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1
Content available Homogenization of plates with parallel cracks
EN
The paper presents an analysis of effective elastic properties of plates with parallel cracks using the finite element method (FEM) and the boundary element method (BEM). Rectangular plates with parallel or inclined cracks to the edges of plates were considered. Different distances between cracks and different angles of cracks were studied. The displacement and traction boundary conditions were applied and their influence on the accuracy of overall properties of cracked material was analysed. The results obtained by the FEM and the BEM were compared.
EN
Purpose: Determine the state of stress-strain, formation and development cracks, three-layer beam diagrams of load-compression stress, load-tension stress, load-vertical displacement relationships with a change in concrete grade. Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents the results of an ANSYS numerical simulation analysis involving stress-strain state and cracking of the steel fiber concrete layers of three-layer reinforced concrete beams with the upper and lower layers. With a cross-section of 150x300 mm, a total span of 2200 mm and an effective length of 2000 mm, the middle is a normal concrete layer. Under two-point loads, all the beam samples were tested. The research simulated three-layer concrete beams in different layers of beams with a change in concrete grade, and compared with and without the use of steel fibers in layers of concrete beams, including the nonlinearity of the material considered. Findings: A diagram of the formation and development of cracks in three-layer concrete beams has been constructed by the study results, determining the load at which the concrete beams begin to crack, the load at which the concrete beams are damaged. In the middle of three-layer steel fiber reinforced concrete beams, load-compression stress, loadtension stress, load-vertical displacement relationships are established. Study results show that these three-layer concrete beams appear to crack earlier than in other cases in cases 2 and 3, but the beam bearing capacity is damaged at 67 kN, the earliest in case 3. And case 6 at 116 kN is the latest. The effects of case 1 and case 3 are small compared with and without the use of steel fibers in cases, while the effects of case 5 and case 6 are very high. Research limitations/implications: The research focuses only on the change of concrete grade in the layers, but the input parameters affecting three-layer steel fiber concrete beams have not been researched, such as the number of tensile steel bars, tensile steel bar diameter, steel fiber content in concrete, thickness variation in three-layer concrete beam layers, etc. Practical implications: Provides a result of experimental study and ANSYS numerical simulation in multi-layer steel fiber concrete beams. Originality/value: The analysis of multi-layered steel fiber concrete beams using experimental and simulation methods shows that other parameters influencing the beams will continue to analysis the working stages of three-layer beams.
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A relation connecting stress intensity factors (SIF) with displacement intensity factors (DIF) at the crack front is derived by solving a pseudodifferential equation connecting stress and displacement discontinuity fields for a plane crack in an elastic anisotropic medium with arbitrary anisotropy. It is found that at a particular point on the crack front, the vector valued SIF is uniquely determined by the corresponding DIF evaluated at the same point.
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The aim of this work is an analysis of contact pressure between crack surfaces and its influence on effective elastic properties of materials with randomly distributed cracks. The finite element method (FEM) and the boundary element methods (BEM) are applied to the numerical analysis of materials, and the results are compared. Three numerical results are presented. The accuracy of contact pressure obtained by numerical solutions is verified for a single inclined crack in an infinite plate subjected to compression by comparison with an analytical solution. The influence of angle between cracks and directions of compressive loading on contact pressure for a branched crack in a rectangular plate is studied. The effective Young moduli and Poisson ratios for a rectangular plate with randomly distributed cracks are computed. The plate contains intersecting cracks which are in contact when the plate is subjected to tension or compression.
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A simple empirical study on the orientation, diameter, and extent of radial fractures (long and short) at the vicinity of the face-perpendicular preconditioned boreholes is described. Homogenous and hete-rogeneous mining faces were considered when studying the orientation of radial fractures, four and five face-perpendicular preconditioning practices were used to investigate the outspread and diameter of radial fractures from one blasted drill hole to another. Long radial fractures were observed to be developed along the direction of the maximum principal stress and short radial fractures were observed to be developed along the direction of the intermediate principal stress in a homogenous mining face. On the other hand, long radial fractures were observed to be developed along the direction of the intermediate principal stress, while short radial fractures were observed to be developed along the direction of the maximum principal stress when the mining faces subjected to heterogeneous rock mass. The diameters of the radial fractures observed were inconsistent and were not nine times the diameter of the original borehole. Fur-thermore, the extent of radial fractures from one borehole to another was noted to be gradually improved when the additional of preconditioned borehole was in place. This study maintained that the orientation of radial fractures is mostly controlled by the rock properties, however, extend and the diameters of the radial fractures are controlled by rock properties, the effectiveness of the stress wave and gas pressure and brittleness of the rock mass.
