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EN
Sustainable development has caused companies to try to adapt their activities to changing customer expectations, but also to climate change. This poses a particular challenge for SMEs from developing countries. Therefore, the objective of the investigation was to analyse the qualitative-environmental aspects of the improvement of the products in SMEs from the countries of the Visegrad Group (V4). The results analysed constituted a research sample of 379 companies in the electrical machinery industry (machine processing industry), which were obtained in the period from March to September 2023 through a targeted survey. The area of analysis included, e.g.: (i) environmental issues of selected areas of activity, (ii) measures of environmental activity, and (iii) selected qualitative-environmental aspects. Analyses of the research results were carried out using quantitative and qualitative analyses, including comparative analyses, e.g. regarding the implementation status of ISO 14001, EMAS, and ISO 9001. These techniques were used: word cloud, ANOVA test and Mann Whitney U test at the significance level of α=0.05. It has been shown that SMEs in V4 countries focus their activities on improving products to improve their quality rather than limiting their negative environmental impact. Originality of the research is the identification of significant differences in the qualitative-environmental aspects undertaken when SMEs from V4 countries. Research results may contribute to the development activities more effective and coherent in the V4 countries, to achieve a stable and competitive advantage on the market as part of the qualitative and environmental improvement of the products. The research results and the conclusions drawn from them can be used by scientists and practitioners to shape the target states of enterprises in the period of increasing involvement in proecological ideas.
EN
Purpose: The purpose of the article is to present results of pilot studies from survey research of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) from the electromechanical industry of the countries of the Visegrad Group, i.e.: Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary. Design/methodology/approach: As subject of research selected SMEs from electromechanical industry. Survey research was quantitative in nature. They were conducted in a written and electronic way using the MS FORMS platform. Findings: In recent years, issues related to nature protection have become more and more priority for small and medium enterprises from the electromechanical industry of Visegrad countries. This is mainly due to the updated way of managing organisations and the increasing emphasis on the use of sustainable development tools. This pressure is exerted by competition but also by customers. It turned out that today it is not enough to ensure high quality of products, but in order to achieve the basic goals of the organisation, it is also necessary to invest in sustainable development. However, there is resistance in this area, related to awareness and costs. Research limitations/implications: The article included initial research. In the future, the next research is planned in this area. Originality/value: The article presented an analysis of the pilot survey research of approach to quality and environmental issues in SMEs. The article refers to enterprises from one industry, i.e.: the electromechanical industry of Visegrad Group - Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. The conclusions from the research are important for national SMEs and organisations that support the development of this sector.
EN
Sustainable development encourages companies to anticipate actions that will help reduce their negative impact on the environment, but will also be beneficial to customers in terms of meeting their expectations. Hence, the purpose was to define the actions that can be expected from SMEs from the V4 countries when improving products and minimizing the negative impact on the natural environment. The research tool was a survey, the presented results of which were obtained from March to September 2023. They included 379 SMEs from the Visegrad Group countries, i.e. Poland, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, and Hungary. The results were analyzed using statistical tests performed in STATISTICA 13.3. For this purpose, the ANOVA test (repeated measurement designs) and the Mann Whitney U test were used to analyze statistically significant differences between the test results. Analyzes were performed at the significance level of α=0.05. The analysis showed that entrepreneurs from the V4 countries expect relatively different actions from SMEs when improving products and minimizing the negative impact on the natural environment. The results from the analysis may be useful in planning sustainable activities in SMEs from the V4 countries, so that these activities contribute to improving the quality of products and at the same time minimizing the negative environmental impact.
EN
Dynamically identifying key product changes is a challenge for enterprises. It is even more complicated if companies strive for the sustainable development of their activities. Therefore, the aim of the article was to develop a method to help predict the direction of product improvement, taking into account its quality level and environmental impact during the life cycle (LCA). The method was based on the design phase of LCA and the process of obtaining and processing customer expectations. Techniques supporting the developed method were: a questionnaire, a seven-point Likert scale, a standardised list of criteria for assessing the product life cycle, the WSM method, and a scale of relative states. The product analysis was carried out according to modified criteria states, which were evaluated according to: i) customer satisfaction (quality criteria), ii) environmental impact of LCA (environmental criteria), and iii) importance of quality and environmental criteria for customers. The originality of the method is to support the product improvement process to make it environmentally friendly within LCA and, at the same time, satisfactory to customers in terms of quality. The method will be used mainly by SMEs that want to initially predict the environmental impact of a product, including taking into account customer expectations.
