego Philips CM20 potwierdziły nanokrystaliczno-amorficzną strukturę warstw. Przebadano dwa rodzaje tkanin technicznych firmy DuPont tj. nomex i kevlar, metodą termograficzną. Wykonano badania odporności uzyskanych pokryć na tkaninach. Stwierdzono, że pokrycie tkanin warstwami ceramicznymi TiN- Si3N4 zdecydowanie zwiększa odporność tych tkanin na strumień energii cieplnej.
EN
The paper presents the investigations of ceramic films deposition on textiles. Pulsed medium frequency (MF) sputtering was used to deposit the TiN- Si3N4 films. Targets were obtained from the titanium-silicon sinters containing up to10at.% of the silicon. The sinters were prepared by the hot pressing technique. Titanium nitride and silicon nitride were detected in the sputtered thin films. The amorphous-nanocrystalline films structure was confirmed with use of the electron microscope Philips CM20. The thermal resistance investigation of these films on textiles such as DuPont Kevlar and Nomex, was performed using thermographic method. It was found that the ceramic films greatly increase the textiles resistance to a heat flux.
EN
Purpose: The purpose of this study is the selection of phase composition of Si3N4 matrix ceramics with the addition of conducting phases so as to make shaping of those materials possible by means of electro discharge machining (EDM). Silicon nitride matrix materials with the addition of oxide phases (Al2O3, MgO, ZrO2) and conducting phases (TiB2, TiN) were sintered by the method of SPS (Spark Plasma Sintering). Additionally the effect of oxide phases on silicon nitride sintering capacity, the value of electric resistance of nitride ceramics depending on the addition of a conducting phase and the effect of sintering parameters on selected features of produced materials were determined. Design/methodology/approach: Materials were sintered with the use of a SPS device marked with FCT-HP D 5. Apparent density Pp was measured by the hydrostatic method. Hardness was determined by the Vicker’s method at the load of 980.7 mN with the use of a Future Tech Corp digital hardness tester FM7. For the purpose of those tests a surface was prepared with the use of a Struers cutting grinder ACUTOM. Measurements of Young’s modulus for sintered samples were carried out using a ultrasonic method of transverse and longitudinal wave speed measurement with the use of a Panametrics Epoch III detector. Resistance measurement was done with the use of Wheatstone and Thomson technical bridges. Findings: The addition of titanium nitride had no effect on the reduction of electric resistance of Si3N4 matrix ceramics. The lack of electric conductivity of those materials is the result of used additions influencing sintering capacity, mainly magnesium oxide. Si3N4 matrix materials with the addition of titanium diboride are characterised by low electrical resistance with high physical and mechanical features maintained. Electric conductivity of those materials and the initial electro discharge cutting attempts prove that it is possible to shape Si3N4 matrix ceramic materials with the addition of a TiB2 phase with the use of EDM process. Practical implications: The use of EDM will enable the production of elements with complicated shapes (impossible to achieve by other shaping methods) from ceramic materials (with Si3N4 matrix). Originality/value: By the appropriate selection of a conducting phase addition it is possible to increase electric conductivity of silicone nitride matrix ceramics, for which it is possible to shape products by means of electro discharge machining.
PL
W niniejszej pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań nad nanoszeniem warstw ceramicznych na tkaninach. Do nanoszenia warstw wykorzystywano technikę magnetronową. Używano magnetronu planarnego typu WMK-50 z zasilaczem impulsowym firmy DORA POWER SYSTEM. Proces nanoszenia prowadzono w aparaturze próżniowej NA-501 produkcji TEPRO Koszalin. Target wykonano ze spieków tytanowo-krzemowych zawierających do 10% at. krzemu. Spieki otrzymano techniką prasowania na gorąco. Naniesione cienkie warstwy zawierały azotek tytanu oraz azotek krzemu. Przeprowadzone badania przy użyciu mikroskopu elektronowego Philips CM20 potwierdziły nanokrystaliczno-amorficzną strukturę warstw. Metodą termograficzną wykonano badania odporności uzyskanych pokryć na tkaninach firmy DuPont takich jak nomex czy kevlar. Stwierdzono, że pokrycie ceramiczne zdecydowanie zwiększa odporność tych tkanin na strumień energii cieplnej.
