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EN
Over the previous few decades, there has been a noticeable increase in interest in the use of vegetable fibers and supplemental cementitious elements in mortar and concrete. The date palm frond was utilized in this study to create date palm fibers (DPF), which were then added to the cement mortar at percentages of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5% by cement weight. There were two types of DPFs used: one type was untreated, and the other had a mechanical treatment that created holes before applying a layer of polychloroprene (neoprene) on the surface. Metakaolin (MK) and nano calcium carbonate (nano-CaCo3) were added to the cement mortar by the weight of cement. MK was replaced by 10% of the weight of cement. Besides, the nano-CaCo3 was replaced by 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% of the weight of cement. Mechanical tests for flowability, compressive strength, and flexural strength were conducted. In addition, one MCDM methodology called VIKOR is utilized to choose the best combination out of several combinations and criteria. The results indicate that a higher DPF concentration enhances both compressive and flexural strength. The mixtures with the DPF coating and mechanical treatment give the strongest and most significant results. In addition, the flowability of cement mortar decreases when the DPF concentration increases. In addition to the high content of nano-CaCo3 in cement mortar, given the grater reading of strength, the presence of nano- CaCo3 in cement mortar reduces the disparity in result values that have a higher DPF content. The mixtures containing 4% and 5% DPF and 3% and 4% nano-CaCo3 are the optimal ones, according to the VIKOR technique.
PL
Porównano zależności przyczepność-poślizg oraz mechanizmy zniszczenia dla betonu z dodatkami zeolitu i metakaolinitu w obecności prętów GFRP, BFRP i stalowych. Przyczepność prętów GFRP do betonu z dodatkiem metakaolinitu była o 50% większa niż do betonu zwykłego, natomiast przyczepność do betonu z zeolitem podobna. W przypadku prętów BFRP stwierdzono wzrost przyczepności o 7% dla betonu z metakaolinitem. Pręty BFRP miały większą przyczepność w stosunku do zbrojenia stalowego. Zmiana przyczepności prętów GFRP i BFRP była stopniowa, a poślizg był kilkukrotnie większy niż prętów stalowych.
EN
Bond stress-slip relationship and failure mechanisms for concrete with additions of zeolite and metakaolin in the presence of GFRP, BFRP and steel bars were compared. The bond strength of GFRP bars to concrete with the addition of metakaolin was 50% higher than to ordinary concrete, while the bond strength to concrete with zeolite was similar. In the case of BFRP bars, an increase in bond strength by 7% was found for concrete with metakaolin. BFRP bars had greater bond strength to steel reinforcement. The change in the bond stress of the GFRP and BFRP bars was gradual and the slip was several times greater than that of the steel bars.
EN
This study investigated the effect of creating a composite of gypsum with metakaolin as well as the physical and mechanical behavior of the produced composites. For this purpose, gypsum composites were prepared with 2.9, 4.8, 6.5, and 9 wt.% metakaolin in 100 g of gypsum and a constant content of water. To determine the mechanical properties of the composites, the compressive strength test was used and the porosity, water absorption percentage, and bulk density of the composites were obtained using the Archimedes method. The results showed that the porosity was reduced by adding up to 7 wt.% metakaolin to the gypsum specimens, it increases the compressive strength by 41% and also raises the Young’s modulus of gypsum by 121%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was employed for the microstructural evaluations. The EDS-SEM observations showed the presence of Al and Si elements in the fracture zones. The presence of metakaolin elements at one point increases resistance in that area. Metakaolin-reinforced gypsum composites can be used in boards and panels.
