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PL
W XXI wieku, różne wydarzenia polityczne i społeczne powodują pojawianie się nowych zagrożeń związanych z produkcją, przechowywaniem i użyciem środków bojowych zawierających kruszące materiały wybuchowe. Zanieczyszczenia stanowią wyzwanie dla specjalistycznych laboratoriów, które zajmują się ich wykrywaniem i identyfikowaniem źródła pochodzenia. Niestety, tego typu zanieczyszczenia mają poważny wpływ na ludzkie zdrowie powodując m.in. poważne uszkodzenia układów i narządów człowieka, a także długotrwałe skutki zdrowotne, takie jak choroby nowotworowe i inne poważne zaburzenia zdrowia. Dlatego ważne jest, aby zwrócić uwagę na te zagrożenia i zrobić wszystko, co w naszej mocy, aby zapobiegać ich pojawianiu się i zminimalizować ich szkodliwe skutki. W badaniach ekosystemów częstym problemem jest niskie stężenie badanej substancji, które jest poniżej limitu detekcji urządzenia. W takich przypadkach biowskaźniki kumulacji okazują się być bardzo pomocne. Biomarkery są doskonałym narzędziem do wykrywania zanieczyszczeń w wodzie płynącej i w glebie Dzięki nim można stwierdzić obecność określonych czynników chemicznych, a jednocześnie są one czułym wskaźnikiem reakcji ekosystemu na skażenie. W oparciu o chromatografię cieczową została opracowana uniwersalna metoda, która umożliwia analizę trotylu i jego pochodnych w wytypowanym przez nas biowskaźniku akumulacji - larwach chruścików z gatunku Hydropsyche angu-stipennis, Curtis 1834 oraz próbkach gleby, czy innych złożonych matrycach. Metoda chromatograficzna pozwala na ilościowe i jakościowe oznaczenie różnych pochodnych trotylu, takich jak 2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluen, 2,4-dia-mino-6-nitroto-luen, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzen, trójnitrotoluen, 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluen, 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluen i tetrylu w złożonej matrycy biologicznej. Dodatkowo prze-prowadzono badanie efektu kumulacji trotylu w tkance larw chruścików poddanych ekspozycji w rozworach testowych zwierających trotyl przez 1 do 24 godzin. Zauważono efekt wysycenia oraz zmierzono stężenie pochodnych trotylu. Zaobserwowane efekty potwierdziły użyteczność wytypowanej larwy jako biowskaźnika akumulacji zanieczyszczeń trotylu w ekosystemie.
EN
Different political and social events of the 21th century have been bringing about the appearance of new threats connected with production, storing and using of combat assets containing the high explosive materials. The contaminations are challenging for specialised laboratories dealing with their detection and identification of sources of origin. Unfortunately, such contaminations have a serious influence into the human health causing for instance significant injuries of human systems and organs, and long term problems with the health such as cancer diseases and other serious health disturbances. Therefore, it is important to focus attention on these threats, and to do everything possible to prevent their appearance and minimise the harmful effects. A low concentration of tested agent, below the instrument detection threshold, is a frequent problem at investigations of ecosystems. In such cases biomarkers of cumulation prove to be very helpful. Biomarkers can be a perfect tool for detection of contaminations in the flowing water and in the ground. They can be used to establish the presence of specific chemical agents and at the same time they are a sensitive indicator of eco-system’s reaction to the contamination. A universal method was developed basing on the liquid chromatography for analysis of trotyl and its derivatives present in larvae of caddisflies from species of Hydropsyche angustipennis, Curtis 1834, and in the samples of soil, or in other complex matrixes. The chromatographic method can label quantitively and qualitatively different derivatives of trotyl, such as 2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluene, 2,4-dia-mino-6-nitrotoluene, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzen, trinitrotoluene, 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluen, 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluen, and tetryl in a complex biologic matrix. Additionally, an effect was investigated of trotyl cumulation within 1 to 24 hours in the tissue of cad-disfly larvae subjected to exposition of tested solutions contained trotyl. An effect of saturation was noticed and the concentration of trotyl derivatives was measured. Observed effects con-firmed the usefulness of chosen larvae as a bio-indicator of trotyl contamination accumulation in ecosystem.
