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PL
Miasta i obszary miejskie zajmują ponad 2% powierzchni Ziemi i odpowiadają za ok. 80% emitowanych gazów cieplarnianych. Zużywają przy tym prawie 75% zasobów przyrody. Badania przeprowadzone przez wiodące na świecie organy i instytucje zajmujące się ochroną środowiska wykazały, że Singapur jest jednym z najbardziej zrównoważonych ekologicznie krajów, a zrównoważony rozwój jest integralną częścią jego historii.
EN
In the northern Lublin region, the Eocene amber-bearing association has been recognized. It is a group of clastic deposits in which amber crumbs are scattered, and the characteristic feature of the association is the content of glauconite. The sedimentological and lithofacies studies allowed determining the conditions necessary for amber deposition. Accumulation of amber-bearing sediments took place in the Middle and Late Eocene. The Upper Eocene formations in this area occur in isolated patches. Amber accumulations are found in marine sediments associated with regressive facies, usually in depressions of the Cretaceous basement. Understanding the correct distribution of amber in the sediment and determining the dynamics of the Eocene sedimentary basin in the Lublin region have a practical aspect, and are the basis for developing the characteristics of the geological economic conditions for the occurrence of amber-bearing deposits. The recently drilled boreholes confirmed amber resource prospectivity in the Lubartów area and the recognition of new deposits with amber reserves.
EN
Our Earth has been entangled in different adverse effects resulting from the excessive human interference into the territory of nature. The habit of extracting and consuming indiscriminately is moving them to a situation, where their own future generation would not be able receive benefits of the natural resources. It has also been recognized that human action is perhaps the most significant contributor to this. And therefore, a proper equilibrium, i.e., sustainable development, could only be achieved by bringing about a change in human behavior in general. We explore the possibility of using indigenous knowledge for encouraging sustainable behaviors. We propose a model for behavior change through storytelling by using folktales. We argue that folktales serve three functions – epistemic, motivational, and ethical – which make them potent tools for promoting sustainable behavior. We conclude by pointing out limitations and suggestion for future research.
4
Content available remote Wpływ zmian klimatu na bezpieczeństwo ludności cywilnej
PL
Artykuł poświęcony został przedstawieniu wpływu zmian klimatu na bezpieczeństwo ludności cywilnej. Podzielony został na trzy główne części. Pierwsza poświęcona została zagadnieniu związku występującego pomiędzy człowiekiem, a środowiskiem. W drugiej zaprezentowano wybrane przyczyny zmian klimatu. W trzeciej zaś zawarto wybrane skutki zmian klimatu, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem ich wpływu na bezpieczeństwo człowieka.
EN
The paper is devoted to the presentation of the impact of climate change on the safety of civilians. It has been divided into three main parts. The first one is devoted to the issue of the relationship occurring between man and the environment. The second one presents selected causes of climate change. The third one includes selected effects of climate change, with particular emphasis on their impact on human safety.
EN
The consumption of various forms of primary and secondary energy is one of the main sources of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. Also, the increase in the prices of energy resources is an important factor affecting the economic profitability of running a business organization. Legal requirements in the European Union also affect the need to implement appropriate solutions aimed at increasing energy efficiency, which translates into the need of implementing Energy Management Systems, based the ISO 50001 standard, in many enterprises.. In the case study presented in the article, which is based on a company from the energy industry in Poland, the most important Energy Performance Indexes and the impact of the quality of their information on the results obtained were reviewed. In the analyzed example, the main process used only 28% of the total energy consumption in the organization. Insufficient attention to auxiliary processes led to an undercut of Energy Performance by nearly 11% in the first year of operation. It is partic-ularly important to properly collect data on auxiliary processes, which are very often omitted or treated in general in companies, and as shown may constitute a significant share in the total amount of energy consumed.
EN
The circulation of heavy metals in nature is characterized by high toxicity. However, the effects depend on the amount of toxic, the form of exposure to toxicity, the types of species exposed, age, sex, genetics and nutritional status, and on the consequences in ecosystems. With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, the environmental situation in some regions has deteriorated even more due to poor monitoring by state institutions. The challenges that await us in the future are complex and hence we risk not knowing how to meet the future challenges. The situation with toxicity and pollution is complicated by the COVID-19 pandemic, which for the first time in this century has turned into a global pandemic. Although we were not prepared to cope with this pandemic, still we succeeded to manage it better than the previous pandemics. High concentrations of heavy metals such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and nickel are among the metals that are dangerous for the public health of citizens. Metallic elements are characterized by toxic effects, especially with the consumption of food products. High concentrations cause great damage to human and animal organs but sometimes even small concentrations of it can have harmful effects. The increase in toxic concentration has affected industrial development, poor waste management, the release of toxic gases from industrial activities, as well as use of pesticides and herbicides in agriculture. High toxicity causes health damage, e.g. resulting from human exposure to metal toxicity and the use of contaminated foods. The heavy metals present in the environment such as Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Se, Zn, Co, Cr, are essential nutrients required for various biochemical and physiological functions.