EN
The performance of adsorbent synthesized by alkali activation of aluminosilicate precursor metakaolin with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) as well as the foaming agent was studied for copper ions adsorption from aqueous solution. This paper investigated the effect of adding hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and aluminium powder as foaming agents to an alkali activated materials slurry. The experimental range included 0.50 wt%, 0.75 wt%, and 1.00 wt% hydrogen peroxide and 0.02 wt%, 0.04 wt%, and 0.06 wt% aluminium powder. A control sample without a foaming agent was also created for comparison. The specific surface area, water absorption, density, compressive strength and microstructure of metakaolin based alkali activated materials were evaluated. The adsorption capability of Cu2+ with addition of hydrogen peroxide and aluminium powder was then tested. Results indicate hydrogen peroxide addition had superior pore size distribution and homogeneous porosity than aluminium powder, implying improved copper ion elimination. Cu2+ adsorption capability reached 98% with 0.75 wt% hydrogen peroxide and 24.6076 m2/g surface area. The results demonstrating that low cost metakaolin-based AAMs are the most effective adsorbent for removing copper ions.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań dotyczące zastosowania metakaolinu jako uzupełniającego składnika spoiwa cementowego poprawiającego właściwości kompozytów cementowych. W badaniach zastąpiono cement portlandzki przez metakaolin w ilości: 10 oraz 25% masy cementu, przy stałym wskaźniku wodno-spoiwowym. Właściwości materiałów cementowych zostały ocenione przez badanie konsystencji metodą stolika rozpływu; wytrzymałości na ściskanie i zginanie po 2, 7 i 28 dniach dojrzewania; skurczu całkowitego metodą Graf-Kaufmana i skurczu autogenicznego z laserowym pomiarem deformacji. Automatyczny pomiar skurczu prowadzono przez 28 dni. Wyniki wykazały, że zwiększenie zawartości metakaolinu w składzie spoiwa cementowego spowodowało zmniejszenie skurczu całkowitego, natomiast zwiększenie skurczu autogenicznego. Zastosowanie metakaolinu spowolniło początkową dynamikę poprawy właściwości mechanicznych, natomiast po 28 dniach dojrzewania zaobserwowano zwiększenie wytrzymałości badanych zapraw cementowych z dodatkiem MK.
EN
The paper presents the results of research on the use of metakaolin as a supplementary material in the composition of the cement binder in order to improve the performance properties of cement composites. Cement with metakaolin replacement were used in the research in amount of: 10 and 25% by weight of cement with a constant water-binder ratio. The properties of cement materials were assessed by testing the consistency using the flow table method; measuring the compressive and flexural strength during 2, 7 and 28 days of maturation, testing total shrinkage using Graf-Kaufman method and research of autogenous shrinkage with laser deformation measurement. The automatic measurement of shrinkage was carried out for 28 days. Results showed that increase in content of metakaolin in composition of cement binder decreased total shrinkage, while it increased autogenous shrinkage. The use of metakaolin slowed down the initial dynamics of development of mechanical properties, while after 28 days of maturation, an increase in strength parameters of tested cement mortars with additive was observed.
PL
Artykuł prezentuje badania związane z ograniczeniem korozji ASR w betonie, wywołanej przez reaktywne kruszywo drobne, za pomocą dodatków mineralnych. W tym celu użyto metakaolinu MK-40, popiołu lotnego oraz żużla wielkopiecowego. Badania wykonano zgodnie z krajowymi procedurami badawczymi GDDKiA bazującymi na zmodyfikowanych metodach ASTM oraz RILEM AAR. Pozwoliły one określić procentowe ograniczenie ekspansji w przypadku poszczególnych zapraw cementowych. Na podstawie wyników badań stwierdzono, że możliwe jest ograniczenie ekspansji zaprawy z piaskami reaktywnymi przez zastosowanie wybranych dodatków mineralnych.
EN
Article presents research related to the reduction of ASR corrosion induced by reactive fine aggregate in concrete with the use of mineral additives. For this purpose, MK-40 metakaolin, fly ash and blast furnace slag were used. The tests were carried out according to the national GDDKiA test procedures based on the modified ASTM and RILEM AAR methods. Tests allowed to determine the percentage expansion limitation for individual cement mortars. Based on the test results, it is possible to limit the expansion of the mortar with reactive sands by using selected mineral additives.