EN
Threats associated with the production, storage and use of warfare agents containing high explosives against the backdrop of political and social events emerging in the 21st century present new challenges for specialized laboratories involved in detecting contamination and identifying its source. A common analytical problem in studies conducted in the ecosystem is the low concentration of the test substance - below the detection limit of the instrument. Helpful in solving this dilemma are accumulation bio-markers, which appear to be an excellent tool for detecting contamination in, for example, flowing water. Such biomarkers make it possible to determine the presence of specific chemical agents at the same time they are a sensitive indicator of the ecosystem's response to contamination. The presented chromatographic method allows quantitative and qualitative determination of 2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluene, 2,4-diamino-6- nitrotoluene, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, trinitrotoluene, 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene, 4-amino-2,6- dinitrotoluene and tetryl in the biological matrix. The effects of accumulation in the tissue of crustaceans on TNT test solutions were studied from 1 to 24 hours. The saturation effect was observed and the concentration of TNT derivatives was measured. The observed effects confirmed the usefulness of the selected larva as a bio-indicator of TNT contaminant accumulation in the ecosystem.
PL
agrożenia związane z produkcją, przechowywaniem oraz użyciem środków bojowych zawierających kruszące materiały wybuchowe na tle wydarzeń politycznych i społecznych pojawiających się w XXI wieku stanowią nowe wyzwania dla specjalizowanych laboratoriów zajmujących się wykrywaniem skażeń oraz identyfikowaniem źródła jego pochodzenia. Częstym problemem analitycznym w badaniach prowadzonych w ekosystemie jest niskie stężenie badanej substancji – poniżej limitu detekcji urządzenia. Pomocne w rozwiązaniu tego dylematu są biowskaźnik kumulacji, które wydają się doskonałym narzędziem do wykrywania zanieczyszczeń np. wody płynącej. Biomarkery takie umożliwiają stwierdzenie obecności określonych czynników chemicznych jednocześnie są czułym wskaźnikiem reakcji ekosystemu na skażenie. Przedstawiona metoda chromatograficzna pozwala ilościowo i jakościowo oznaczyć 2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluen, 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluen, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzen, trinitrotoluen, 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluen, 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluen oraz tetryl w matrycy biologicznej. Badano efekty kumulacji w tkance chruścików na roztworach testowych trotylu w czasie od 1 do 24h. Zaobserwowano efekt wysycenia oraz zmierzono stężenie pochodnych trotylu. Zaobserwowane efekty potwierdziły użyteczność wytypowanej larwy jako biowskaźnika akumulacji zanieczyszczeń trotylu w ekosystemie. Zaobserwowane efekty potwierdziły użyteczność wytypowanej larwy jako biowskaźnika akumulacji zanieczyszczeń trotylu w ekosystemie.
EN
Soil degradation occurs as a result of the ingress and accumulation of excessive amount of pollutants in the soil. The article presents the results of theoretical and experimental studies of the complex effect of soil contamination (concentration of petroleum products, toxic salts, dense residue, sodium ions, sulfate ions, magnesium ions, calcium, chloride ions, bicarbonate ions) on the content of nutrients (alkaline hydrolyzed nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, humus). A detailed analysis of scientific papers has been carried out, based on which the main scientific tasks solved in the article have been formulated. It has been established that soil-salt processes are insufficiently studied and are the object of scientific research in recent years. At the first stage of research, sampling was carried out and the content of nutrients and pollutants in the soil was determined. Determination of element concentrations was performed by collecting soil samples and their subsequent laboratory testing. At the second stage, a correlation-regression analysis of the obtained data was performed and multiple linear regressions were established. The interaction of substances in the soil was determined by analyzing the obtained multiple linear regressions. Two types of soils were studied: with chloride and with sulfate type of salinization. For soils with chloride type of salinity, dependences have been established for the content of humus, alkaline nitrogen and potassium, while in case of phosphorus multiple linear regression does not exist. For soils with sulfate type of salinization, multiple linear regression dependences of concentrations of alkaline nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium have been determined. It is established that the complex influence of the studied elements is decisive. No regression dependence was found for the humus content, which indicates that the concentration of the studied elements has almost no effect on the humus content in the soil. Comparison of the obtained multiple linear regressions with the results of laboratory studies showed a good correlation between these data series. The obtained regularities of pollutant and nutrient interactions in soils are expected in future to enable creation of scientific bases for development of new methods of desalination of soils polluted by formation waters as well as for planning effective reclamation actions.
