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PL
Wdrażanie informatycznych systemów nadzorowania jakości produkcji, które rejestrują dane produkcyjne (ang. Traceability systems – TCS), staje się ważnym elementem działania firm. Traceability (identyfikowalność) to zdolność śledzenia (rejestracji historii) przepływu produktów na zasadzie rejestracji danych identyfikujących te produkty oraz wartości procesowych, a także odwiedzanych lokalizacji. Odpowiednia funkcjonalność systemów TCS zapewnia o ich efektywności. Prosta konfigurowalność tych systemów daje zaś firmie przewagę technologiczną, ponieważ skraca czas wdrożenia i dołączenia stanowiska produkcyjnego do systemu. Celem artykułu jest określenie pożądanych cech komputerowo wspomaganego systemu nadzorowania jakości produkcji wyrobów mechanicznych w nawiązaniu do idei Przemysłu 4.0.
EN
The implementation of product quality supervision information systems that record production data (traceability systems – TCS) is becoming an important element of business operations. Traceability is the ability to track (history registration) products flow based on registration of data, which identify these products, critical process values as well as visited locations. The appropriate functions of TCS systems ensure their effectiveness. Easy configurability of the systems gives the company a technological advantage, as it reduces the time of implementation and connection of a production station to the system. The aim of the article is to define the desired features of a computer-aided production quality supervision system for mechanical products in relation to the idea of Industry 4.0.
EN
The field of research of this paper combines Human Computer Interface, gesture recognition and fingertips tracking. Most gesture recognition algorithms processing color images are unable to locate folded fingers hidden inside hand contour. With use of hand landmarks detection and localization algorithm, processing directional images, the fingertips are tracked whether they are risen or folded inside the hand contour. The capabilities of the method, repeatibility and accuracy, are tested with use of 3 gestures that are recorded on the USB camera. Fingertips are tracked in gestures presenting a linear movement of an open hand, finger folding into fist and clenched fist movement. In conclusion, a discussion of accuracy in application to HCI is presented.
3
Content available Onboard visual tracking for UAV’S
EN
Target tracking is one of the most common research themes in Computer vision. Ideally, a tracking algorithm will only once receive information about the target to be tracked and will be fast enough to identify the target in the remaining frames, including when its location changes substantially from one frame to another. In addition, if the target disappears from the area of interest, the algorithm should be able to re-identify the desired target. Target tracking was done using a drone with a Jetson TX2 computer onboard. The program runs at the drone level without the need for data processing on another device. Cameras were attached to the drones using a gimbal that maintains a fixed shooting angle. Target tracking was accomplished by placing it in the centre of the image with the drone constantly adjusting to keep the target properly framed. To start tracking, a human operator must fit the target he wishes to follow in a frame. The functionality of this system is excellent for remote monitoring of targets.
4
Content available remote Use of innovations data for the estimation of sensor uncertainties
EN
This paper shows how the processing of track innovations data produced by the discrete Kalman Filter may be used to infer the actual measurement covariance matrix, in situations where the latter is poorly known. In addition to the familiar innovations formed from the difference of the measurement from the extrapolated state vector, it is beneficial to compute a similar quantity from the updated track state and analyse the two quantities in combination.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono sposób, według którego na podstawie danych dotyczących innowacji w procesie śledzenia z dyskretnego filtru Kalmana mogą być użyte do określenia bieżącej macierzy kowariancji pomiarów. W dołączeniu do informacji o innowacji na podstawie różnic w pomiarach ekstrapolowanego wektora stanu, warto obliczać podobną wielkość na podstawie danych o śledzeniu i analizować je w połączeniu.
5
Content available Track finding with Deep Neural Networks
EN
High energy physics experiments require fast and efficient methods for reconstructing the tracks of charged particles. The commonly used algorithms are sequential and the required CPU power increases rapidly with the number of tracks. Neural networks can speed up the process due to their capability of modeling complex non-linear data dependencies and finding all tracks in parallel. In this paper, we describe the application of the deep neural network for reconstructing straight tracks in a toy two-dimensional model. It is planned to apply this method to the experimental data obtained by the MUonE experiment at CERN.