EN
Improving product quality while making decisions remains a challenge. The objective of this research was to develop a model that supports the precise enhancement of product quality through comprehensive analysis of possibilities, product incompatibilities, root causes, and recommended improvement actions. The model incorporated various tools and methods such as the SMARTER method, expert team selection, brainstorming, Ishikawa diagram, 5M+E rule, FAHP, and FTOPSIS methods. The study demonstrated that integrating quality management tools and decision-making methods into a unified model enables the accurate prioritization of activities for product quality management. This integrated approach represents the novelty of this research. The model was evaluated using a mechanical seal made of 410 alloy. The research findings can be valuable to enterprises seeking to enhance product quality at any stage of production, particularly for modified or new products.
EN
Purpose: The main goal of the research was to determine the spectrum of instruments supporting management processes that are used to improve the quality of products in terms of sustainable development. We analyzed the degree of their use in the practical functioning of the surveyed enterprises. In addition, the aim of the research was to determine the scope of application of the indicated instruments or the possibility of their use in the decision-making process relating to the improvement of the broadly understood quality of products. Design/methodology/approach: The research method applied are: 1) standardized survey research making based on a survey conducted in contact and remote way conducted in 78 enterprises in south-eastern Poland; 2) analysis of the source documentation and in-depth interviews. It is a component of broader research. Findings: The following methods were used in decision-making processes with varying frequency: the Delphi method by 58% of respondents, Tree of Failure Analysis (by 52%), Event Tree Analysis (by 44%), and the QFD method (by 41% respondents). The surveyed companies that have implemented a vapour management system based on ISO standards tend to use 5 methods out of 25 cited in this study (these are a survey, brainstorming, 5Why and/or 5W2H, benchmarking, and the Delphi method). As a result of using mainly the above mentioned methods in decision-making processes, 74% (out of all) of the respondents indicated an increase in the quality level of products, and 39% of respondents indicated the enhancement of the pro-ecological impact of products on the natural environment. Research limitations/implications: Most of the analysed enterprises from SMEs are tried integrating qualitative-environmental actions as part of improving the quality of products. This approach is crucial when improving the quality of products in SMEs. Practical implications: It is necessary to develop a multidimensional modl enabling the optimization of decision-making processes with the possibility of making full use of the available instruments for improving the quality of the product in such a way as to meet the rapidly changing requirements of stakeholders. Originality/value: The article has cognitive value for development of knowledge, science, quality, and environmental in the area of management of products.
EN
Purpose: The basic purpose of research was to determine the causes of making the decision that manufacturers on their way to improve the quality of their products. Design/methodology/approach: The research method applied in article is mainly standardized survey research making based on survey conducted in contact and remote way conducted in 78 enterprises in south-eastern Poland. The research process also accompanied analysis of thesource documentation. Findings: It was concluded that decision during improving quality of the product were making mainly in simultaneously with considering customers' requirements of the customers about the quality of the products and the impact of products on the natural environment. Research limitations/implications: Most of the verified enterprises from SMEs are tried integrating qualitative-environmental actions as part of improving the quality of products. This is a favorable condition for further research, so that it is possible to adjust the quality and environmental approach when improving the quality of products in SMEs. Practical implications: Discussion of the results of research have a series of practical implications mainly for product management staff. Especially in organizations that designed new products or also in significant modification of these products. Social implications: Building awareness improves not only quality of products, but also simultaneously in line with sustainable development, including in improving environmental aspects. Originality/value: The article has cognitive value for development of knowledge, science, quality, and environmental in the area of management of products.