PL
W wyniku wnikania i gromadzenia się w glebie nadmiernych ilości zanieczyszczeń następuje degradacja gleby. W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań teoretycznych i eksperymentalnych złożonego wpływu zanieczyszczenia gleby (stężenie produktów naftowych, toksycznych soli, gęstego osadu, siarczanow, jonów sodu, magnezu, wapnia, chlorków, wodorowęglanów), na zawartość składników pokarmowych (hydrolizowanego alkalicznie azotu, fosforu, potasu, humusu). Przeprowadzona została szczegółowa analiza prac naukowych, na podstawie której sformułowano główne zadania badawcze rozwiązane w artykule. Stwierdzono, że procesy glebowo-solne zbadane są w stopniu niedostatecznym i stanowią one przedmiot badań naukowych w ostatnich latach. W pierwszym etapie badań pobrano próbki i wyznaczono zawartość składników pokarmowych i zanieczyszczeń w glebie. Wyznaczenia stężeń pierwiastków dokonano poprzez pobranie próbek gleb i ich późniejsze badania laboratoryjne. W drugim etapie wykonano analizę korelacyjno-regresyjną uzyskanych danych i ustalono wielokrotne regresje liniowe. Oddziaływanie substancji w glebie określono poprzez analizę otrzymanych wielokrotnych regresji liniowych. Badano dwa rodzaje gleb: o zasoleniu chlorkowym i siarczanowym. Dla gleb o zasoleniu chlorkowym ustalono zależności w odniesieniu do zawartośći humusu, azotu hydrolizowanego alkalicznie i potasu, natomiast dla fosforu regresja liniowa wielokrotna nie wystapiła. Dla gleb o zasoleniu siarczanowym wyznaczono zależności wielokrotnej regresji liniowej stężeń azotu alkalicznego, fosforu, potasu. Ustalono, że decydujące znaczenie ma kompleksowe oddziaływanie badanych pierwiastków. Dla zawartości humusu nie stwierdzono zależności regresji, co wskazuje, że stężenie badanych pierwiastków prawie nie wpływa na zawartość humusu w glebie. Porównanie uzyskanych wielokrotnych regresji liniowych z wynikami badań laboratoryjnych wykazało dobrą korelację między tymi seriami danych. Uzyskane prawidłowości oddziaływania zanieczyszczeń i składników pokarmowych w glebach pozwolą w przyszłości stworzyć naukowe podstawy rozwoju nowych metod odsalania gleb zanieczyszczonych wodami złożowymi, jak również planować efektywne prowadzenie prac rekultywacyjnych.
