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There are several large karst caves at haunch part of the Lidong Tunnel during construction, together with inrush water due to high pressure within these caves. In light of it, this paper takes YK342+113 section as an example and adopts finite difference software FLAC 3D, so as to analyze tunnel deformation when crossing karst caves under six different working conditions, including with or without karst cave, before and after karst treatment, along with support locations. According to analysis results: First, the wall rock mainly had deformation at tunnel vault when evacuating at the third bench, which is a critical monitoring focus for tunnel construction; Second, karst cave treatment contributed to better conduct forces on both sides of wall rock, thus reducing vault settlement, while not affecting horizontal convergence and upturn of vaults; Third, treatment measures were proved to be effective in minimizing wall rock deformation by comparing deformation curves under different conditions; Fourth, after treatment measures, the angular points within the cave’s chamber had stress concentration, which might cause secondary collapse. Field monitoring data revealed that the final settlement of the tunnel vault was relatively consistent with the numerical analysis results, with a distinct change in daily settlement after initial support construction. By integrating numerical analysis and field monitoring, the rationality of the karst treatment plan was fully verified, providing a valuable reference for similar projects.
Conducted by "Olkusz" Speleological Club exploratory works related to the Gieńkówka cave led only to its partial opening. There are indications stating that this cave has continuation beyond its currently available parts. In order to verify those assumptions resistivity imaging method has been used. During analysis of the resistivity models obtained from field measurements the synthetic model, simulating the intersection of the cave corridor, has been utilized. In order to assess the reliability of resistivity cross sections in terms of the presence of artifacts left by the inversion process Depth of Investigation (DOI) index has been applied. For preparing DOI maps two inversions on the same data set were carried out using different reference models. Then the results were compared to each other. High resistivity anomalies revealed on obtained models show strong correlation with actual caves known in this area. In addition, similar anomalies have been found in place of the predicted continuity in Gieńkówka cave, thus confirming the hypothesis made in this research. High DOI index values in the occurrence of caves pointing to the instability of the inversion process in those areas.
Zabezpieczenie jaskiń przed wpływem naturalnych i antropogenicznych czynników destrukcyjnych jest zawsze złożonym zagadnieniem geotechnicznym. Przyjęta strategia działania musi uwzględniać nie tylko zagadnienia geotechniczne, ale również wpływ czynników środowiskowych. W artykule przedstawiono geotechniczne i ekologiczne aspekty ochrony jaskiń z uwzględnieniem podstawowych czynników mających wpływ na zachowanie wykształconego w niej ekosystemu.
The caves protection from the influence of natural and antropogenic destructive factors is always complicated geotechnical problem. Applied strategy must taking into account not only geotechnical problems but also influence of the environmental factors. Human interference, which goal is to protect and maintain of the cave is also an interference in the naturally created ecosystem in the cave. In this paper have shown geotechnical and ecological aspects of the caves protection with granting the foundation factors which has the impact on the behavior of the cave's ecosystem.
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