EN
EDAS (EGNOS Data Access Service) is the EGNOS internet broadcast service, which provides free of charge access to the data collected and generated by the EGNOS infrastructure. EDAS disseminates over the Internet, both in real time and via an FTP archive, the raw data of the GPS, GLONASS (no commitment on GLONASS data is provided (1)) and EGNOS GEO satellites collected by the receivers located at the EGNOS reference stations, which are mainly distributed over Europe and North Africa. The EDAS services offer several types of GNSS data in various protocols and formats, such as DGNSS corrections. This paper reports on the results of some in-field tests conducted by ESSP and Topcon Agriculture to confirm the suitability of EDAS DGNSS corrections for precision farming in Europe. The European Commission (EC) is the owner of EGNOS system (including EDAS) and has delegated the exploitation of EGNOS to the European GNSS Agency (GSA). EDAS service provision is performed by ESSP, as EGNOS Services Provider, under contract with the GSA, the EGNOS program manager. In the ENC 2018 article “EDAS (EGNOS Data Access Service): Differential GPS corrections performance test with state-of-the-art precision agriculture system”, ESSP and Topcon Agriculture presented the results of the first in-field test conducted in a dynamic and real-life environment in the summer of 2017. The test results indicated that the EDAS DGNSS corrections could enable a reliable pass-to-pass accuracy performance for a wide range of precision agriculture applications and become an attractive solution for cereal farms, when the farm is located in the vicinity of an EGNOS reference station. In particular, Topcon Agriculture acknowledged that the observed performance was sufficient to support the following precision agriculture applications: spraying and spreading of any crop type, tilling and harvesting of cereal. Then, ESSP and Topcon Agriculture engaged in additional testing activities to further characterise the EDAS DGPS performance in different scenarios (i.e. at various European locations and with a variety of distances between the designated farm and the target EGNOS reference station). In each test, multiple runs with the rover tractors have been performed over the reference patterns predefined in the Topcon guidance systems. Data recorded during the tests has been analysed in detail, looking at the key performance indicators (e.g. cross track error and pass-to-pass performance) that characterize the EDAS DGPS performance for precision agriculture applications. Different techniques for the computation of the pass-to-pass accuracy performance have been used, including a procedure to measure live in the field and a post-processing alternative. The diversity of scenarios available allows drawing conclusions on the applicability of EDAS DGPS corrections (in terms of maximum distance from the target EGNOS station) for precision agriculture and also understanding the impact of operationally relevant aspects such as the quality of the mobile internet coverage (highly variable across Europe). The EDAS system and its architecture, the main types of data disseminated through EDAS services and the online information available to the EDAS users are introduced in this paper. In particular, the EDAS Ntrip service is described in detail, since it provides the differential corrections to the GPS and GLONASS satellites at the EGNOS reference stations in RTCM format, which are the basis for the present study. The article also reports on the results of the latest tests, which have been performed using Topcon receivers, vehicles and auto-steering systems. In all cases, two different Topcon guidance systems on board tractors were running simultaneously to assess the EDAS DGPS positioning performance with respect to a the reference provided by a top-performing RTK-based Topcon solution. The objective of this paper is to draw conclusions on the use of EDAS DGPS corrections as a reliable free-of-charge alternative for precision farming in Europe (especially for cereal farms), based on the available performance results from the testing campaign and the feedback from the involved precision agriculture experts.
EN
Standard Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) systems take state data from a navigation system and create a trajectory that minimizes some a-priori determined cost function. These cost functions are typically time, money, weight, or any general physically realizable quantity. Previous work has been done to show the effectiveness of using risk as the sole objective function. However, this previous work used Poisson distributions and historical estimates to achieve this goal. In this paper we present the situation-risk assessment (SRA) method contained within the intelligent situation assessment and collision avoidance (iSC) platform. The SRA method uses data clustering, and pattern recognition to create a historically based estimate of guidance probabilities. These are then used in data driven, dynamic models to create the future probability fields of the situation. This probability, along with the other agent’s goals and objectives, are then used to create a minimum risk guidance solution in the nautical environment.
EN
Even though satellite-based positioning increases rescue workers’ safety and efficiency, signal availability, reliability, and accuracy are often poor during fire operations, due to terrain formation, natural and structural obstacles or even the conditions of the operation. In central Europe, the stakeholders report a strong necessity to complement the location for mixed indoor-outdoor and GNSS blocked scenarios. As such, location information often needs to be augmented. For that, European Global Navigation Satellite System Galileo could help by improving the availability of the satellites with different features. Moreover, a multi-sensored collaborative system could also take advantage of the rescue personnel who are already involved in firefighting and complement the input data for positioning. The Autonomous Indoor & Outdoor Safety Tracking System (AIOSAT) is a multinational project founded through the Horizon 2020 program, with seven partners from Spain, Netherlands and Belgium. It is reaching the first year of progress (out of 3) and the overarching objective of AIOSAT system is to advance beyond the state of the art in tracking rescue workers by creating a high availability and high integrity team positioning and tracking system. On the system level approach, this goal is achieved by fusing the GNSS, EDAS/EGNOS, pedestrian dead reckoning and ultra-wide band ranging information, possibly augmented with map data. The system should be able to work both inside buildings and rural areas, which are the test cases defined by the final users involved in the consortium and the advisory board panel of the project.