EN
Potential environmental hazards associated with heavy metals have been reported at Al-diwaniyah open dump in Iraq. Therefore, the levels of heavy metals and their spatial and temporal variability have been studied, in addition to pollution indices (HPI, HEI, Cd) to achieve environmental management and sustainability. Concentrations of seven heavy metals in groundwater wells at various distances around dumpsite were analyzed for the period 2022–2023 using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results revealed that heavy metals levels in samples examined decreased with the distance from the dumpsite W1>W2>W3 and it followed this pattern: Cd
EN
A sustainable performance evaluation of pilot-scale was carried through horizontal sub-surface Constructed Wetlands system for treating the leachate from constructed Municipal Solid Waste Landfill at Institute of Environmental Engineering and Management, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology Jamshoro. The CWs were planted with Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia and Scirpus validus with sand and gravel. The leachate had been treated with two different cycles, first cycle was performed in the winter season whereas second cycle in summer, to differentiate the performance with seasonal variation. Chemical parameters of leachate pH, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solids TSS, Ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), Total Phosphate PO43- (TP) and heavy metals, Lead (Pb) and Copper (Cu) were tested with intervals of certain weeks. The tests result showed that all parameters experienced a considerable reduction in their concentrations. Significant reduction efficiencies were recorded for parameters, BOD with 53–82%, COD with 32–46%, TSS with 59–75%, NH3-N with 90–92%, NO3-N with 85–87%, and TP with 48–64%, and heavy metals Pb and Cu with 28–48% respectively in four weeks of the first cycle by all three plants. Whereas, in the second cycle, the removal efficiencies of BOD 78–93%, COD 63–76%, TSS 52–83%, NH3-N 90–91% and NO3-N 91–92% and heavy metals Pb and Cu with 21–58% respectively in five weeks were observed by all three plants. Along with the experimentation, United Nations Sustainable Development Goals UN SDGs are also highlighted. This study helps achieving tremendous SDGs accompanying treatment of leachate.
EN
The eventual polluting of the Ouichane region’s groundwater by heavy metals around an abandoned iron mine was investigated. To reach this aim, the research began with a questionnaire survey to assess local people’s use of and appreciation for well and spring water, followed by measurement of spatial pollution load of heavy metals: Al, Ag, Fe, Cd, As, Cr, Co, Zn, Pb and Cu for water samples collected from twelve wells and three spring drinks of water using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry method (ICP). Determining the overall quality of spring and well water for human use was also performed by calculating the heavy metal pollution index (HPI). As result, the survey revealed that 44.90% of the households are not connected to the drinking water network, 97.3% of them use well water, which is highly appreciated, and 88.1% of the population consider its quality to be good to excellent. Meanwhile, the ICP analysis showed that all the water samples contain heavy metals. In fact, the maximum concentrations (expressed in 10-5 g/l) recorded per element were 9.7 for (Ag), 15 for (Al), 6.9 for (As), 4.5 for (Cd), 5.6 for (Co), 31 for (Cr), 14 for (Cu), 858 for (Fe), 7 for (Pb) and 2.9*10-5 g/l for (Zn). Moreover, most of the water samples recorded heavy metal values above World Health Organization (WHO) limits, for at least one metal among the ten tested, with high concentrations of iron observed in all samples. The HPI values for the three explored sources (S1, S2 and S3) and for 8 out of 12 wells (P3, P4, P5, P6, P7, P8, P9 and P10) exceed the critical pollution value and identify non-potable water with a high potential of contamination. Consequently, the results of this study raise the question about groundwater around this abandoned mining area, especially in the long term, the use of groundwater could increase because of the succession of years of drought on Moroccan territory and hence may constitute a significant health risk for most of the inhabitants.
EN
The assessment of the bacterial quality of groundwater is a critical step in ensuring safe drinking water. A total of nine (9) water samples were obtained from wells located within the study area, during the wet and dry seasons between December 2020 and December 2021. The parameters measured in this study include total germs at 22 °C (TG-22 °C) and 37 °C (TG-37 °C), total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC), fecal streptococci (FS), and the sulfito-reductor clostruim (SRC). The results show that the contamination levels vary widely between the different wells and between seasons. The highest levels of contamination were found in W6, with the highest values of all parameters measured except for TC. W1 and W7 were the only wells that were protected, and they had lower levels of contamination compared to unprotected wells. The sources of pollution were mainly related to agricultural activities, such as animal waste and metal waste. The findings of this study suggest the need for improved management practices to reduce contamination and protect the groundwater resources in the study area.