PL
Chociaż beton jest uważany za trwały materiał, środowisko, na które jest narażony, ma duży wpływ na jego trwałość. Trwałość betonu może być zagrożona ze względu na jego porowatość, szczególnie w trudnych warunkach ekspozycji, którymi jest na przykład środowisko morskie. Żelbetowe elementy konstrukcji morskich, do których należą między innymi mosty, nabrzeża i doki, są poddawane różnego rodzaju oddziaływaniom. Należą do nich cykliczne nawilżanie i suszenie, stan pełnego zanurzenia oraz kontakt z chlorkami. Aby poprawić strukturę porów w betonie i wytrzymałość takich konstrukcji, niezbędne jest stosowanie betonu wysokowartościowego. W badaniach przedstawionych w niniejszej pracy, do produkcji betonu wysokowartościowego zastosowano metakaolin [MK], jako częściowy zamiennik cementu. Wyniki tych badań pokazały, że zastosowanie metakaolinu zmniejsza porowatość betonu, a wraz ze spadkiem porowatości znacznie zmniejsza się szybkość procesu korozji. Beton wysokowartościowy zawierający metakaolin badano przez 365 dni, w celu określenia zmian struktury porowatości po długim okresie ekspozycji, z wykorzystaniem metody iCOR® NDT. Metoda ta służy do określania odporności na korozję i rezystywności betonu bogatego w metakaolin, o dużej wytrzymałości, w warunkach symulowanego nawilżania i suszenia, w środowisku wody morskiej, w kilku okresach. Efekt pogorszenia właściwości betonu, spowodowany symulowanym nawilżaniem i suszeniem w środowisku wody morskiej, był również badany dla przyczepności próbek poddanych normalnym i korozyjnym warunkom ekspozycji.
EN
Even though concrete is considered to be durable, the environment to which the concrete is exposed plays an important role in its durability. The durability of concrete is challenged due to its porous nature, which is especially important in harsh exposure conditions such as marine environment. The reinforced concrete elements of marine structures such as bridges, wharves, docks, etc. are subjected to various types of exposures such as wetting and drying action [WDA], fully submerged condition, and in contact with chlorides. To refine the pore structure of concrete and to improve the durability characteristics of such structures, it is essential to use high performance concrete [HPC]. In this study, metakaolin [MK] is used as partial replacement of cement to produce HPC. The use of metakaolin is found to be very effective in reducing the porosity of concrete. As the porosity of concrete decreases, the corrosion rate can be reduced considerably. The durability characteristics of metakaolin-incorporated HPC is studied for 365 days to investigate the changes in its pore structure in long term. The iCOR® NDT method is used to find the corrosion performance and concrete resistivity of high performance metakaolin concrete under a simulated wetting and drying action [WDA] of seawater over several periods. The deterioration effect caused by the simulated WDA of seawater is also studied by considering the bond strength of specimens subjected to normal and corrosive exposure conditions.
EN
This study summarised the recent achievement in developing fiber reinforced geopolymer concrete. The factor of replacing Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) which is due to the emission of carbon dioxide that pollutes the environment globally is well discussed. The introduction towards metakaolin is presented. Besides, the current research trend involved in geopolymer also has been reviewed for the current 20 years to study the interest of researchers over the world by year. Factors that contribute to the frequency of geopolymer research are carried out which are cost, design, and the practicality of the application for geopolymer concrete. Besides, the importance of steel fibers addition to the geopolymer concrete is also well discussed. The fundamental towards metakaolin has been introduced including the source of raw material, which is calcined kaolin, calcined temperature, chemical composition, geopolymerisation process, and other properties. Alkali activators which are mixing solution between sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) have been reviewed. The mechanical properties of fibers reinforced metakaolin-based geopolymer concrete which is compressive and flexural are thoroughly reviewed. The compressive and flexural strength of fiber-reinforced metakaolin geopolymer concrete shows some improvement to the addition of steel fibers. The reviews in this field demonstrate that reinforcement of metakaolin geopolymer concrete by steel fibers shows improvement in mechanical performance.