EN
In this paper, we analyze the acquisition and tracking performance of signal using a tiered differential polyphase code as the secondary code. The Zadoff-Chu sequence is known to have a CAZAC (Constant Amplitude Zero Auto-Correlation) characteristics. The secondary code generated by differential encoding of the Zadoff-Chu sequence also has the same characteristics as the Zadoff-Chu sequence. Therefore, long integration will give better correlation results. We compare signal acquisition and tracking performance when using the NH sequence and Zadoff-Chu sequence as the secondary code. Monte-carlo simulation is performed using MATLAB. We use the probability of detection and the mean acquisition time for signal acquisition performance and tracking jitter for signal tracking performance.
10
EN
This paper discusses a simple method for determining the probability that the predicted impact point of a track falls within a defended area, by integrating a function around the boundary of that area. The proposed method is compared to a more direct but computationally intensive Monte Carlo technique.
PL
W artykule przedyskutowano prostą metodę określania prawdopodobieństwa przynależności przewidywanego punktu zakończenia trajektorii do wnętrza obszaru chronionego poprzez całkowanie pewnej funkcji w pobliżu granicy tego obszaru. Zaproponowana metoda jest porównania z bardziej bezpośrednią lecz bardziej wymagająca obliczeniowo metoda Monte Carlo.
11
Content available remote Expected number of alignments in a uniform random distribution
EN
This paper provides equations for the expected numbers of k-point lines (here defined as narrow rectangular boxes of a given length and width) that are likely to be found in a wider square domain containing a uniform distribution of points. Satisfactory agreement with a detailed simulation has been demonstrated. This provides some basis for assessing the likelihood that linear measurement sequences formed by a tracker in a cluttered environment could have occurred randomly.
PL
W artykule zamieszczono równania określające oczekiwane liczby linii przechodzących przez k punktów, zdefiniowanych jako wąskie prostokątne obszary o żądanych wymiarach, które można znaleźć w szerszym kwadratowym obszarze zawierające punkty rozmieszczone z rozkładem normalnym. Zamieszczono wyniki symulacyjne, stanowiące podstawę¸ do oceny prawdopodobieństwa tego, że liniowe serie pomiarów w środowisku zakłóconym mają charakter losowy.
12
Content available remote A nonlinear model for tracking turning targets
EN
This paper defines a nonlinear kinematic model designed for tracking air vehicles undergoing helicaltype motions, of which turning in the same plane forms a special case. For tracking purposes, a ninestate nonlinear Unscented Kalman Filter is demonstrated, using the process noise methods introduced in [4].
PL
W artykule określono nieliniowy model dynamiczny do śledzenia statków powietrznych podczas ruchu typu śruba, dla którego szczególnym przypadkiem jest zawracania się na płaszczyźnie. W celu zapewnienia zdolności śledzenia, przedstawiono 9-stanowy filtr UKF oparty na [4].
PL
W artykule dokonano porównania wyników badań odporności na koleinowanie mieszanek mineralno-asfaltowych wykonanych na próbkach o zróżnicowanym kształcie i wymiarach: prostopadłościennych oraz walcowych o średnicy ø200 mm i ø250 mm. Badania przeprowadzono na dwóch najczęściej stosowanych typach mieszanki mineralno-asfaltowej, jakimi są: beton asfaltowy oraz SMA. Celem badań było sprawdzenie, w jakim stopniu wyniki testu koleinowania próbek walcowych będą się różnić od wyników otrzymanych na próbkach prostopadłościennych. Uzyskane wyniki badań wykazały, że w przypadku mieszanki mineralno-asfaltowej typu SMA wartość wyznaczonych parametrów (WTSAIR oraz PRDAIR) nie wykazuje istotnej różnicy bez względu na kształt badanej próbki. Dużo bardziej zróżnicowane są wyniki uzyskane na próbkach prostopadłościennych i walcowych z betonu asfaltowego.
EN
The article presents a comparison of wheel tracking test results of HMA obtained by using samples of various shapes and sizes: prismatic and cylindrical with diameters of ø200 mm and ø250 mm. The tests were carried out for the two most commonly used types of HMA: asphalt concrete and SMA. The aim of the research was to check how much results of the rutting test conducted using cylindrical samples will differ from the results obtained for a prismatic sample. The obtained test results showed that in the case of the SMA specimens the differences in the determined parameters (WTSAIR and PRDAIR) are not significant regardless of the shape of the tested sample. Much bigger differences between results of the tests performed on prismatic and cylindrical samples were obtained in the case of asphalt concrete.