EN
The exploitation of the Ain Aouda zinc lead mine in the Tazekka massif (Morocco) has abandoned spoil heaps stored directly on a karstified carbonated ground, without any means of precaution. The heaps were exposed to the weather agents, such as water infiltration and air circulation, which would generate a real source of pollution for the ecosystem. This pollution will inevitably produce effluents that can be loaded with metals and metalloids, which will have a significant negative influence on the soil and the environment. In this regard, the objective of this study was to confirm the existence of contamination of soils by using the technique of atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma, and of spoil heaps by X-ray diffractometry, which confirmed the contamination by zinc, arsenic, lead and copper. Their maximum concentrations are 19858.800 (ppm), 1280.700 (ppm), 495.750 (ppm), and 328.65 (ppm), respectively. Nevertheless, it was noted that the pH of the majority of soils always remains basic, due to the significant presence of carbonates, the majority of soils are calcareous (15% to 30%) to very calcareous (> 30%). It was noticed that the phenomenon of neutralization occurs.
EN
Artisanal gold mining in Chami is an important lever in the country economy, owing to the benefits it brings, but it is also likely to have a negative impact on various environmental compartments. Contamination of surface and ground water by trace metals elements (ETMs) was studied in the vicinity of the Chami gold processing center. The aim of the study was to assess the water contamination by trace metals (ETMs) in the town of Chami. Nine water samples (process and boreholes) were analyzed for (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Hg). The analysis was carried out by the DMA 80 technique for Hg at the ONISPA laboratory in Nouakchott and the other ETM at the Kenitra geosciences laboratory by the ICP-MS technique. The results of the analyses show that the ETM concentrations are high in process water samples and low in drilling water samples. Pollution indices and coefficients of variation indicate no contamination or anthropogenic traces in the borehole samples, but high levels of Hg and Ni in the process water. These results show the accumulation of metals in significant quantities in the process waters, especially Hg, proving that the waters of the mining waste basins at the Chami processing site are becoming sources of environmental pollution by mercury, which can be released into the environment by several pathways.
10
Content available remote Surge Breakdown Voltage Study of Contaminated Medium Voltage Composite Insulators
EN
Some issues related to the surge impulse strength of MV line composite insulators with visible contamination deposits have been discussed in the article. Additionally, the resistance of composite insulators to bird droppings (surface degradation) together with the impact of these deposits on surge impulse strength have been verified by laboratory experiments.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono zagadnienia związane z napięciem udarowym wytrzymywanym izolatorów kompozytowych eksploatowanych w liniach średniego napięcia, na których zaobserwowano widoczne osady zabrudzeniowe. Dodatkowo w ramach badań laboratoryjnych postanowiono zweryfikować odporność izolatorów kompozytowych na działanie odchodów ptasich (degradacja powierzchni) oraz ich wpływ na wytrzymałość udarową.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono zagadnienia związane z napięciem udarowym wytrzymywanym izolatorów kompozytowych eksploatowanych w liniach średniego napięcia, na których zaobserwowano widoczne osady zabrudzeniowe. Dodatkowo w ramach badań laboratoryjnych postanowiono zweryfikować odporność izolatorów kompozytowych na działanie odchodów ptasich (degradacja powierzchni) oraz ich wpływ na wytrzymałość udarową.
EN
Some issues related to the surge impulse strength of MV line composite insulators with visible contamination deposits have been discussed in the article. Additionally, the resistance of composite insulators to bird droppings (surface degradation) together with the impact of these deposits on surge impulse strength have been verified by laboratory experiments.
