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EN
Multiscale in silico modeling of the cell-tissue-organ units is an emerging area of research with the potential to improve our understanding of various disease pathogenesis. Using a multiscale modeling approach, we developed a computational model of the human cornea to investigate how the application of macroscale loads may alter the micro-mechanical environment of the cells. We then utilized the multiscale model to study the effect of physiological and non-physiological mechanical loading conditions such as intraocular pressure (IOP) loading, IOP spike, and eye-poking on the corneal cells. On comparing the results obtained under increased IOP and eye-poking loading, we observed large differences in the averaged principal stress magnitudes in the immediate vicinity of the cell through the thickness of the cornea. On the other hand, our model predicted that under physiological IOP loading, the average principal strain magnitudes in the immediate vicinity of the cell remained almost constant irrespective of the cell location in the stroma. To our knowledge, this is the first study that investigates the effect of mechanical loading on the corneal cells through a multiscale modeling framework. Our computational multiscale cornea model provides a platform to perform virtual experiments and test hypotheses to further our understanding of the potential mechanical cause of multiple diseases in the cornea.
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PL
Deponowanie wyników badań naukowych - zarówno opracowanych, jak też tzw. surowych danych - odbywa się pod wieloma postaciami, poprzez zamieszczanie w repozytoriach danych badawczych, umieszczanie wyników w publikacjach, które są następnie indeksowane na platformach czasopism, w bazach bibliograficzno-abstraktowych Niektóre czasopisma funkcjonujące w obiegu międzynarodowym wymagają od autorów dołączania do artykułów także zbiorów z danymi, bądź zdeponowania ich w jednym z ogólnodostępnych repozytoriów danych badawczych. W artykule zaprezentowano wybrane bazy danych, dostarczających informacji o wynikach badań m.in. z zakresu biomechaniki, fizjologu, psychologii.
EN
Depositing scientific research results - both research and raw data - takes place in many forms, by depositing research data: in repositories, as results in publications, which are then indexed on publisher's platforms, and in bibliographic and abstract databases and informing about obtained results research. Some international journals require authors to attach data collections to their articles, or to deposit them in one of the publicly available research data repositories. The following publication is a presentation of selected databases providing information on research results, including in the field of biomechanics, physiology, psychology.
EN
Stroke-related hemiplegia is an important factor influencing parameters of gait. So far, limited papers have assessed temporo-spatial capabilities and their correlations with gait parameters in the early post-stroke stage. This pilot study evaluated the temporospatial parameters of gait and assessed the maximal isometric and isokinetic torque production of the plantar flexor and dorsiflexor muscles. Methods: 15 patients with lower limb spasticity and 15 healthy controls were included. Stroke severity was assessed using the Modified Ashworth Scale and the Barthel Index. Gait cadence, gait speed, and gait cycle were assessed using inertial sensors during a Timed Up and Go test. Maximal isometric and isokinetic torque production of the ankle plantar flexor and dorsiflexor muscles were assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer device. Results: Post-stroke patients had statistically significantly lower gait cadence than healthy participants (17%, p < 0.05). Statistically significantly lower values of vertical acceleration were also noted during a sit-to-stand movement task (42%, p < 0.05). Plantar flexion torque of the affected limb was significantly different during isometric (63%, p ≤ 0.01) and isokinetic work for 30o /s (49%, p = 0.04), 60o /s (58%, p = 0.01) and 20 °/s (53%, p = 0.01). Dorsiflexor muscles’ torque production was significantly different in isometric activity (38%, p = 0.04). A statistically significant positive correlation occurred between the absolute peak torque of the dorsiflexor muscles in both static and speed phases of gait (Rs = 0.65, p = 0.04). Conclusions: Despite the low intensity of spasticity and early phase after stroke, differences in the muscle torque production and temporo-spatial parameters, as well as the correlations between them, were noticeable.
EN
The treatment of comminuted fractures of distal humerus poses a challenge for orthopaedics. Previous studies assessing the global stiffness of the bone – stabilizer system – made it impossible to explicitly indicate an optimal configuration of the locking plates in the treatment of this kind of fractures. The aim of the present research was to comparatively analyze the stabilization conditions of intraarticular fractures of distal humerus with the use of various configurations of the stabilizer. Methods: The research was based on the analysis of mutual displacements of bone fragments. Such evaluation was performed with the use of numerical simulation conducted with the use of the finite element method. A realistic model of humerus was based on the CT data. Three spatial configurations of the stabilizer (parallel, posteromedial and posterolateral) were considered. The mutual displacements of bone fragments as well as the deformity of the stabilizer under various loading conditions were analyzed. Results: In most cases, the parallel setting of the plates ensures a better stabilization of the bone fragments than the perpendicular configuration. The most difficult conditions of stabilization were obtained for the lateral bone fragment. The value of the fragments’ displacements significantly increases for loading directions occurring with ascending flexion angle of the joint. Conclusions: In most cases, the parallel setting of the plates ensures a better stabilization of the bone fragments than the perpendicular configuration.