EN
Geopolymer is widely studied nowadays in various scope of studies. Some of the ongoing studies are the study of the various materials towards the geopolymer strength produced. Meanwhile, some of the studies focus on the mixing of the geopolymer itself. This paper discussed the phase analysis of metakaolin/dolomite geopolymer for different solid to the liquid ratio which was, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0, and the properties that affected the geopolymer based on the phases. The constant parameters in this study were the percentage of metakaolin and dolomite used. The metakaolin used was 80% meanwhile dolomite usage was 20%. Besides that, the molarity of NaOH used is 10M and the alkaline activator ratio used is 2.0. All the samples were tested at 28 days of curing. The results show that the 0.8 solid to the liquid ratio used gave better properties compare to other solid to liquid ratio. The phases analyzed were quartz, sillimanite, mullite, and faujasite. The 0.8 S/L ratio shows the better properties compared to others by the test of phase analysis, compressive strength morphology analysis, and functional group analysis.
EN
In the present research, geopolymer concrete for construction applications comprising metakaolin was evaluated by partial addition of recycled coarse aggregates and steel fibers to develop eco-friendly cementitious composites. Mechanical and durability characteristics of geopolymer composites were then assessed such as compression, splitting tensile and flexural strength, water absorption, and drying shrinkage. It was observed that with the inclusion of steel fibers, no significant change in compressive strength occurred. Mixtures were prepared with a binder amount of 440 kg/m3 in total. The recycled coarse aggregates were substituted with natural coarse aggregates at a rate of 15, 25, and 35% by their weight. The inclusion of steel fibers in the mixes was 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0% of metakaolin content. Because of the addition of steel fibers, the split tensile strength, flexural strength, and drying shrinkage were improved significantly. The load-displacement graph showed that the fracture toughness of geopolymer composites was enhanced due to the inclusion of steel fibers which leads to maximum loads capacity. From the stress-strain curve, it was observed that the geopolymer paste and the steel fibers had a strong bond, which will help in restraining the propagation of cracks. From XRD analysis, it was shown that a mix having 25% recycled coarse aggregates and 3.0% steel fibers in metakaolin-based geopolymer concrete results in environment-friendly composite with suitable strength and durability that will help in bringing sustainability to the construction industry.
EN
The present study investigates the production and characterization of alkali-activated bricks prepared with mixing metakaolin (MK) and biomass fly ash from the combustion of a mix of pine pruning, forest residues and energy crops (BFA). To use this low cost and high availability waste, diferent specimens were prepared by mixing MK with diferent proportions of BFA (25, 50 and 75 wt%). Specimens containing only metakaolin and biomass fly ash were produced for the purpose of comparison. Efects of the alkali content of biomass fly ash, after a washing pretreatment (WBFA), as well as the concentration of NaOH solution on the physical, mechanical and microstructural properties of the alkali-activated bricks were studied. It was observed that up to 50 wt% addition of the residue increases compressive strength of alkali-activated bricks. Alkalinity and soluble salts in fly ash have a positive efect, leading materials with the improved mechanical properties. Concentration of NaOH 8 M or higher is required to obtain optimum mechanical properties. The compressive strength increases from 23.0 MPa for the control bricks to 44.0 and 37.2 MPa with the addition of 50 wt% BFA and WBFA, respectively, indicating an increase of more than 60%. Therefore, the use of biomass fy ash provides additional alkali (K) sources that could improve the dissolution of MK resulting in high polycondensation. However, to obtain optimum mechanical properties, the amount of BFA cannot be above 50 wt%.
EN
In this study, several mathematical, soft computing, and machine learning modeling tools are used to develop a dependable model for forecasting the compressive strength of cement mortar modified with metakaolin (MK) additive and predicting the effect of MK and a maximum diameter of the fine aggregate (MDA) on the compressive strength of the mortar. In this regard, 230 datasets were collected from literature with a wide-ranging mix of proportion and curing time. Water to binder ratio (w/b) ranged between 0.36 and 0.6 (by the weight of dry cement), sand to binder ratio 2 to 3, metakaolin content 0–30%, and curing time up to 90 days. Multivariate regression spline (MARS), multiexpression programming (MEP), nonlinear regression (NLR), and artificial neural network (ANN) models were used. Several assessment tools were utilized to quantify the performance of the proposed models, such as coefficient of determination (R2), root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), scatter index (SI), and Taylor diagram. Based on the modeling result, the performance of the MARS model is better than MEP, NLR, and ANN models with high R2 and low RMSE and MAE. The MARS, MEP, and ANN excellently predicted the compressive strength based on the scatter index. The parametric analysis of MK and MDA revealed that the ANN model successfully predicted the influence of the mentioned model inputs and optimum MK content for improving long- and short-term compressive strength.