EN
The development of the infrastructure of the oil and gas complex is one of the most significant factors of negative impact on the environment. The most efficient way to drill wells is cluster drilling, which currently accounts for 95% of all operations carried out in fields. In the process of oil and oil products production, toxic drilling waste is generated at the well pad, which is then placed in sludge pits (sludge storage). The aim of the study was to select the methods for drilling waste utilization based on the results of environmental radiation analysis. Within the framework of the study, the following tasks were solved: radiation monitoring of drilling waste was carried out at the “Progress-2000” spectrometric complex; analyzed the physical and chemical composition of drill cuttings; a comparative analysis of the samples under study was carried out in accordance with the normative indicators; methods of utilization of drilling waste are proposed.
EN
Mining dumps, particularly inactive or abandoned mines located near makeshift mining towns, have significant environmental and social impacts. The Touissit-Boubker lead mine, operated for years by the Touissit Mining Company (CMT) and abandoned without rehabilitation, is an example of this socio-economic and environmental collapse. Large quantities of harmful solid waste containing clayey aggregates rich in lead sulphide have been dumped in dykes on the edge of the village of Touissit. These mining wastes were rewashed to extract galena causing a depletion of lead sulphide. The objective of this study is to evaluate the possibility of using washed mining waste as sandy aggregate for the manufacture of masonry mortar. Cylindrical mortar tests, made with various proportions of sand and mine waste were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and mechanical analysis by uni-axial compressive strength after curing for 3, 14, 28 and 60 days. The results obtained revealed that the mining waste consists of dolomite, quartz and clay. The dehydration rate of the mortar specimens is strongly affected by the amount of the waste added and the grain size. The mechanical strength of the mortar specimens mostly depends on the grain-size of the aggregates than on the amount of mine waste added. The microstructure of the mortar did not change when sand was replaced by mine waste of the same grain size.
EN
Natural resources are the basis of all material goods which are of special importance for the life and development of mankind. Therefore, sustainable management of natural resources is of great importance for modern society. The concentrations of heavy metals in the soil such as: (Cu, Fe, Cd, Mn, Pb, and Zn), have a negative impact on the contamination of crops. Human activity should be developed on the basis of the principles of environmental sustainability to achieve economic and social prosperity and environmental protection as well as, improve the environment polluted by human activity. Natural resources must be preserved and regenerated. Moreover, well-being, environmental management and maintaining the purity of the environment in the future enable the production of safe food. Preservation of good quality water resources creates security and maintains soil quality. Recently, there has been a marked increase in awareness of natural resources, especially the preservation of water quality, soil, and their importance to our lives. The study included various methodologies, qualitative and quantitative analyses, and statistics.
EN
Since the beginning of its existence mankind is using natural resources and applying them in construction techniques. The anthropogenic pressure induced by humans its clearly influencing the natural environment and so affecting its functional balance. Buildings are anthropogenic objects that enable mankind to inhabit its natural habitat according to their needs. This article discloses the use issues of buildings according to their anthropogenic pressure taken in consideration the example of a selected building.
EN
The aim of the article is to assess the environmental sustainability of small-scale farming. The authors tried to reach the farmers' subjective opinions, their way of thinking, attitudes and determinants affecting environmental performance. The use of in-depth interviews gave a chance to draw reliable and accurate conclusions on the analysed topic and register many elements that could be omitted using quantitative methods. Thus, the work forms a complementary part of research on the sustainability of small-scale farms, which is its main added value. Furthermore, the use of data from three EU member states – Poland, Romania and Lithuania – provided a basis for comparative analysis. Conclusions proved that small farms perform important environmental functions in rural areas. It results from the very essence of this type of farm, based on the cultivation of traditions and experience passed down from generation to generation, as well as from the family nature of these units.
