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Content available Skarby kartografii i mapa Hindenberga
W artykule przedstawiono w syntetyczny sposób rozwój kartografii, w szczególności map, które miały istotne znaczenie dla jej rozwoju. Drugim -zasadniczym - celem artykułu jest prezentacja Mapy Hindenberga z 1636r., która została w profesjonalny sposób odnowiona, jej wersja cyfrowa. Po dokonanej konserwacji została wpisana na listę UNESCO, jako zabytek wysokiej klasy. W trzeciej części artykułu nawiązano do starych map górniczych, które oprócz ich formy, nadal mają podstawowe znaczenie dla oceny przydatności terenów pogórniczych do zagospodarowania.
The article presents the development of the cartography in a compact way and especially maps which have had significance for the development of the cartography. The second primarily aim of the article is a presentation of Hindenberg map from 1636 which was professionally renovated as a digital version. After renovation process it was entered on the UNESCO World Heritage List as a high standard antique. The third part of the article is focused on old mining maps which despite of a form, still have basically importance for an evaluation of post-mining areas to land development.
. The plan of Kalisz by Andrzej Politalski is the oldest geometrically accurate depiction of the town. Compiled in 1785, it has survived to this day in a redrawing by Ottomar Wolle in 1878 at the scale of 1:3,000. The author discusses the process of developing the edition of Politalski’s plan for the “Kalisz” volume of the Historic Towns Atlas (HTA) and compares it with editions in other volumes. The most recent (2021) volumes developed in three different centres were chosen as comparative material: Biecz volume (Kraków); Fordon, 2nd edition (Toruń); and Racibórz (Wrocław). Each volume adopts different editorial rules, although, in general, they conform to the overarching principles of redrawing a map at the scale of 1:2,500. The differences touch on virtually all aspects (source material, scope of content, non-cartographic elements), but they are united by the aforementioned common scale and purpose. Developing the edition of Politalski’s plan was preceded by genetic analysis and the identification of filiation of its remaining copies. The original (1785) has not survived, nor has the first redrawing (1800). We only have a redrawing by Wolle (1878), which was the basis for the development of the plan for the HTA. In addition to this, we also have several other less significant versions. Politalski’s plan was georeferenced, its content was vectorised, and cartographical representation was created. The result has been put together with selected editions elaborated to date. A distinctive feature of the work on the “Kalisz” volume is the use of a redrawing of the original as a source plan, as it is – in fact – its historical edition. The author also draws attention to the issues of standardisation of data models and, consequently, of legends between particular volumes.
The aim of this article is to expand the understanding of the history of cartography of the lands of southern Poland under Austrian rule in the nineteenth century. The Austrian Second Military Survey, at the scale 1:28,800, was produced for the province of Galicia between 1861 and 1864 and for Austrian Silesia between 1838 and 1841. In Galicia, work on 413 sheets was led by thirteen cartographers, and the content and descriptions were prepared by 106 cartographic technicians. On the 42 sheets of the Silesia maps, two directors and 11 technicians were recorded. The military cartographers who prepared the survey of the two provinces belonged to 71 multinational units of the army of the Austrian Empire. Work with nineteenth-century maps is fraught with uncertainty about the consistency of the series, which may be reflected in the content of the maps. The consistency of map content was tested on sheets covering the Polish Carpathians for two types of features: linear (roads) and area (forests). Expanding the understanding of these maps may contribute to reducing uncertainty in their use for various environmental and socio-economic analyses.
The paper discusses selected maps of rock strata which exemplify the evolution stages of presentation methods of cartographic data concerning the geological structure of selected countries (France, Great Britain and Germany) which in the first half of the nineteenth century constituted the leaders of the field. The results of geologists’ work are used to present the content of maps, provide explanations and showcase the methods and techniques chosen by the maps’ creators. The analysed maps are accompanied by geological writings which contain descriptions of the chronological order within rock formations and strata defined on the basis of fossils, methods of recreating the geological history of individual regions, and attempts of compiling the acquired knowledge and using it to describe larger areas. The author discusses also two maps of Europe published in the mid-nineteenth century, which are the result of cooperation and research achievements of geologists from different countries.
For many centuries on general geographical maps and early maritime maps geological information was rarely included. The map of the Wadi Hammamat valley, the Borgia world map, the Catalan world map and Carta de nauigar per le Isole nouamente... portolan chart were indicated as examples. Places where minerals occurred were presented mainly using textual descriptions. Among Renaissance maps and later maps published before the second half of the 18th century, the map of the Kingdom of Bavaria by Philipp Apian and the map of the Duchy of Świdnica in Silesia by Johann Wieland and Matthaus Schubart were discussed as examples. Distribution of raw materials and places of their extraction were shown using simple geometric signs with graphic characteristics for a given period. Mineralogical maps published in the second half of the 18th century were described based on the example of maps by Jean-Étienne Guettard and Johann Jirasek. Their content was compared with the texts accompanying them, developed under patronage of the contemporary scientific institutions and relevant methods of geological information presentation were described. From the late Renaissance symbols signifying extraction sites of raw materials had simplified and rather random shapes which indicates ‘unhurried’ development of cartographic methods on geological maps.
The article discusses the problem of cartographic presentation of immaterial elements of city space. On the example of old city maps of Warsaw from the period between 1641 and the end of the 19th century, the image of objects and places in Warsaw is linked to the image of activities happening in them, or in connection with them. The author presents results of the analysis of the methods of presentation of immaterial elements, distinguishing three most numerous groups of them: nomenclature, functions and significance of objects, and property and administrative issues. The conclusions base on the analysis of 61 general city maps of Warsaw covering the whole city, elaborated in the periods 1641-1800, 1801-1900, and, supplementary, 1901-1939.
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