EN
Purpose: The purpose was to develop an approach to predict product quality considering current customers' expectations. Design/methodology/approach: The approach includes integrated techniques, i.e.: SMART(-ER) method, a questionnaire with the Likert scale, brainstorming (B&M), WSM method, and Naïve Bayes Classifier. This approach refers to obtaining customers' expectations for satisfaction from the current quality of products and the importance of these criteria. Based on the satisfaction of customers, the quality of the product was estimated and classified. Then, the quality of the product was predicted for current customers. Findings: It was shown that it is possible to predict product quality based on current customer expectations, and so based on the current existing product. Research limitations/implications: The proposed approach does not include the possibilities of determining the expected quality of the product. The approach focuses on predicting customers' satisfaction with the current quality of the product. Therefore, if there is a need for improvement actions, further analyzes should be carried out to determine which criteria should be modified and how. Practical implications: The presented approach can be used for any product. Therefore, it is a useful tool for any kind of organization, which strives to meet customer satisfaction. Despite the possibility to predict the quality of the product, the proposed approach can indicate at an early stage to the organization that it is necessary to make improvement actions. Social implications: It is possible to reduce the waste of resources by predicting that improvement actions are necessary. Moreover, the approach supports an entity (e.g., expert, enterprise, interested parties) in predicting current customers' satisfaction. Originality/value: Originality is predicting product quality based on current customers' expectations. A new combination of quality management techniques, decision support, and machine learning was implemented.
EN
Purpose: The aim of the study is to analyze environmental awareness among employees of companies producing plastics, and subsequently to draw conclusions about the level of their pro-environmental awareness. The motive for the implementation of pro-environmental awareness research in plastics-producing plants was their harmful impact on the environment. Design/methodology/approach: The research was a survey that was carried out among 44 workers of plastics enterprises located in south-eastern Poland in the first quarter of 2018. During the selection of companies for research, it was included: their location (south-eastern Poland), long-term operation (more than 30 years), the same type of activity (production of plastics), and whether pro-environmental activities were practiced. Findings: It was concluded that the level of awareness of the employees of plastic industry employees was on a low level. Research limitations/implications: The research sample is only a preliminary sample. It is planned to obtain data from a larger number of companies and verify the data. Practical implications: Enterprises should focus on meeting customer needs and maintaining high-quality products, but taking into account pro-environmental measures that should be a priority. This is possible if pro-environmental awareness is continually shaped. Social implications: The pro-environmental awareness is small among employees from the enterprises, in which pro-environmental actions were not practiced. Employees do not know how the processes are carried out in the company and whether they have any impact on the natural environment. Additionally, the employees of companies not used pro-environmental activities are unaware of the threats resulting from the activities of their company and do not know that other companies about the same activities already apply such activities. Originality/value: These results will allow better decisions in the context of sustainability and improvement actions to achieve a higher level of awareness among the plastic production companies' employees.
EN
The main problem of modern entrepreneurs is the adequate recognition of customer expectations based on current products. The purpose of the study is to propose the concept of a model to predict the qualitative-cost level of this modified product. The idea of the concept depends on determining the product that will be satisfactory for the customer, i.e., satisfied simultaneously in turn of quality and cost of purchase. A questionnaire is used to obtain customer expectations. Then, according to the DEMATEL method, the relations between these criteria are determined. Next, the weights (importance) of the criteria are estimated by arithmetic average. Additionally, according to the Likert scale, these criteria' initial quality (customer satisfaction) is assessed. Based on these, the quality of the product is estimated by using the WSM method. The calculated product quality is combined with the real cost of its purchase in the qualitative-cost analysis (AKJ). According to the results of the qualitative-cost analysis, the expected product of the customer is predicted. This process is supported by the Relative States Scale. The proposed conception can be used to verify any product. Therefore, it can be useful for different entities offering products to the customer and striving to meet their expectations (satisfaction). The originality is the simultaneous prediction of the expected level of product quality and the cost of its purchase and the ability to determine customer satisfaction at this qualitative-cost level.
PL
Głównym problemem współczesnych przedsiębiorców jest odpowiednie rozpoznanie oczekiwań klienta na podstawie aktualnych produktów. Celem opracowania jest zaproponowanie koncepcji modelu do przewidywania poziomu jakościowo-kosztowego produktu według modyfikacji produktu. Idea koncepcji polega na określeniu satysfakcjonującego dla klienta produktu, który będzie jednocześnie zadawalający pod względem jakości i kosztu jego zakupu. Kwestionariusz wykorzystuje się do pozyskania oczekiwań klienta. Kolejno, według metody DAMATEL określane są relacje pomiędzy kryteriami. Następnie stosując średnią arytmetyczną szacowane są wagi (ważność) kryteriów. Dodatkowo, według skali Likerta oceniana jest wstępna jakość (satysfakcja klienta) z tych kryteriów. Na ich podstawie szacowana jest jakość produktu zgodnie z metodą WSM. Obliczona jakość produktu łączona jest z rzeczywistym kosztem ich zakupu w analizie kosztowo-jakościowej (AKJ). Według poziomu kosztowo-jakościowego przewidywany jest produkt oczekiwany przez klienta. Wybór wspierany jest skalą stanów względnych. Proponowana koncepcja może być stosowana do weryfikacji dowolnych produktów. Dlatego może być użyteczną dla różnych podmiotów oferujących produkty klientowi i dążących do spełnienia ich oczekiwań (satysfakcji). Oryginalnością jest jednoczesne przewidzenie oczekiwanego poziomu jakości produktu i kosztu jego zakupu oraz możliwość określenia satysfakcji klienta z tego poziomu jakościowo-kosztowego.