PL
Udostępnianie złóż geotermalnych wiąże się z wysokimi wymogami stawianymi stosowanym płuczkom wiertniczym. Trudności podczas wiercenia wynikają głównie z podwyższonej temperatury i ciśnienia oraz czynników związanych ze składem mineralogicznym przewiercanych warstw oraz dopływających wód. W warunkach podwyższonej temperatury dochodzi do obniżenia wartości parametrów reologicznych i do wzrostu filtracji płuczki wiertniczej. Dzieje się tak na skutek zmian fizycznych zachodzących w płuczce pod wpływem temperatury lub pod wpływem degradacji polimerów odpowiedzialnych za nadawanie płuczce odpowiednich parametrów reologicznych i za ograniczanie filtracji. W pierwszym przypadku jest to proces odwracalny, natomiast w przypadku degradacji polimeru konieczna jest ciągła obróbka płuczki przez dodanie kolejnych porcji polimeru. Z degradacją polimeru mamy do czynienia szczególnie w przypadku równoczesnego występowania podwyższonej temperatury i skażeń jonami dwuwartościowymi (Ca2+ i Mg2+). Dobra stabilność termiczna płuczki zależy głównie od rodzaju i stężenia stosowanych do jej sporządzenia środków chemicznych charakteryzujących się zwiększoną odpornością termiczną. Artykuł przedstawia wyniki badań przeprowadzonych z wykorzystaniem środków takich jak: poli(kwas 2-akryloamido-2-metylopropanosulfonowy) (AMPS), sole mrówczanowe oraz nanocząsteczki węgla (nanorurki i tlenek grafenu). Przeprowadzono badania wpływu tych środków na podstawowe parametry płuczek wiertniczych, czyli na: parametry reologiczno-strukturalne, filtrację, pH. Następnie próbki płuczek zmodyfikowanych poprzez zastosowanie dodatku wyselekcjonowanych środków były poddawane oddziaływaniu temperatury 130°C przez 24 godziny w obecności jonów Ca2+ oraz Mg2+. Na podstawie uzyskanych wyników dokonano oceny skuteczności działania poszczególnych środków oraz wytypowano skład płuczki najlepiej spełniający wymogi zastosowania do wierceń geotermalnych.
EN
Drilling in geothermal reservoirs is associated with high requirements for the used drilling muds. Difficulties during drilling are mainly caused by the increased temperature and pressure as well as factors related to the mineralogical composition of the drilled layers and inflowing waters. In conditions of higher temperature there is a reduction in value of rheological parameters and increase in filtration of drilling muds. It happens as a result of physical changes taking place in the drilling mud due to temperature or the degradation of polymers responsible for giving the drilling mud appropriate rheological parameters and limiting filtration. In the first case, it is a reversible process, while in the case of polymer degradation, it is necessary to continuously treat the drilling mud by adding successive portions of polymer. Polymers degradation takes place especially in the case of simultaneous occurrence of increased temperature and contamination with divalent ions (Ca2+ and Mg2+). Good thermal stability of the drilling mud depends mainly on the type and concentration of chemicals used for its preparation, characterized by increased thermal resistance. The article presents the results of research based on the basis of measures such as: poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) (AMPS), formate salts and carbon nanoparticles (nanotubes and graphene oxide). Examinations included the influence of these agents on the parameters of drilling fluids, such as: rheological and structural parameters, filtration, and pH. Then, samples of drilling mud modified by the addition of selected agents were heated to the temperature of 130°C for 24 hours in the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions. On the basis of obtained results, the effectiveness of individual agents was assessed and the drilling mud composition best suited to the requirements of geothermal drilling was selected.
EN
The level of wheat grain contamination with lead and cadmium was determined using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman background correction (ETAAS) after microwave digestion. The obtained limits of quantification were 0.001 mg∙kg-1, for both metals. A total of 300 samples of wheat grain from agricultural regions of Poland were examined, 150 each from the two consecutive harvest years 2017 and 2018. None of the tested samples exceeded the maximum level of these metals, as specified in the European regulations. The contents of lead and cadmium in wheat grain from both years of harvest ranged from <0.001 to 0.098 mg∙kg-1 and from 0.006 to 0.098 mg∙kg-1, respectively. Despite similar ranges of these metals, the highest lead contents were two times lower than the maximum limit value, while the highest cadmium contents were close to it. As for lead, a significantly higher (p < 0.05) mean content of this metal was found in wheat grain from the 2018 harvest compared to 2017 and in the western compared to eastern regions of the country. However, the cadmium contents did not differ significantly between the two harvest years, but were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in wheat grain from the southern regions compared to northern regions of Poland. Additionally, the highest contents of cadmium, close to the maximum limit, were found in the South-West region and in the both years of harvest. The risk analysis of the occurrence of the excessive contents of toxic metals in wheat grain showed a low risk level for lead in all investigated regions, and a medium level for cadmium, in general.