PL
Celem artykułu jest ocena zrównoważenia środowiskowego w rolnictwie drobnotowarowym. Autorzy starali się poznać subiektywne opinii rolników, ich sposób myślenia, postawy i determinanty działań środowiskowych. Zastosowanie wywiadów pogłębionych było szansą na wyciągnięcie rzetelnych i trafnych wniosków oraz zarejestrowanie wielu elementów, które mogłyby zostać pominięte przy zastosowaniu metod ilościowych. Tym samym praca stanowi komplementarną część badań nad zrównoważonym rozwojem gospodarstw drobnotowarowych, co jest jej główną wartością dodaną publikacji. Ponadto, wykorzystanie danych z trzech państw członkowskich UE – Polski, Rumunii i Litwy – dało podstawę do analizy porównawczej. Wnioski dowodzą, że małe gospodarstwa rolne pełnią ważne funkcje środowiskowe na obszarach wiejskich. Wynika to z samej istoty tego typu gospodarstw, opartej na kultywowaniu tradycji i doświadczeń przekazywanych z pokolenia na pokolenie, a także z rodzinnego charakteru tych jednostek.
EN
In an age of climate change and increasing negative environmental effects of the development of urban agglomeration, it is becoming more and more important to implement sustainable development principles in governing urban municipalities (Polish: gminy). The three areas of sustainable development: social, economic and environmental, have been extensively explored in scientific research over recent years. These studies have mostly covered international or regional areas and, to a lesser extent, local ones. Six environmental, economic and social indicators of sustainable development were examined for 14 urban municipalities located in Lesser Poland Voivodeship. Only a selected group of indicators from these areas was assessed due to limited data availability. Social and economic measures showed a strong Spearman's rank correlation. Based on the collected research material, benchmarking was developed for the units under evaluation, indicating that over the period between the year 2014 and 2019, the city of Krakow occupied the highest position, on average, among urban municipalities of Lesser Poland Voivodeship, considering the measures analysed.
PL
W dobie zmian klimatycznych, narastających negatywnych czynników rozwoju aglomeracji miejskich na środowisko implementacja zasad zrównoważonego rozwoju w procesie zarządzania gminami miejskimi nabiera coraz większego znaczenia. Trzy obszary zrównoważonego rozwoju: społeczny, gospodarczy i środowiskowy stanowią istotny zakres eksploracji badań naukowych na przestrzeni ostatnich lat. W niniejszym opracowaniu skoncentrowano się przede wszystkim na determinantach środowiskowych zrównoważonego rozwoju. Badaniu poddano 6 wskaźników środowiskowych, ekonomicznych i społecznych zrównoważonego rozwoju dla 14 gmin miejskich zlokalizowanych w województwie małopolskim. Ocenie poddano tylko wybraną grupę wskaźników ze wskazanych obszarów ze względu na ograniczoną dostępność danych. Z badanych obszarów silną korelację według współczynnika rang Spearmana wykazywały w większości miary z obszaru socjalnego i ekonomicznego. W oparciu o zebrany materiał badawczy opracowano benchmarking dla ocenianych jednostek, wskazując, że miasto Kraków na przestrzeni lat 2014-2019 generowało średnio najwyższą lokatę w rankingu w zakresie analizowanych miar gmin miejskich województwa małopolskiego.
EN
The development of technology imposes new, higher requirements on those that exist. Encourages the creation of new materials. In order to reduce the weight of aircraft structures, for example, multi-layer structures that combine lightness, rigidity, and strength are used. For many areas of technology is necessary such that combine structural strength with high electrical, thermal, optical, and other properties. Regulating the structure of traditional materials is a promising way to improve quality. Thus, by means of directed crystallization of steels and alloys, cast parts are obtained, for example, gas turbine blades, consisting of crystals oriented relative to the main stresses in such a way that the edges of the grains are unobtrusive. Directional crystallization allows increasing plasticity and durability several times. The greatest environmental pollution occurs in the area of airports (airfields) during the landing and take-off of aircraft, as well as the warming up of their engines. When engines are running on take-off and landing, the maximum amount of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon compounds enter the surrounding environment, and the maximum amount of nitrogen oxides enter the flight process. A jetliner that makes a transatlantic flight requires from 50 to 100 tons of this gas. On the territory of the airfield, engines are launched, taxiing, take-off, and landing of aircraft, during which harmful exhaust products of aviation engines, pre-launch (waiting location) and on the runway enter the atmosphere.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wpływ podstawowych czynników mikroklimatu, takich jak: zakres temperatury, skład powietrza, graniczne wartości CO2, NH3, H2S. Wartości graniczne tych gazów kolejno określono na 3000 ppm, 20 ppm i 0,5 ppm (tabela 1). W przedstawionych rezultatach badań przykładowych obór stwierdzono zależności pomiędzy temperaturą, wilgotnością względną powietrza wewnątrz obór, średnią temperaturą wewnątrz obór a stężeniem amoniaku, stężeniem CO2 i prędkością ruchu powietrza.