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Purpose: The aim of the proposed research is to investigate the hydrogen effect on the high-nickel steel surface properties changing during machining and wear with participation of lubricant-cooling environments. Design/methodology/approach: The approach of the fracture mechanics and physicalchemical methods surface properties investigation was used to formulate the conclusions. Applying of lubricant-cooling (liquid, solid, gaseous) technological environments (LCTE) has change the morphology of chips and roughness of contact 23Ni1Mo3Ti steel surfaces depending on the experimentally fixed hydrogen concentrations (4.62…12.0 ppm). It correlates with both the roughness of the treated surface and the nature of the cutting products fragmentation: the maximum concentration of hydrogen - in the chips coincides with the minimum size of its defragmentation and reduction of the surface roughness. For nitrogen and oxygen, a similar relationship is traced poorly. Findings: On the basis of the fracture mechanics approaches it is confirmed, that in the conditions of the application of hydrogen containing (as chemical composition) (up to 12 ppm) and hydrogen accumulated (in nano container) (up to 600 ppm) LCTE, hydrogen enters the near crack initiation contact zone before fracture and taking part in changing structural material fracture mechanisms, improves its mashinning processes. Research limitations/implications: The results obtained on laboratory specimens should be tested during machining of real details made from high-nickel steel. Practical implications: The created technological approaches can be used in practice evaluation of mechanical properties and residual of modern gas turbine parts. Originality/value: It was shown, that hydrogen containing (in chemical composition) and hydrogen accumulated (in nano container) LCTE permits the hydrogen to enter in the near crack initiation contact zone before fracture and taking part in changing structural material fracture mechanisms.
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Purpose: In this paper, the bending strength and buckling stability of (AA 7075-T6) aluminium plate weakened by many transverse cracks, which located at different positions, subjected to concentrated loads applied at the ends were analysed. Design/methodology/approach: Numerical modelling and calculation by the finite element method (ANSYS Package), for the critical load of bending and compression panel were estimated. Findings: It found that the variation of the critical stress in bending and buckling is proportional to the crack conditions (no. of crack and location). In general, the critical load in bending and buckling decreases with increasing the crack number in structure. Research limitations/implications: For both bending and buckling, two transverse cracks on one face of plate is more stable than two transverse cracks on opposite faces. Practical implications: In addition, many experimental tests were carried out by using an INSTRON test machine to obtain the buckling critical loads, where the experimental results were compared with the ones of the finite element method. Furthermore, bending strength was calculated theoretically for the cracked panel. Originality/value: Comparison between the experimental and numerical (FE based model) data and between the theoretical and nu-merical (FE based model) data for buckling and bending strength respectively indicate the precise and the simplicity of the developed models to determine the critical loads in such cases.
EN
The fracture and fragmentation of concrete under static and dynamic loads are studied. The uniaxial compressive strength test is employed to study the concrete behavior under static loads while the split Hopkinson pressure bar is used to study the dynamic behavior of the concrete under static loads. The theories for acquiring the stress, strain and strain rate of the concrete in the dynamic test by Hopkinson pressure bar has been introduced. The fracture patterns of the concrete in the uniaxial compressive test have been obtained and the static concrete compressive strengths have been calculated. The fracture patterns of the concrete in the uniaxial compressive test have been obtained and the static concrete compressive strengths have been calculated. The fracture and fragmentation of the specimen under dynamic loads have been acquired and the stress-strain curves of concrete under various impact loads are obtained. The stress-strain curve indicates a typical brittle material failure process which includes existing micro-fracture closure stage, linear-elastic stage, nonlinear-elastic stage, and post-failure stages. The influence of the loading rate for the compressive strength of the concrete has compared. Compared with the concrete under static loads, the dynamic loads can produce more fractures and fragments. The concrete strength is influenced by the strain rate and the strength increases almost linearly with the increase of the strain rate.
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The main objective of this study is to highlight the performance of beams composed of lightweight concrete-filled steel tubes (square and circle sections) composite with reinforced concrete deck slab. A total of nine composite beams were tested included two circular and seven square concrete-filled steel tubes. Among the nine composite beams, one beam, S20-0-2000, was prepared without a deck slab to act as a reference specimen. The chief parameters investigated were the length of the specimen, the compressive strength of the concrete slab, and the effect of the steel tube section type. All beams were tested using the three-point bending test with a concentrated central point load and simple supports. The test results showed that the first crack in the concrete deck slab was recorded at load levels ranging from 50.9% to 77.2% of the ultimate load for composite beams with square steel tubes. The ultimate load increased with increasing the compressive strength of the concrete slab. Shorter specimens were more stiffness than the other specimens but were less ductile. The slip values were equal to zero until the loads reached their final stages, while the specimen S20-55-1100 (short specimen) exhibited zero slip at all stages of the load. The ultimate load of the hollow steel tube composite beam was 13.2% lower than that of the reference beam. Moreover, the ductility and stiffness of the beam were also higher for beams with composite-filled steel tubes.