EN
Marine fishery products have been contaminated with microplastic (MPs), including molluscs, crustacean, and fish. The study aimed to analyze the number and types of MPs in the digestive tract and sediment, correlation between number of MPs with total body length, and estimated uptake of MPs in the fish from sediment using Bioaccumulation Factor (BAF). The method of determining sampling point involved purposive sampling and direct observation at Pramuka Island, Seribu Islands, Indonesia. Groupers fish were found in 20 individuals with 4 species of Epinephelus areolatus, E. ongus, E. sexfasciatus, and E. fuscoguttatus. The number of MPs found in the gastrointestinal tract of Epinephelus is 1648 particles with 3 types: fiber, fragment, and pellet. The highest number of MPs in the sediment was at dock and the lowest was at Gosong Pramuka Island. The numbers of MPs in the digestion tract does not affect the body length of individual species. The BAF value indicates result that the MPs uptake in sediments to gastrointestinal tract of Epinephelus grouper is low. All samples of the Epinephelus grouper were contaminated with MPs.
EN
High concentrations of mercury (Hg), reaching astonishing values in two cases, have recently been detected in Middle and Late Triassic fossil reptile bones, housed for over 100 years in several Polish museum collections. Since no correlation between either the life modes of these taxa or their burial environment was observed, the studied contaminations seem to be associated with housing conditions. The specimens were kept for an extended amount of time in boxes, in which they were stored soon after finding. A proximity of mercury-containing materials, like mercury fulminate, and unstandardized conditions of storage and conservation of the remains may result in contamination of porous bone with mercury. A detailed knowledge about the housing history of old museum collections has great importance to their prospective studies.
EN
The paper analyzes the problem of soil cover contamination of the urban ecosystem with heavy metals. The work is based on the authors own long-term monitoring studies. The main sources of soil contamination are identified – industrial enterprises and motor transport. The content of total and mobile forms of Cu, Ni, Pb, Cr, and Zn in the soils of the city territory was found out. The concentration factors (Cf ) of heavy metals and their total contamination indexes (TCI) were determined. The highest Cf values for the total form of heavy metals belong to zinc (up to 25.1). At 61.1% of the study sites, the Cf values of zinc are above 9.0. At 83.3% of the sites, the Cf values for the total form of copper content are in the range of 6.0–22.1. The results of the studies indicate high average Cf values for lead and chromium at the majority of the sites. The highest maximum and average Cf values for the mobile form for all heavy metals were found at test-site No. 4. As a result of the studies, it was found that the average values of the total contamination indexes for the total form of heavy metals exceed the permissible level by 1.6–2.7 times. For the mobile form of heavy metals, the average values of the TCI are within the permissible limits, except for test-site No.4, where an excess of 3.7 times is recorded. It is found that the soils of the northern and southern parts of the city are the most contaminated, the least contaminated are soils of the eastern part of the city.