EN
This paper presents the influence of basic microclimate factors such as temperature range, air composition, CO2, NH3, H2S limits. The limit values of these gases were successively set at 3000 ppm, 20 ppm and 0.5 ppm (Table 1). In the presented results of the study of exemplary barns, relationships were found between temperature, relative humidity of the air inside the barns, average temperature inside the barns and ammonia concentration, CO2 concentration and air movement velocity.
EN
Bridges are particularly vulnerable elements of transport infrastructures. In many cases, bridge structures may be subject to higher volumes of traffic and higher loads as well as more severe environmental conditions than it was designed. Sound procedures to ensure monitoring, quality control, and preventive maintenance systems are therefore vital. The paper presents main challenges and arriving possibilities in management of bridge structures, including: relationships between environment and bridge infrastructure, improvement of diagnostic technologies, advanced modelling of bridges in computer-based management systems, development of knowledge-based expert systems with application of artificial intelligence, applications of technology of Bridge Information Modelling (BrIM) with augmented and virtual reality techniques. Presented activities are focused on monitoring the safety of bridges for lowering the risk of an unexpected collapse significantly as well as on efficient maintenance of bridges as components of transport infrastructure - by means of integrated management systems. The proposed classification of Bridge Management Systems shows the history of creating such systems and indicates the expected directions of their development, taking into account changing challenges and integrating new developing technologies, including automation of decision-making processes.
PL
Obiekty mostowe są szczególnie wrażliwymi elementami infrastruktury transportowej. W wielu przypadkach mogą podlegać większemu natężeniu ruchu i większym obciążeniom, a także bardziej surowym warunkom środowiskowym niż te, na które je pierwotnie projektowano. Dlatego niezbędne jest przygotowywanie i wdrażanie do stosowania procedur, które zapewnią możliwie pełną kontrolę jakości obiektów mostowych na każdym etapie cyklu ich życia. Stosowane rozwiązania powinny też zapewniać systematyczne monitorowanie stanu technicznego infrastruktury mostowej oraz dobór skutecznych działań utrzymaniowych. W artykule przedstawiono główne wyzwania i pojawiające się możliwości w zarządzaniu obiektami mostowymi z wykorzystaniem nowoczesnych technologii. Obejmują one przede wszystkim: relacje pomiędzy środowiskiem a infrastrukturą mostową, doskonalenie technologii diagnostycznych, zaawansowane modelowanie mostów w komputerowych systemach zarzadzania, rozwój systemów ekspertowych wspomagających procesy decyzyjne, które oparte są na bazie wiedzy z zastosowaniem elementów sztucznej inteligencji, a także wdrażanie metodyki BrIM (Bridge Information Management) z technikami rozszerzonej i wirtualnej rzeczywistości. Prezentowane działania skupiają się na monitorowaniu bezpieczeństwa obiektów mostowych oraz ich użytkowników w celu obniżenia ryzyka niespodziewanej katastrofy oraz zapewnienia możliwości realizowania sprawnego procesu utrzymania obiektów mostowych będących bardzo ważnymi elementami całej infrastruktury transportowej. Przedstawiona klasyfikacja systemów zarzadzania mostami (Bridge Management Systems) pokazuje historie tworzenia takich systemów oraz wskazuje spodziewane kierunki ich rozwoju związane z uwzględnianiem zmieniających się wyzwań i integracją nowych rozwijających się technologii, w tym automatyzacja procesów podejmowania decyzji.
EN
Less than ten years ago, Algeria embarked on an energy transition with the objectives of sustainable development. Although it concerns all economic sectors, efforts made in the field of road transport, as the main polluter and energy consumer at the national level, are far from being sufficient despite its inclusion in policy statements. This sector is operational exclusively on fossil and exhaustible energies whereas its atmospheric pollutants and gaseous emissions are highly harmful to the environment, public health and the economy. Thus, this paper points out the emergency of an energy transition in the road transport sector to clean and renewable energy as a necessity rather than a choice. It highlights, first, the characteristics of the Algerian automobile fleet and its various impacts and damages on the environment, public health and the economy. Furthermore, it evaluates the various policy initiatives towards sustainable transport and their deficiencies. Hence, the right attitudes and regulatory instruments towards sustainable transport in Algeria are recommended.