EN
During the past two decades, geopolymer concrete has been investigated as a sustainable alternative to Portland cement concrete, which is known to generate a huge amount of CO2 in the environment. This study focuses on the assessment of the fresh and hardened mechanical properties and durability of metakaolin (MK)-based geopolymer rubberized concrete. Crumb rubber was derived from discarded waste tires, another pollution source to the environment, and incorporated in concrete as fine aggregate replacement in ratios from 10 to 50% by volume. The performance of the MK-based geopolymer rubberized concrete is discussed based on its workability, air content, stress-strain behavior (including compressive strength and modulus of elasticity), flexural strength, dry unit weight and rapid chloride penetrability. The results show that the proposed sustainable concrete mixes achieve acceptable fresh and hardened mechanical and durability properties. The compressive strength when crumb rubber replaces fine aggregates in volumetric percentages between 10 and 40% are in the range of 28.7-39.7 MPa. Furthermore, the unit weight and modulus of elasticity of the MK-based geopolymer rubberized concrete mix with 40% rubber replacement are 14.9 GPa and 2134 kg/m3, respectively. This can promote a potentially large market for the MK-based geopolymer rubberized concrete products in applications where the priority is for decreasing self-weight and increasing flexibility rather than strength.
14
Content available remote Sposoby kalcynacji surowców kaolinowych w produkcji metakaolinu
PL
Użycie metakaolinu w wielu technologiach przemysłu materiałów budowlanych znajduje swoje uzasadnienie w jego wysokiej aktywności pucolanowej. Produkcja jednostki masy metakaolinu cechuje się znaczną oszczędnością zużycia ciepła w porównaniu ze zużyciem ciepła w produkcji jednostki masy cementu, co wyraża się m.in. znaczną różnicą wartości śladów węglowych produkcji metakaolinu i cementu. W artykule dokonano przeglądu stanu techniki w zakresie stosowanych metod produkcji metakaolinu, wskazując przede wszystkim na możliwości jak najmniejszego zużycia ciepła w analizowanych metodach, wynikające z najdogodniejszych warunków wymiany ciepła i masy między czynnikiem grzewczym a kalcynowanym wsadem surowca ilastego.
EN
The use of metakaolin in many technologies of the building materials industry finds its justification in its high pozzolanic activity. Production of a unit of mass of metakaolin is characterized by significant savings in heat consumption compared to the consumption of heat in the production of a unit of mass of cement, which is expressed, among others, by significant difference in the value of carbon footprints of metakaolin and cement production. The article reviews the state of the art in the field of metakaolin production methods used, pointing first of all to the possibility of the lowest possible heat consumption in the analysed methods, resulting from the most convenient conditions for heat and mass exchange between the heating medium and the calcined clay feedstock.
PL
Przedstawiono wyniki badań dotyczące skuteczności dodatku metakaolinu i azotanu litu w zapobieganiu negatywnym skutkom reakcji alkaliów z kruszywem naturalnym. Oceniono efektywność wybranych inhibitorów korozji według przyspieszonej metody badania zmian ekspansji zapraw według ASTM C1576 oraz betonów według ASTM C1293. Badania uzupełniono wynikami obserwacji mikrostruktury pod elektronowym mikroskopem skaningowym, z analizą składu chemicznego w mikroobszarach. Wyniki badań ekspansji betonu wykazały większą skuteczność metakaolinu w zmniejszeniu zagrożenia reaktywności alkalicznej kruszywa żwirowego.
EN
Efficacy of metakaolin and lithium nitrate used to inhibit negative effects of alkali-natural aggregate reaction was presented. Both corrosion inhibitors were assessed with the accelerated method of measuring expansion changes in mortars (ASTM C1576) and concretes (ASTM C1293). Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the microstructure and perform chemical analysis in microareas. The results of concrete expansion tests showed that metakaolin was more effective in suppressing alkali reactivity of the gravel aggregate.