EN
The paper presents the results of ceramic films deposition on textiles. To obtain the films the planar magnetron WMK-50 with pulsed power supply DPS was used. Processes were conducted in a vacuum apparatus NA-501 Koszalin TEPRO production. Targets were obtained from the titanium-silicon sinters containing up to 10% at. silicon. The sinters were obtained using the hot pressing technique. Sputtered thin films contained titanium nitride and silicon nitride. The amorphous-nanocrystalline films structure was confirmed with use of Philips CM20 electron microscope. The thermal resistance investigation of these films on textiles such as DuPont Kevlar and Nomex, was performed using thermographic method. It was found that the ceramic films greatly increase the textiles resistance to a heat flux.
PL
Przedstawiono charakteryzacje powierzchni warstw azotku krzemu przy użyciu spektroskopii fotoelektronów generowanych promieniowaniem X. Warstwy osadzano metodą chemiczną ze wspomaganiem plazmowym PECVD z użyciem generatora niskiej (LF-100 kHz) i radiowej częstotliwości (RF-13,56 MHz). Pokazano, ze warstwy osadzane przy użyciu metody RF PECVD mają większą zawartość fazy krzemowej przy podobnej zawartości fazy i₃N₄. Warstwy nanoszone przy użyciu generatora LF lepiej nadają się więc na warstwy antyrefleksyjne i pasywujące, natomiast warstwy nanoszone przy użyciu generatora RF do wytwarzania struktur wielowarstwowych z krzemowymi krystalicznymi kropkami kwantowymi dla ogniw trzeciej generacji.
EN
Surface characterization of the silicon nitride layer using XPS method is presented. The layers were deposited by PECVD method applying low frequency (LF-100 kHz) or radio frequency (RF-13.56 MHz) generators. It was shown that the layers deposited with RF PECVD contain more silicon phase than the layers deposited with LF PECVD for the same contents of Si₃N₄ phase. The LF PECVD SiNx layers are more suitable for ARC and passivation layers whilst the RF PECVD for multilayered structures with silicon quantum dots that are used for third generation solar cells.
EN
Nanostructured silicon nitride and aluminium nitride powder mixtures have been successfully produced by high-energy mechanical activation in the planetary mill. The effect of planetary milling parameters (time, ball-to-powder ratio, surfactants addition) and means of deagglomeration by the ultrasound disintegration (type of dispersant, the ultrasonic action) were studied. The resultant powders were examined by XRD, SEM and TEM as well as the specific surface area (BET) was measured and grain size distribution was analyzed. It has been found that significant agglomeration occurred in the samples milled with the highest energy accompanied by the severe destruction of the crystal lattice. The results show the crucial effect of dispersant action for a one-modal distribution of the milled powders.
PL
Proces mechanochemiczny w młynku planetarnym został z powodzeniem zastosowany do otrzymywania nanostrukturalnych proszków w mieszaninie azotku krzemu i glinu. Badano wpływ parametrów procesu mielenia i deaglomeracji takich jak: czas mielenia, prędkość obrotowa młyna, średnica mielników, stosunek mielników do proszku, rodzaj i ilość dodatków powierzchniowo czynnych, czas i energia dezintegracji ultradźwiękowej na właściwości proszku po procesie. Przeprowadzono badania XRD, SEM, oraz TEM, badania powierzchni właściwej metodą BET oraz rozkład dystrybucji ziarn metodą laserową po procesie mechanochemicznym prowadzonym z różną energią. Stwierdzono, że w wyniku zastosowania najwyższej energii mielenia następowało znaczące zniszczenie sieci krystalicznej w ziarnach proszku, ale towarzyszyło im zjawisko znacznej aglomeracji. W uzyskaniu jednomodalnego rozkładu ziarnowego mieszaniny proszków kluczowa role odgrywa działanie zastosowanego środka dyspergującego.