10
EN
Under certain extreme conditions in rock engineering works, fast change in temperature in the load-bearing rocks can happen. Known as thermal shock (TS), such process involves rapid temperature rise or drop, which causes fracturing in the rock material and thus can pose as a threat to the stability of the rock structures. To investigate the influence of thermal shock caused by fast cooling on the mechanical property of rock, laboratory tests are performed on heated granite which are cooled with different methods, with the highest cooling rate reaching 167.4 °C/min. The dynamic loading tests are performed on the heated granite specimens utilizing the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. The test results show that the dynamic compressive strength drops with the increase in heating level or cooling rate. This pattern is explained by the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) test data that the pores inside the heated granite increase both in size and quantity as heating level or cooling rate rises. Damage patterns of the tested granite specimen fragments are analyzed based on the observation with scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the mechanisms of thermal shock in granite are also discussed.
EN
Temperature changes due to hydration heat often cause cracks in the early-age concrete deck of steel–concrete composite girder bridges, even before opening to traffic. However, no available methods are provided in current specifications for the thermal effect calculation. To fill this gap, large-scale temperature measurements and fine finite-element model (FEM) analysis were performed on an actual composite girder bridge. Based on the fully validated FEM, a comprehensive parametric study was carried out to establish the spatio-temporal pattern of hydration-caused temperature, including a vertical pattern and an evolutionary pattern. Finally, a simplified method was presented for the thermal stress calculation of composite girders, and a case study was also provided. Measurements showed that temperature differences of concrete deck varied below 5 °C, much smaller than the entire composite section. FEM analysis then suggested that the influence of solar radiation can be basically ignored compared with hydration heat. The spatio-temporal pattern in the form of the coefficient of temperature rise was proposed based on the above findings and parametric study, and the reliability was properly verified with experimental or FEM results. For the final simplified method, the case study demonstrated that it can effectively facilitate the thermal stress calculation of composite girders during hydration process by adopting the proposed spatio-temporal pattern. As such, preliminary curing schemes can be easily selected to control the concrete cracking risk before casting.
12
Content available remote Flexural performance of concrete beams reinforced with steel-FRP composite bars
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Flexural performance of concrete beams reinforced with steel–FRP composite bar (SFCB) was investigated in this paper. Eight concrete beams reinforced with different bar types, namely one specimen reinforced with steel bars, one with fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) bars and four with SFCBs, while the last two with hybrid FRP/steel bars, were tested to failure. Test results showed that SFCB/hybrid reinforced specimens exhibited improved stiffness, reduced crack width and larger bending capacity compared with FRP-reinforced specimen. According to compatibility of strains, materials’ constitutive relationships and equilibrium of forces, two balanced situations, three different failure modes and balanced reinforcement ratios as well as analytical technique for predicting the whole loading process are developed. Simplified formulas for effective moment of inertia and crack width are also proposed. The predicted results are closely correlated with the test results, confirming the validity of the proposed formulas for practical use.
EN
Duplex high-carbon steel is widely used in ball mills in the form of grinding balls and thus subjected to impact loads during the normal operation of the mill. The influence of impact loading at different impact energies is investigated in this paper. Impact tests using a drop tower were performed in the regime of 100–150 J, and the mechanical response of the material was recorded. The deformation behaviour of the material was classified into two groups: (a) low-impact-energy regime (100–120 J) where the material bulged without fracture and (b) high-impact-energy regime (130–150 J) where the material faced catastrophic failure. An overall increase in the load-bearing capacity of the material was found with an increase in the impact energy. The energy–time curves exhibited both linear and nonlinear regions which were attributed to the nucleation and propagation of cracks. Shear bands were observed in the specimens which underwent catastrophic fracture (i.e. 130 J and above); however, significant changes in the features of shear bands were noticed with increase in the impact energy. Fracture surfaces displayed the presence of microvoids, dimples, knobby fracture and river pattern, thus indicating ductile as well as a brittle mode of failure. Transmission electron microscopy results revealed the presence of much finer nano-grains inside the shear bands as compared to the surrounding regions. Finite element simulations exhibited an increase in the shear stress with the propagation of shear bands during the ongoing deformation process.