EN
The use of cement contributes to global CO2 emission and this leads to the depletion of ozone layer, causing global warming. The quest to reduce or eliminate this problem has resulted in the discovery of metakaolin-based geopolymer as an alternative to the use of cement in construction work. In this study, metakaolin obtained as a result of kaolin calcination from some deposits in Nigeria; Ogun (Imeko), Edo (Okpela), Ondo (Ifon) and Ekiti (Isan-Ekiti) were characterized and used to determine the compressive and flexural strength of metakaolin-based geopolymer concrete (Mk-GPC). Cubes of 150 × 150 × 150 mm were used for the compressive strength test and reinforced concrete beams of size 150 × 250 × 2160 mm were produced to test for flexural strength. A water-absorption test was also carried out on Mk-GPC and the effect of ball-milling was assessed on the strength properties. The results from the various tests showed that 800°C for 1 hour of calcination of kaolin gives best combination of performance properties due to the presence of amorphous silica in metakaolin. Mk-GPC gave higher compressive strength and at an early age than ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete. The water absorption capacities of Mk-GPC were higher than the control samples. In the flexural strength test, the reinforced beams failed in flexural-shear mode and the shear capacities at 28-, 56- and 90-day curing age of the beams were between 0.656 and 0.938 MPa for Mk-GPC beams and between 0.563 and 0.844 MPa for the control beams. The moment capacities for the beams were between 19.25 and 33.25 (×10³ kgm²/s²) for Mk-GPC beams and were between 22.75 and 28.0 (×10³ kgm²/s²) for the control beams. The study has revealed that metakaolin-based geopolymer can serve as an alternative to cement for sustainable construction in the Nigerian construction industry.
17
PL
Za pomocą metody Puntkego zbadano wpływ dodatku popiołu lotnego, popiołu z łusek ryżowych, metakaolinu oraz żużla o dużym rozdrobnieniu, na gęstość upakowania mieszanek trójskładnikowych. Wprowadzenie dodatków mineralnych o uziarnieniu mniejszym od cementu portlandzkiego zwiększa gęstość upakowania mieszanki, poprzez wypełnianie wolnych przestrzeni pomiędzy ziarnami cementu, a w efekcie powoduje wzrost wytrzymałości na ściskanie betonu. Głównym celem badań było zwiększenie gęstości upakowania poprzez częściowe zastąpienie cementu materiałami drobnoziarnistymi. Cement zastępowano w ilościach od 10% do 40%, co 5%. Zbadano wiele różnych kombinacji, a wyniki wykazały, że maksymalną gęstość upakowania wynoszącą 0,586 miały próbki o zawartości 75% cementu, z dodatkiem popiołu lotnego oraz żużla o bardzo dużym rozdrobnieniu, bez zastosowania superplastyfikatora. Dodatek superplastyfikatora jeszcze bardziej zwiększał gęstość upakowania, przy mniejszym stosunku wody do spoiwa.
EN
The effect of fly ash, rice husk ash, metakaolin, ultra-fine slag on the packing density of ternary mix was studied in this paper, using Puntke’s method of particle packing. The addition of these mineral additives, whose particle size is lower than that of the Ordinary Portland Cement, improves the packing density of cement, by filling the voids between the cement grains, which results in increased compressive strength of concrete. The main aim of this research was to increase the packing density by replacement of cement with fine materials. Cement replacement was carried out from 10% to 40% in steps of 5%. Many combinations were tested and results showed that a maximum packing density of 0.586 was achieved at 75% cement content along with fly ash and ultra-fine slag, without addition of the superplasticizer. Addition of superplasticizer further increased the packing at lower water to binder ratio.