17
Content available Analysis of air-traffic threats
EN
Globally, air transport has seen a greater increase in recent years. This manuscript is divided into three parts for analysing the negative effects of aviation. The first part is focused on the identification of sources of aircraft noise. While the second part of this article describes the basic principles of the construction and operation of an aircraft jet engine concerning the gaseous emissions produced by such an engine (Third part missing?). The main benefit of this article is the evaluation of the reliability of the human factor because the human factor is an integral part of technical systems and processes. Reliability assessment was performed using the TESEO method. The ergonomic parameter, that is, the cabin noise, was quantified in the given method. The measurement was performed on two types of aircraft, namely in the cabin of a transport jet aircraft and in the cabin of asmall transport aircraft equipped with turboprop engines.
EN
Purpose: The aim of the study is to answer the questions: how the employees of enterprises evaluate the care for building proper relationships with suppliers, recipients, customers and other entities, the enterprise/organization cooperates with, what activities support building good relationships. Design/methodology/approach: Empirical research conducted among respondents from enterprises and organizations in the Lubuskie voivodship. The background was to show the essence and models of relationship marketing. Findings: Employees of enterprises show a high sense of the importance of their actions for shaping relationships with business partners. This is based on: communication, building a good image, meeting the needs and expectations of external entities and joint activities for the local community. Research limitations/implications: Future research may include a detailed characterization of the relationships between business entities representing various sectors of the economy. Practical implications: The surveyed enterprises should shape the internal communication processes of the management staff with employees to build relationships with the environment, improve the external information systems of their partners. Managing the social potential in an enterprise should focus on motivating employees to take actions for shaping relationships with business partners, etc. Moving to a higher level of intra-organizational perception may affect the awareness of the role of the company/organization’s employees and their verifying power of activities for the environment. Social implications: The research results should show employees that their attitudes and openness to social needs can affect solving local problems and building the company’s image. Originality/value: Indicating the perception of the importance of employees in shaping relationships with the environment and evaluation of company’s activities in this regard.
EN
Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to identify the level of involvement of the corporations of the EBRD regions in the implementation of the concept of sustainable development, and to evaluate the applied solutions in the field of green management. Design/methodology/approach: The research methods used in the paper include the review of Polish and foreign literature, and the analysis of data from secondary sources. The desk research analysis was conducted on the basis of numerical information contained in the publication entitled "Transition Report 2019-20" and presented on the website of The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). Findings: The result of the conducted research include the indication of the corporations in the countries of the EBRD regions that are leaders in the field of green governance and green management, and identification of factors and the extent to which they have an impact on the implementation of sustainable development postulates. Research limitations/implications: The presented findings encourage further research to determine the causes of drastic differences in the field of green governance and green management in the studied corporations of the EBRD regions and the possibility of limiting them. Practical implications: The analysis and evaluation of the implementation of the main practices of green management in the corporations of the EBRD regions allow to identify leaders in this area and apply the model of their operation (benchmarking) to improve the position of the organizations that show deficits. Social implications: The use of the presented data, analyses and conclusions should imply further actions and strategies in enterprises necessary to implement the concept of sustainable development. Originality/value: The paper synthetically presents the significance of the concept of green governance and the application of green management practices by corporations from the EBRD regions.
20
Content available Green bonds as modern financial instruments
EN
Design/methodology/approach: The research methods used in the paper include the survey of Polish and foreign literature as well as the analysis of data from secondary sources. Desk research analysis was based on numerical data contained in the Climate Bonds Initiative database. Findings: The result of the conducted research is an indication of trends concerning the development of the green bond market and the main leaders on the international market. The position of Poland as an issuer of this type of securities is presented against this background. Research limitations/implications: The presented findings encourage further research to systematize data on green finance in Poland and the issue of green bonds from the point of view of the adopted criteria for their division. Practical implications: The analysis and assessment of the causes and effects of the issue of green bonds, especially on international markets, should be a kind of leverage to popularize this method of financing pro-ecological projects in Poland, especially among entrepreneurs and local governments. Social implications: The use of the presented data, analyses and conclusions should imply further actions and strategies of various entities necessary to implement the concept of sustainable development, especially green financing. The implementation of green bonds should result in the development of the capital market on the one hand, and on the other hand, contribute to the effective implementation of pro-ecological projects. Originality/value: The article synthetically presents the significance of the concept of green finance. It deals with current issues related to green bonds as well as global and domestic trends in their application.
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