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EN
In this paper, automated, fast and effective content based-mammogram image retrieval system is proposed. The proposed pre-processing steps include automatic labelling-scratches suppression, automatic pectoral muscle removal and image enhancement. Further, for segmentation selective thresholds based seeded region growing algorithm is introduced. Furthermore, we apply 2-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) on the segmented region and wavelet based centre symmetric-local binary pattern (WCS-LBP) features are extracted. Then, extracted features are fed to self-organizing map (SOM) which generates clusters of images, having similar visual content. SOM produces different clusters with their centres and query image features are matched with all cluster representatives to find closest cluster. Finally, images are retrieved from this closest cluster using Euclidean distance similarity measure. So, at the searching time the query image is searched only in small subset depending upon cluster size and is not compared with all the images in the database, reflects a superior response time with good retrieval performances. Descriptive experimental and empirical discussions confirm the effectiveness of this paper.
EN
The composite stereographic projection of orientations of the compression and tension axes using thirty-nine fault-plane solutions of earthquakes from two active seismogenic sources of Nepal and adjoining areas were examined and the nature of stress pattern and their influence on tectonics in the region have been studied. The seismogenic source located in Eastern Nepal region, which has been the site of 1934 Bihar-Nepal great earthquake of M 8.4, is presently experiencing N-S to NE-SW directed compressive stresses. The inferred pattern of compression axes in Western Nepal region suggests a shallow compressive stress, dipping N-S to NE-SW. Approximately similar nature of the stress regime is observed in Western and Eastern regions of Nepal, separated by nearly 700 km; it shows N-S to NNE-SSW direction of compression and underthrusting of the Indian Plate beneath the Himalaya at a shallow angle. Present study indicates that the stress is being released along the strikes of some of the transverse faults present in the region since the compressive stress exerted by the northward movement of the Indian Plate is approximately perpendicular to the Himalayan collision belt. Unilateral stress pattern generated by the northward movement of the Indian Plate in the central part of the Himalaya reveals that the present day collision occurs roughly perpendicular to the local strike of the Himalaya.
EN
Extremes of stream flow and precipitation are commonly modeled by heavy-tailed distributions. While scrutinizing annual flow maxima or the peaks over threshold, the largest sample elements are quite often suspected to be low quality data, outliers or values corresponding to much longer return periods than the obser-vation period. Since the interest is primarily in the estimation of the right tail (in the case of floods or heavy rainfalls), sensitivity of upper quantiles to largest elements of a series constitutes a problem of special concern. This study investigated the sen-sitivity problem using the log-Gumbel distribution by generating samples of different sizes (n) and different values of the coefficient of variation by Monte Carlo ex-periments. Parameters of the log-Gumbel distribution were estimated by the prob-ability weighted moments (PWMs) method, method of moments (MOMs) and maximum likelihood method (MLM), both for complete samples and the samples deprived of their largest elements. In the latter case, the distribution censored by the non-exceedance probability threshold, FT , was considered. Using FT instead of the censored threshold T creates possibility of controlling estimator property. The effect of the FT value on the performance of the quantile estimates was then examined. It is shown that right censoring of data need not reduce an accuracy of large quantile estimates if the method of PWMs or MOMs is employed. Moreover allowing bias of estimates one can get the gain in variance and in mean square error of large quantiles even if ML method is used.
EN
Applying the methodology described in Strupczewski et al. (2005a; this issue), the performance of various parsimonious models combined with three estima-tion methods versus Flood Parent Distributions is comparatively assessed by simulation experiments. Moments (MOM), L-moments (LMM) and maximum likelihood (MLM) are used as alternative methods. Five four-parameter Specific Wakeby Distributions (SWaD) are employed to serve as Flood Parent Distributions and forty Distribution/Estimation (D/E) procedures are included in respect to the estimation of upper quantiles. The relative bias (RB), relative root mean square error (RRMSE) and reliability of procedures are used for the assessment of the relative performance of alternative procedures. Parsimonious two-parameter models generally perform better for hydrological sample sizes than their three-parameter counterparts with respect to RRMSE. How-ever, the best performing procedures differ for various SWaDs. As far as estimation methods are concerned, MOM usually produces the smallest values of both RB and RRMSE of upper quantiles for all competing methods. The second place in rank is occupied by LMM, whereas, MLM produces usually the highest values. Considerable influence of sampling bias on the value of the total bias has been ascertained. The improper choice of a model fitted to SWaD samples causes that the reliability of some three-parameter parsimonious D/E procedures does not always rise with the sample size. Also odd is that True model does not always give one hundred percent reliability for very large samples, as it should. This means that estimating algorithms still require improvements.
EN
Applying the methodology described in Strupczewski et al. (2005a; this is-sue), the performance of various parsimonious models combined with three estimation methods versus Flood Parent Distributions is comparatively assessed by simulation experiments. Moments (MOM), L-moments (LMM) and maximum likelihood (MLM) are used as alternative methods. Five four-parameter Specific Wakeby Distributions (SWaD) are employed to serve as Flood Parent Distributions and forty Distribution/Estimation (D/E) procedures are included in respect to the estimation of upper quantiles. The relative bias (RB), relative root mean square error (RRMSE) and reliability of procedures are used for the assessment of the relative performance of alternative procedures. Parsimonious two-parameter models generally perform better for hydrological sample sizes than their three-parameter counterparts with respect to RRMSE. How-ever, the best performing procedures differ for various SWaDs. As far as estimation methods are concerned, MOM usually produces the smallest values of both RB and RRMSE of upper quantiles for all competing methods. The second place in rank is occupied by LMM, whereas, MLM produces usually the highest values. Considerable influence of sampling bias on the value of the total bias has been ascertained. The improper choice of a model fitted to SWaD samples causes that the reli-ability of some three-parameter parsimonious D/E procedures does not always rise with the sample size. Also odd is that True model does not always give one hundred percent reliability for very large samples, as it should. This means that estimating algorithms still require improvements.
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