EN
The recent climate condition and pollution problem related to surface water have led to water scarcity in Malaysia. Huge amount of groundwater has been identified as viable source for drinking water. This paper was aimed to investigate groundwater’s quality at specific location and metakaolin’s potential in the groundwater treatment in the removal of manganese. Groundwater purging was determined to be sufficient at 120 minutes where all three parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen and conductivity) were stabilized. The groundwater studied is classified as both anoxic and reductive due the low dissolved oxygen value. It also can be categorized as brackish due to high value of conductivity and total dissolved solid. Manganese content in groundwater was determined as higher than of that permissible limit for raw water and drinking water which makes it unsuitable for them not suitable for consumption and cleaning purpose. Average manganese concentration in samples was 444.0 ppb where the concentrations of manganese ranged from 229.4 ppb to 760.3 ppb. Manganese developed is not that a strong positive correlation against iron concentration, total dissolved solids and conductivity; whereas has a moderate negative correlation against dissolved oxygen. The capability adsorption of manganese by metakaolin was assessed via batch method which indicated optimum dosage and contact time was 14g that removed average 30.2% and contact time optimum at 120 minutes which removed 33.2% manganese from the sample.
EN
This research developed a mathematical model and optimization of materials for the development of metakaolin self-compacting concrete. This is in a bid to reduce the overall material quantity and cost towards sustainable infrastructural construction. To achieve the aim of this research, Response Surface Analysis (RSM) was used. Kaolinitic clay was De-hydroxylated at 750°C to form metakaolin. This was used as a partial replacement for cement at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% weight of Portland limestone cement. Both strength and rheology properties of the developed metakaolin self-compacting concrete were assessed. To this end, slump flow, L-Box test and V-funnel test were carried out alongside the compressive strength using relevant standard. The result of the research revealed that at 15% addition of metakaolin the slump flow, passing ability and filling ability was unsatisfactory according to EFNARC standard. From the numerical optimization of the compressive strength, the maximum predicted compressive strength of 44.35 N/mm2 was obtained. At a low value of metakaolin addition (5–15%), the compressive strength increased as the age of the concrete increased from 3–150 days. The age with the optimum mechanical strength formation was 110 days with metakaolin addition of 52.73 kg. The result of this research provide a database for Engineers, Researchers and Construction workers on the optimum metakaolin required to achieve satisfactory mechanical strength in metakaolin self-compacting concrete.
20
Content available remote Wpływ metakaolinu na wczesną hydratację cementu glinowo-wapniowego
PL
Przeprowadzono badania wpływu różnych ilości metakaolinu (MK) stosowanego jako zamiennik części cementu glinowo-wapniowego na proces wczesnej hydratacji (pierwsze 24 h) tego cementu prowadzony w temp. 25°C przy współczynniku woda/spoiwo = 0,5. Wpływ dodatku MK na kinetykę procesu określono metodami kalorymetryczną i konduktometryczną, a skład fazowy powstałej po 24 h struktury zbadano za pomocą analizy termicznej, proszkowej dyfraktometrii rentgenowskiej oraz spektroskopii w podczerwieni. Uzyskane wyniki dowodzą, że MK wpływa aktywnie zarówno na proces hydratacji cementu glinowego i modyfikuje przebieg wiązania i twardnienia, jak i na powstającą strukturę. Intensywność działania wzrasta ze wzrostem zawartości MK. Dodatek skraca etap indukcji i przyspiesza hydratację cementu, nieznacznie zmniejsza ciepło wydzielone w trakcie 24 h procesu i maks. temperaturę próbki. W przypadku większych zawartości (zwłaszcza 25%) MK ogranicza powstawanie hydrogranatu i powoduje tworzenie amorficznych faz typu C-S-H i/lub C-A-S-H już w pierwszej dobie hydratacji. Dodatkowo może on także wpływać na poprawę walorów estetycznych wyrobów z cementu glinowego.
EN
Metakaolin was added (5–25%) to cement, pasted then with water (50% by mass) and studied for hydration kinetics (up to 24 h) by calorimetry and conductometry. Phase compn. of the structure formed was detd. by thermal anal., X-ray powder diffraction and IR spectroscopy. The addn. of metakaolin to the mixt. resulted in a redn. of settling and hardening times and in decrease of max. temp. of the sample.
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