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The presence of microplastics have been ubiquitously confirmed in aquatic environment possessing the potential risk to the health of ecosystem. Most studies concerning microplastics are focused on water bodies, but it is considered that sediments and sands from the beaches may to be a long-term sink for microplastics. High concentrations of microplastics have been found in sand beach in Europe and all over the world. In the present studies samples of beach sand originating from three beaches of recreational reservoirs in Southern Poland (Silesian Voivodship) were analysed. Preliminary screening tests were done to evaluate the degree of microplastics pollution of the selected sandy beaches. Samples were taken once from three places on the beaches of each reservoir. Beach sections parallel to the waterline were selected at each study at the swash zone – about 1 m above the waterline. Previously, no studies were done on the presence of microplastics in these beaches. The samples taken from the beach were homogenized and mixed with saturated NaCl solutions, after separation of microplastics the pollutants were counted under optical microscope (under magnification 40 -100 x). It was found that in all three places the microplastics occurred in the beach sand samples. The most contaminated samples originated from Lisiniec recreation park (Adriatyk) which contained 340 ± 222 particles per kg/d.m. The most abundant fractions in the examined samples were fibres and fragments, the less abundant ones were granules. It can be concluded that recreational reservoirs beaches can be significantly contaminated by microplastics particles, but simultaneously the concentrations of these micropollutants can vary a lot between the individual places.
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Soil contamination with hydrocarbons represents a worldwide problem, especially for oil-rich countries. soil contamination becomes inevitable due to different accidents, aboveground spills, and leakage, threatening the fauna and flora. The purpose of this study is to remediate One-year aged contaminated soil with crude oil (23490 mg/kg) using the fluidization technique in a laboratory-scale column. Free water and surfactant solutions were used for washing at different operating conditions. The efficiency of the method was evaluated by the calculation of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal ratio. Without the addition of surfactant, the cleaning operation was not sufficiently efficient, especially at room temperature where the removal ratio was only about 18%. Raising the liquid temperature leads to some improvement where the TPH removal ratio reached 49% at 50°C. With the use of solutions containing Sodium Laureth Sulfate (SLES) as a surfactant, an important enhancement of removal ratio was noted, along with an important reduction in operating time, washing solution volume, and energy consumption. The use of alternatively working/stopping operation mode contributes to the improvement of efficiency. TPH removal ratios up to 99% were obtained under some favorable conditions. This research shows encouraging results for expanding towards the industrial level with clean and sustainable resources.
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Engineering activity may lead to uncontrolled changes in the geological environment. This paper presents an example of structural changes in fluvial sand of the Praski terrace (in Warsaw) caused by the activity of a temporary concrete batching plant. Our investigations made it possible to identify the material responsible for the structural anomalies observed in the bottom of the trench excavation. The compound responsible for the cementation phenomenon was identified as ettringite – hydrated calcium aluminosulphate: Ca6Al2[(OH)12(SO4)3]·26H2O. The source of ettringite were most probably significant volumes of contaminants coming from the temporary concrete batching plant (e.g., from the rinsing of concrete mixers and/or installations for concrete storage and transportation). While penetrating into the ground, ettringite caused extensive cementation of the soil mass, mainly in the saturation zone. As a result, the mineral (chemical) composition of the inter-grain space changed and the structure of the sand was strengthened. The estimated zone of volumetric changes in soil properties was about 6 thousand m3. However, analysis of the chemical composition of groundwater for its potential sulphate contamination, did not reveal any anomalous concentrations of sulphates.
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Petroleum products influence the engineering behaviour of the soil. Neogene clays and glacial tills from Central Poland were tested under laboratory conditions to evaluate the changes of selected physical and mechanical parameters: particle size distribution, particle density, swelling, shear strength and permeability. Four petroleum products were used in the experiments: diesel fuel, kerosene, jet fuel and mineral engine oil. The study revealed that even for the lowest degree of contamination the values of physical and mechanical properties of the soils changed significantly. Greater variation can be expected in soils contaminated with high-viscosity compounds. Also, higher relative changes were found for glacial tills than for Neogene clays. Consolidation tests revealed changes in soil permeability depending on the soil composition and the physical properties of the contaminant – considerable reduction of permeability was observed for glacial tills contaminated with light Jet fuel, while the reduction was lower for Neogene clays. The obtained results indicate the role of mesopores and the dimensionless pore pressure coefficient in changes of soil permeability. The methodological issues regarding testing and analysing the hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were also presented and discussed, which might be useful for researchers studying contaminated soils.
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