EN
Lean Manufacturing is a profound system designed to enhance every manufacturing industry's efficiency by reducing waste through internationally recognized tools and techniques. Enterprises of all sizes and industries strive to adopt Lean Manufacturing (LM) concepts to maximize their resources, such as personnel, facilities, materials, and operating schedules, to be economically effective. There are several models for implementing Lean philosophy in enterprises. The conducted research is aimed at reviewing and conceptualizing the LM system implementation framework in the enterprises in Central and Eastern Europe. The analysis was based on the results of surveys conducted in micro, small, medium and large enterprises, mainly in production, trade and service organizations. As a result, among others, the main premises, methods and benefits of implementing the LM system, thus identifying the specificity of the concept in the context of the size of enterprises and the industry from which they come, were indicated. The originality is the analysis of the effectiveness, efficiency and productivity of Lean activities, distinguishing the size of the organization from the group of micro, small, medium and large organizations (MSME). The research results show that the LM implementation model in enterprises from Central and Eastern Europe is based on the Shingo model.
PL
Produkcja szczupła to rozbudowany system zaprojektowany w celu zwiększenia wydajności każdej branży produkcyjnej poprzez redukcję odpadów dzięki uznanym na arenie międzynarodowej narzędziom i technikom. Przedsiębiorstwa niezależnie od wielkości i branży starają się przyjąć koncepcje Lean Manufacturing (LM) , aby zmaksymalizować swoje zasoby, takie jak personel, obiekty, materiały i harmonogramy działania, aby były ekonomicznie efektywne. Istnieje kilka modeli implementacji filozofii Lean w przedsiębiorstwach. Realizowane badania mają na celu dokonanie przeglądu i konceptualizacji ram wdrożeń systemu LM w przedsiębiorstwach w Europie ŚrodkowoWschodniej. Analizę oparto na wynikach z badań ankietowych przeprowadzonych w mikro, małych, średnich i dużych przedsiębiorstwach, głównie w organizacjach produkcyjnych, handlowych i usługowych. W rezultacie wyłoniono m. in. główne przesłanki, sposoby oraz korzyści z wdrożeń systemu LM identyfikując dzięki temu specyfiki koncepcji w kontekście wielkości przedsiębiorstw oraz branży z których pochodzą. Oryginalnością jest przeanalizowanie skuteczności, efektywności oraz wydajności działań Lean w rozróżnieniu na wielkość organizacji z grupy mikro, małych, średnich i dużych organizacji (MSME). Wyniki badań skazują że model wdrożenia LM w przedsiębiorstwach z Europie Środkowo-Wschodniej oparty jest na modelu Shingo.
EN
The activities of the organisation concentrate mainly on meeting customers’ requirements. For this purpose, various activities are being conducted for customer satisfaction surveys. In this context, it is important to predict the quality of the product and the changes in the cost of the purchase product. The purpose of this study is to propose a method for predicting the quality level of a product and change the cost of the product considering current customers’ requirements for a combination of product feature states and pro-quality changes. The method includes the calculation of the quality level of the product using the punctationformalised method, where the level depends on a combination of values of states (parameters) attributes of the product, that is, current and modified. The method was tested as an example of a household vacuum cleaner for which 20 attributes were determined. According to the Pareto rule (20/80), the four product attributes important for customers were selected. Thereafter, for important attributes, possible combinations of the values of these attributes were determined. In addition, an algorithm for determining the possible combinations of product attribute states in the MATLAB program was developed. Additionally, the change in the current cost of the product considering the change in the quality level was estimated. The product cost changes were determined based on the actual cost of the product and the current product quality level. The method allows the determination of all combinations of values of state attributes of the product, such that it is possible to take appropriate improvement actions both in terms of quality and cost. The results from the method allow the prediction of product satisfaction for customers and they are favourable in terms of production cost. Therefore, it is possible to design the product in advance and support the producer in preparatory activities.