18
Content available remote Sintered stainless steel surface alloyed with Si3N4 powder
EN
Purpose: The goal of this study was to investigate effects of laser surface alloying with Si3N4 powder on the microstructural changes and properties of vacuum sintered stainless steels, both austenitic X2CrNi17-12-2, ferritic X6Cr13 and duplex X2CrNiMo22-8-2. Design/methodology/approach: High power diode laser (HPDL) was applied to surface modification of sintered stainless steels with Si3N4 powder. The influence of laser alloying conditions on the width, penetration depth of alloyed surface layer were studied and analysed via FEM simulation. The microstructure of alloyed layers was examined using light and scanning electron microscopy as well as X-ray diffraction. The microhardness and wear resistance of studied surface layers were also evaluated. Findings: The hardness increased with addition of Si3N4 due to strong solution hardening effect of nitrogen and silicon that dissolved in the steel matrix during laser alloying. The strong austenite stabilizer effect of nitrogen was observed in ferritic stainless steel that revealed duplex microstructure. The hardness increased with addition of Si3N4 due to strong solution hardening effect of nitrogen and silicon dissolved in the steel matrix during laser alloying. The hardening effect of Si3N4 was strongest in case of ferritic stainless steel where microhardness increased to 450 HV0.1 for 2.1 kW of laser beam power. The duplex stainless steel shows the regular microhardness on the whole penetration depth. Laser surface alloying with Si3N4 improved wear resistance of sintered stainless steels compared to not processed stainless steel as well as comparing layers prepared as machined grooves and surface with pre-coated paste. Practical implications: Laser surface alloying with Si3N4 powder can be an efficient method of surface layer hardening of sintered stainless steels and produce improvement of surface layer properties in terms of hardness and wear resistance. Moreover, application of high power diode laser HPDL and surface prepared as machined grooves can guarantee uniform heating of treated surface, thus uniform thermal cycle across processed area and uniform penetration depth of alloyed surface layer. Originality/value: Application of high power diode laser can guarantee uniform heating of treated surface, thus uniform thermal cycle across processed area and uniform penetration depth of alloyed surface layer.
19
Content available remote Silicon nitride for photovoltaic application
EN
Purpose: of this paper is to present the research results of silicon nitride SiNx films used for industrial silicon solar cells and for third generation solar cells. Design/methodology/approach: The SiNx films were deposited using RF- and LF-PECVD methods. The optical and structural properties were investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry, XPS, FTIR spectroscopy and X-Ray reflectometry. The passivation properties were investigated by carriers lifetime measurements using a photoconductance decay (PCD) technique. For the photovoltaics of third generation the multilayer structures of SiNx were deposited and annealed in order to obtain the silicon quantum superlattices. These structure were characterized by high-resolution TEM, GI-XRD, photoluminescence, Raman and SPV spectroscopy. Findings: It is shown that the layers deposited by LF PECVD have more profitable optical and electrical properties for industrial silicon solar cells than those deposited by RF PECVD. The other finding is that multi-layer structure of SiNx annealed at high temperature shows the properties of the new semiconductor with the gap energy broader then the gap of the silicon. Research limitations/implications: The maximal density of SiNx layers is equal to 2.6 g/cm3. It is too low to obtain high efficiency mc-Si cells. The deposition process should be further optimized. The other limitation is obtaining a regular structure of quantum superlattice composed of quantum dots with defined diameter and density which is a very difficult technological task. This work should be continued in the future. Practical implications: The results of SiNx investigation can be used to increase the efficiency of mc-Si solar cells. The results of multilayer SiNx investigations may be applied to a solar cells based on silicon QDs superlatice. Originality/value: The work present useful methods for optimisation of passivation properties of SiNx films. The other value of the paper is obtaining new kind of nanomaterial composed of Si quantum dots embed in the dielectric matrix.
EN
Amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiNx:H) films were deposited at 300 °C by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition. Silane/ammonia (SiH4/NH3) and silane/nitrogen (SiH4/N2) gas compositions were used at various flow rates to study the effect of hydrogen passivation of the films using the photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was employed to derive the relative changes in the total bonded hydrogen (TBH) concentration with increasing flow rates. The composition and the refractive indices of the as-deposited films were also extracted using the bond density calculations from FTIR spectra. The calculated refractive indices of the silicon nitride films were consistent with the ellipsometry measurements. The PL spectra were observed to be free from any interference effect and this was attributed to the nitrogen related defects in all the a-SiNx:H films. The films deposited using SiH4/NH3 showed a higher PL intensity than those deposited in a SiH4/N2 environment. A direct relation between the PL intensity and TBH content of the films was found.
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