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Understanding thorax kinematics and rib breaking mechanisms in conditions of oblique and lateral impact is crucial in safety systems development. To increase knowledge level on this subject, simulation and experimental tests are necessary. The purpose of this study was to obtain single rib kinematics in the case of oblique and lateral impact conditions using numerical simulation approach. Methods: Two impact tests using human body model of a 50th percentile man (THUMS v4.0.1 AM50) were performed in LS-Dyna R7.1.1. Impactor was a rigid cylinder with a diameter of 152 mm, and velocity equal to 6.7 m/s. Impact angle measured to sagittal plane was 30 and 90°, respectively in oblique and lateral impact case. Results: Kinematics of ribs from 3rd to 6th were analyzed. Results shown significant similarities between oblique impact and kinematics of ribs tested in frontal impact conditions in the literature, with maximal costochondral joint displacement relatively to costovertebral joint varying from 65.4 mm (3rd rib) to 82.0 mm (5th rib). Deformation of rib in lateral impact conditions was different than during oblique impact test, with distinctive “flattening” approximately in the middle of the rib. Maximal relative displacement varies from 16.4 mm (6th rib) to 26.6 mm (5th rib) and its location depends on the analyzed rib. Conclusions: Oblique impact scenario may be simulated for the single rib on an experimental way using set-up of the frontal impact. Experimental simulation of the lateral impact for the single rib should not use the same set-up, as the kinematics analysis showed significant differences between simulated cases.
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The composite bars have become a useful substitute for conventional reinforcement in civil engineering structures for which load capacity and resistance to influences of environmental factors' are required. Considering the requirements of responsible design of engineering structures with particular emphasis on durability, the use of non-metallic reinforcement in reinforced structural elements allows to reduce the costs related to erection of buildings, as well as the costs of building maintenance and renovations. The behaviour of model beams made of concrete reinforced with composite bars (fiber reinforced polymer bars) in three-point bending test was analyzed. The strength parameters of composite bars were tested. The bending capacity, deformation of concrete, and beam deflection were determined. Crack propagation in the model beams under load was analyzed using the Aramis 5M optical measuring system. Due to the strength characteristics of the composite reinforcing bars, the beams exhibited significant tensile strains, which resulted in the development of cracks of considerable width.
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The paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the stress field near a crack tip for a compact specimen dominated by the plane strain state using the finite element method. The analysis also includes the calculation of some parameters of in-plane constraints, both for small and large strain assumptions. It discusses the influence of the material characteristic, relative crack length and external load for the stress field, and the in-plane constraint parameter. The approximation formulas for some in-plane constraint parameters are presented.
EN
As the dynamic behavior of the concrete is different from that under static load, this research focuses on the study of dynamic responses of concrete by simulating the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) test. Finite element code LS-DYNA is used for modeling the dynamic behaviors of concrete. Three continuous models are reviewed and the Holmquist-Johnson-Cook model (HJC) is introduced in detail. The HJC model which has been implemented in LS-DYNA is used to represent the concrete properties. The SHPB test model is established and a few stress waves are applied to the incident bar to simulate the dynamic concrete behaviors. The stress-strain curves are obtained. The stress distributions are analyzed. The crack initiation and propagation process are described. It is concluded that: the HJC model can modeling the entire process of the fracture initiation and fragmentation; the compressive of the concrete is significantly influenced by the strain rates.
EN
Finite element analysis and scanning electron microscope were conducted to investigate the bulging deformation and fracture of tubes in double-sided hydroforming. The effect of the external pressure imposed on the tube, which determines the magnitude of superimposed hydrostatic pressure, on the stress state, yield locus, fracture surface formation, and fracture strain was evaluated. The simulation results revealed that sufficiently high external pressure can change the stress state of the tube in double-sided hydroforming from an in-plane biaxial tensile stress state to a three-dimensional stress state, and it can increase its hydrostatic pressure in a superimposed manner. Moreover, double-sided free bulging and corner filling experiments were conducted on 5A02 aluminum alloy and 2A12 aluminum alloy tubes. It was found that the external pressure has a significant impact on the fracture behavior of these tubes. The increasing external pressure could change the type, number, size, and proportion of the dimples on the fractured surface, and transform the fracture mode from a void accumulation fracture to a pure shear fracture, which significantly improves the fracture limit of the tubes. These results are significant for the consolidation of the theoretical and numerical simulation prediction of the superimposed hydrostatic pressure effect in the hydroforming process.
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