EN
Purpose: The aim was improving the process of risk assessment occupational for industry, by implemented in this process the fuzzy scale (and the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process, FAHP). Design/methodology/approach: The FAHP method was integrated with the PN-N-18002 method. Findings: It was demonstrated that implemented the FAHP method in PN-N-18002 method allows on more precise an assessment of the root of threats on the workplace. Research limitations/implications: This method can be used to risk assessment of each workplaces, by integrating the FAHP with any methods of occupational risk assessment. Practical implications: The assumption was to improve the method of risk assessment occupational for industry, in which as was shown the number of accidents in work was the highest. Test of the proposed method was carried out for the operator's position of a floating excavator KG-2.5 in one of Podkarpacie enterprise extracting aggregate. Social implications: This method can be helped to the entity performing the occupational risk assessment in precise identify the root of threats on the workplaces. This will ensure a safe workplace. Originality/value: The originality of the proposed method is to achieve more precise an assessment of the root of threats in the workplace than by using the traditional risk assessment methods.
EN
An occupational risk assessment is one of the main processes to assure a safe and healthy workplace. It was shown, that this process is particularly important in the cause of industrial enterprises, in which the number of accidents is the largest. In these enterprises, one of the most often practiced methods is the PN-N-18002 method. However, it was concluded this method has some limitations. They concern the way of assessing the risks in the traditional number scale, which is less precise than the fuzzy triangular number (using in FAHP). Therefore, the aim is to improve the process of assessment in industrial enterprises by integrated the PN-N-18002 method with the FAHP method (Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process). The test of the proposed method was made for three machine operator positions used to aggregate extraction in one of the Podkarpacie enterprises. These positions were: loader operator (Ł-34), digger operator (CAT 323), dredge operator (300/250 KREBS 10/8). The concept of the method was to identify in a precise way what is the greatest extent danger to the operators of these workplaces. It was shown, that it is the work at height. It was concluded, that this method can be practice to risk assessment of other workplaces, among others from industrial enterprises. The originality is the integrated risk assessment method (PN-N-18002) with the fuzzy multicriteria decision method (FAHP) as part of achieving the precise results of risk assessment.
EN
The competitive and turbulent environment generates the need to use various techniques to determine the level of product quality. In this aim, it is necessary to determine the direction of improvement attributes and function of the product based on customer requirements, which are usually uncertain. Therefore, the aim of the article is to propose the technique to improve the product quality by precisely determine the customers' requirements and the importance of the quality parameters for the current attributes of the product. This technique is a combination of methods i.e.: the QFD method (Quality Function Deployment) with the GRA method (Grey Relational Analysis). Using the QFD method, customer requirements were translated into technical features of the product. In turn, using the GRA method the imprecise customers' requirements were reduced and the importance of quality parameters was determined in a more accurate way. A test of a combination of the QFD and GRA methods for the household vacuum cleaner was made. The originality of the article is ensuring a precise study of the current attributes of the product from the point of customer satisfaction.
PL
Dokonano analizy wzajemnego wpływu kryteriów jakościowo-środowiskowych podczas doboru farb przemysłowych mających zastosowanie w technice tampondruku. Analizę zrealizowano w ramach zaproponowanego przekształcenia metody Dematel (decision making trial and evaluation laboratory method). Opracowana metoda pozwoliła zweryfikować wzajemne relacje pomiędzy oczekiwanym poziomem jakości i negatywnym wpływem na środowisko naturalne dla wybranych farb przemysłowych. Na ich podstawie dobrano farbę spełniającą oczekiwania klienta i przyjazną środowisku.
EN
The com. inks used for pad printing were assessed by modified decision-making trial and evaluation lab. method (Dematel) to det. The mutual relations between the expected quality level of the paints and their neg. impact on the natural environment. On the basis, the paint expected by the customer and environmentally friendly was selected.