EN
We analyze quadratic performance for switched systems which are composed of a finite set of affine time-varying subsystems, where both subsystem matrices and affine vectors are switched, and no single subsystem has desired quadratic performance. The quadratic performance indexes we deal with include stability, tracking and L2 gain. We show that if a linear convex combination of subsystem matrices is uniformly Hurwitz and another convex combination of affine vectors is zero, then we can design a state-dependent switching law (state feedback) and an output-dependent switching law (output feedback) such that the entire switched affine system is quadratically stable at the origin. In the case where the convex combination of affine vectors is nonzero, we show that the tracking control problem can be posed and solved using a similar switching strategy. Finally, we consider the L2 gain analysis problem for the switched affine time-varying systems under state feedback.
EN
Guarantee of the ship safety is the primary task posed for modern navigation systems. This concerns monitoring the proper ship position as well as providing accurate information about the collision threat. The proper interpretation of this information belongs to the navigator. He must take into account many variables affecting the assessment of the situation and then make the right decision regarding anti-collision manoeuvres. This assessment could be made easier for him with use some form of graphic target data presentation methods other than currently required and described in IMO performance standards. Other possible graphic presentation methods of collision information are described in the article along with the concept of their usage.
PL
Podstawowym zadaniem stawianym przed nowoczesnymi systemami nawigacyjnymi jest zapewnienie bezpieczeństwa statku. Dotyczy to zarówno konieczności właściwej kontroli pozycji statku jak i dostarczenia rzetelnej informacji o zagrożeniu kolizyjnym. Właściwa interpretacja tej informacji należy do nawigatora. Musi on uwzględnić wiele zmiennych czynników mających wpływ na ocenę sytuacji, a następnie podjąć właściwą decyzję odnośnie podejmowanych manewrów antykolizyjnych. Możliwość zastosowania innej formy graficznej prezentacji informacji niż wymagana obecnie przez przepisy może ułatwić mu taka ocenę. W artykule przedstawione zostały inne sposoby graficznej prezentacji informacji kolizyjnej wraz z koncepcją ich wykorzystania.
16
Content available remote On the treatment of process noise in the Unscented Kalman Filter
EN
A simple simulation of a turning target in two dimensions is used to show that the standard treatment of process noise in the Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) can give rise to a potentially fragile tracking filter. In the example used, the turn rate is tracked as part of the state vector and additional state components are introduced to accommodate the process noise terms. This approach works well only while the underlying turn rate is constant or linear with time. With more complex turn rate dynamics, the filter breaks regardless of the process noise settings and such behaviour is indicative of a filter with zero process noise. It is found that a sequential Monte Carlo implementation of process noise gives rise to a much more robust tracking filter.
PL
Na podstawie wyników prostej symulacji obracającego się w dwóch wymiarach celu pokazano, że standardowe potraktowanie problemu istnienia szumu w bezśladowym filtrze Kalmana (UKF) może prowadzić do uzyskania filtra o dużym stopniu wrażliwości. W wykorzystanym przykładzie, śledzona jest prędkość obrotowa, która wchodzi w skład wektora stanu, a przez rozszerzenie wektora stanu uzyskuje się efekt uwzględnienia składowych pochodzących od szumu. Podejście takie sprawdza się dobrze jednak wyłącznie dla stałej prędkości obrotowej lub zmieniającej się liniowo względem czasu. Przy bardziej skomplikowanej dynamice obrotów, filtr UKF przestaje spełniać swoją rolę, niezależnie od parametrów szumu, a więc jak w przypadku filtru dla braku szumów oddziałujących na obiekt. Pokazano, ze implementacja filtru za pomocą sekwencyjnej metody Monte Carlo prowadzi do uzyskania filtru o większym stopniu odporności.
PL
Rozwój energetyki słonecznej związany jest z powstawaniem coraz to nowych konstrukcji maksymalizującej wykorzystanie promieniowania słonecznego. Jednym z kierunków jest wysokotemperaturowa konwersja promieniowania na ciepło. Wtedy, z termodynamicznego punktu widzenia otwierają się nam możliwości np. na generację energii elektrycznej. Konwersja wysokotemperaturowa wymaga jednak koncentracji promieniowania słonecznego. Sposobów koncentracji jest wiele, jednak w artykule skupiono się na koncentracji w układzie pole heliostatów- wieża słoneczna. System taki ma szereg zalet w porównaniu do pojedynczych układów koncentrujących, m.in. możliwe jest budowanie pojedynczej elektrowni. Zasadniczym elementem jest tutaj heliostat. Artykuł definiuje pojęcie heliostatu, przedstawia zasadę jego działania oraz przeznaczenie w helioelektrowniach typu wieżowego. Dokonany został podział urządzeń na podgrupy w zależności od technologii w nich zastosowanych. Zaprezentowane zostały poszczególne elementy budowy heliostatów oraz czynniki, które pośrednio lub bezpośrednio wpływają na ich typ, wielkość oraz cenę. Przedstawiono problematykę rentowności przed jaką stoi dziś rynek helioelektrowni oraz stopień istotności jaki stanowi pole heliostatów dla budżetu całej inwestycji. Wymieniono szczegółowe parametry jakie winny spełniać tego typu urządzenia, z wyodrębnieniem trzech grup: wymagania operacyjne, optyczne oraz wytrzymałościowe. Zaprezentowano szczegółowo trzy przykładowe, znacząco różniące co do zasady działania oraz skali, rozwiązania i sparametryzowano je w formie tabelarycznej.
EN
The development of a solar energy is associated with the development of new technologies, which maximize the utilization of the solar radiation. One direction is the solar radiation-heat conversion in the high temperature environment. From a thermodynamic point of view, this open new opportunities for power generation. The conversion, however, requires high concentration ratio of the solar radiation. There are many concentration techniques, but this article focuses on concentration on the top of the solar tower due to reflection from the heliostats’ field. Such a system has several advantages in comparison to the small scale concertation systems. Mainly one high capacity power generation unit can be constructed. One of the main part of such system is heliostats’ field. Article defines the concept of heliostat and presents the principles of its operation and its assignment in the Central Receiver Concentrating Solar Power (CR CSP). Different types of heliostats have been investigated and categorized. Factors that directly or indirectly affect the type, size and price of heliostats’ parts have been described. The article presents a problem of the profitability of CR CSP and its relation with CAPEX of the heliostats’ field. Detailed heliostats’ requirements which must be fulfilled have been listed. Those have been divided into three groups: operational, optical and mechanical. Three significantly different by scale and type of operation examples of heliostats have been presented and parametrized in tabular form.
EN
In this study we have proposed an algorithm for automated monitoring of the movements of a catheter used in peripheral bronchoscopy examination. We have shown that the shift of the catheter can be controlled in an automated way with quite a good accuracy by the means of analysis of video sequence recorded by a video camera of a bronchoscope. For a catheter moving between successive frames by no more than 1/3 of the distance between successive markers associated with a catheter the accuracy of a catheter shift measurement was equal to 1% and for a catheter moving between successive frames by no more than 1/2 of the distance between successive markers associated with a catheter the accuracy of a catheter shift measurement was equal to 5%. Visual inspection proved that the observed measurement errors were associated with faster movements of a catheter. Bronchoscope redesign option is proposed to improve catheter shift measurement accuracy. The results of this study demonstrate that application of image analysis techniques to data recorded during bronchoscopy examination can at least support the existing navigation methods for peripheral bronchoscopy with respect to the determination of the location of the catheter distal tip within the lumen of the pulmonary airways.
EN
The paper aims at presenting the influence of an open-loop time delay on the stability and tracking performance of a second-order open-loop system and continuoustime fractional-order PI controller. The tuning method of this controller is based on Hermite- Biehler and Pontryagin theorems, and the tracking performance is evaluated on the basis of two integral performance indices, namely IAE and ISE. The paper extends the results and methodology presented in previous work of the authors to analysis of the influence of time delay on the closed-loop system taking its destabilizing properties into account, as well as concerning possible application of the presented results and used models.
EN
The paper presents the results of research whose aim was to specify the impact of disruptions coming from the movement of a ship on the accuracy of determining the location of the tracked target by the modified, optoelectronic scanning and tracking seeker (OSTS). The basic task of OSTS consists in detecting and then tracking closely the detected air target, emitting infrared radiation.
PL
W artykule przedstawione zostały wyniki badań mających na celu określenie wpływu zakłóceń pochodzących od ruchu okrętu na dokładność wyznaczania położenia śledzonego celu przez zmodyfikowaną optoelektroniczną głowicę skanująco-śledzącą (OGSS). Podstawowym zadaniem OGSS jest wykrycie, a następnie precyzyjne śledzenie wykrytego celu powietrznego emitującego promieniowanie w zakresie podczerwieni.
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