17
Content available remote Projakościowa metoda doboru produktów chemicznych
PL
Zaproponowano metodę do projakościowego doboru produktów chemicznych, którą stanowiły połączone metody fuzzy TOPSIS (technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution) i analiza cenowo-jakościowa (ACJ). Projakościowy dobór produktów chemicznych uwzględniał poziom ich jakości, toksyczność oraz cenę zakupu. Podczas doboru produktów wykorzystano rozmytą skalę preferencji, która dodatkowo usprawniła proces doboru poprzez zmniejszenie liczby niepewnych i niekompletnych informacji.
EN
The 5 inks for pad printing were subjected to selection anal. using the fuzzy technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal soln., combined with the qual. price anal. The criteria for the selection of inks were: substrate for ink application, type of ink, required additives, drying time, toxicity and the purchase price. The proposed method of integrated techniques was effective in the selection of chem. products.
18
Content available remote Doskonalenie procesu grafitowania wyrobów aluminiowych
PL
Wraz ze wzrostem wymagań stawianych wytwarzanym konstrukcjom, powłoki ochronne nabrały większego znaczenia. W przypadku tłoka powłoka ochronna w postaci wytrzymałej mechanicznie warstwy grafitowej na płaszczu wyrobu ma zmniejszyć tarcie między pracującymi powierzchniami. Celem badań było zdiagnozowanie powierzchni płaszcza tłoków aluminiowych poddawanych przemysłowej obróbce powierzchni w ramach chemicznego procesu grafitowania. W ramach realizacji celu określono źródła niezgodności powstające w procesie grafitowania odlewów. Wykorzystano w tym celu i zintegrowano wybrane techniki zarządzania jakością. Jak dotąd w przedsiębiorstwie nie przeprowadzano pogłębionych analiz jakościowych względem procesów chemicznych. Zastosowana sekwencja wzajemnie uzupełniających się narzędzi stanowiła nowość w kontekście doskonalenia procesów chemicznych. Działania te przyczyniły się do znacznego zmniejszenia liczby wyrobów niezgodnych.
EN
The expert discussion and the process failure mode and effects anal. method were used to test the correctness of the graphite layer application on the Al piston skirt. All non-conforming products after the graphitization process were analyzed and the sources of non-compliance arising in the process were identified. The insufficient homogenization of the graphite paste and lack of the efficient process control resulted in the decreased quality of the final products.
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Content available Method of improve the level of product quality
EN
Meeting customers’ requirements and achieved the right level of product quality is key action of enterprises. It is being done by controlling the product, using for example non-destructive testing (NDT). But the NDT not indicating what is the root of incompatibility. Additionally, previous research does not include the decision methods, which would be related the identify the causes of the problem as part of improving the product quality. Therefore, the aim is supporting the process of improving the product quality level in the context of precisely identify the incompatibility and the root of their occurrence with including the solve decision problem. In this aim, it was assumed that using after the NDT research in connection way: brainstorming, cause and effect diagram, AHP method (Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process) and the 5Why method, will be allowed on effective identify the root of the problem. The method test was carried out for the porosity on a welded mechanical seal made of steel 410, which was identified by the fluorescence method (FPI) in Podkarpacie enterprise. The analysis has shown the effectiveness of using after NDT the combined methods as part of identifying the incompatibility and precisely identifying the root of its occurrence in context of solving the decision problem. The proposed method can be used to improving the quality of other products, for example from the aviation and automotive industry, as part of meeting customer requirements. Originality is the combined NDT research with quality management techniques and supported the process of improving the quality level of the product by implementing in this sequence the fuzzy multicriteria decision method.
PL
Kluczowym elementem transformacji energetycznej polskiego sektora paliwowoenergetycznego jest strategia „Polityki energetycznej Polski do 2040 r.” (PEP2040), będącą sprawiedliwą transformacją, zapewniającą zeroemisyjny system energetyczny i dobrą jakość powietrza. Mimo to, nadal wyzwaniem jest przełożenie współczesnych wymagań efektywnej transformacji energetycznej na wymagania PEP2040. Dlatego niezbędnym jest określenie potencjalnych pułapek, szans i zagrożeń, jak i elementów zapewniających dynamiczną i efektywną transformację energetyczną, będącej głównym obszarem tematycznym na VI Konferencji Naukowej „Bezpieczeństwo energetyczne - filary i perspektywa rozwoju”.
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