PL
Poniższy artykuł opisuje budowę oraz biomechanikę stawu skroniowo-żuchwowego pod względem pomiarów przemieszczenia żuchwy względem czaszki. Jest to wstęp do opracowania metody pomiaru przemieszczeń żuchwy w ramach projektu POIR.04.01.02-00-0029/17, którego celem jest opracowanie trójwymiarowego modelu stawu skroniowo-żuchwowego w celu odwzorowania działania aparatu kostno-chrzęstnowięzadłowego na potrzeby protetyki, ortodoncji i chirurgii ortognatycznej.
EN
The following article describes the structure and biomechanics of the temporo-mandibular joint in terms of measurements of the mandibular dislocation relative to the skull. This is the introduction to the development of the method of measurement of mandibular movements as part of the project POIR.04.01.02-00-0029 / 17, whose aim is to develop a three-dimensional model of the temporomandibular joint to reproduce the operation of the osteochlear-ligament apparatus for the needs of prosthetics, orthodontics and orthognathic surgery.
PL
Celem pracy jest określenie wpływu różnych ustawień ortezy typu Walker na zmianę kątów w stawach kończyn dolnych podczas chodu. W badaniach wzięło udział 10 zdrowych osób. Do badań czterech rodzajów chodu -jeden bez ortezy i trzy w różnych ustawieniach ortezy wykorzystano system Vicon. Udowodniono, że sposób ustawienia ortezy ma istotny wpływ na zmianę kątów w stawie kolanowym i biodrowym kończyny dolnej, na której jest noszona orteza. Bardzo korzystny jest brak wpływu ortezy na kinematykę kończyny wolnej od ortezy.
EN
The aim of the work is to determine the effect of various settings of Walker type orthosis on lower limb kinematics parameters during walking. 10 healthy people participated in the study. The Vicon system was used to test four types of the gait - one without an orthosis and three in different orthosis settings. It has been proven that the way the orthosis is positioned has a significant impact on changing the angles in the knee and hip joints of the lower limb, on which the orthosis is worn. The absence of the orthotic effect on the kinematics of the limb free from orthosis is very beneficial.
7
Content available Ocena stabilności posturalnej podczas strzelania
PL
Celem pracy była ocena stabilności posturalnej podczas strzelenia z łuku. W badaniach wzięły udział dwie grupy: zawodowi łucznicy oraz amatorzy, tzn. osoby, które nigdy nie strzelały z łuku. Badania zostały przeprowadzone przy użyciu systemu Vicon i platform Kistler. Do obliczeń zostały eksportowane położenia środka masy ciała. Następnie została policzona długość drogi CoM w przestrzeni 3D oraz współczynniki entropii próbkowej. Wykazano, że długość drogi CoM w przestrzeni 3D jest istotnie (p = 0.0001) dłuższa u łuczników podobnie jak współczynnik entropii próbkowej wzdłuż osi pionowej (p = 0.0117).
EN
The aim of the work was to assess postural stability during archery. Two groups participated in the study: professional archers and amateurs, i.e. people who never shot a bow. The tests were carried out using the Vicon system and Kistler platforms. Body mass center positions were exported to calculations. Next, the CoM distance in 3D space and sample entropy coefficients were calculated. It was shown that the distance of the CoM path in 3D space is significantly (p = 0.0001) longer in archers, similarly as the sample entropy coefficient along the vertical axis (p = 0.0117).
EN
Each year, many cars (in Poland approximately three hundred) are adopted for disabled driver, to enable them to drive the car independently. The purpose of the paper is to assess the key factors which significantly influence the disabled driver behavior during a frontal crash and have the biggest impact on the safety factors. Methods: To achieve the purpose of the paper, the finite element method was used. The authors built the numerical model which includes operation of all safety systems operating in the real car (sensors, seat belts, airbag). Using this method, the authors simulated few different cases of the frontal crash of the car driven by a person with disabilities. Results: The obtained results were: displacements, velocities and accelerations of the head, pelvis and shoulders. Additional results were also loads in the neck. Based on the achieved results, several biomechanical parameters and criterions (HIC, Nij) were computed. Conclusions: Therefore, during car adaptation for disabled drivers using a four-point seat belts system, this parameter can be optimized to reduce forces acting on the driver chest. Higher values of the force limit reduce Nij and increase HIC and contact forces between the dummy and seatbelts. Therefore, during designing of the pyrotechnic four-point seat belts system, the pretensioner characteristics should be analyzed taking all the driver’s biomechanical parameters into account.
EN
Seeking a method to evaluate and monitor the performance of the shot put, discus and javelin throw, we analyzed the transfer of mechanical energy between body segments. Methods: The study was conducted on groups consisting of elite throwers on the Polish National Team for each of the aforementioned sport disciplines. The movements of each throw were recorded using Vicon system and Kistler plates. The power and energy fluctuations were computed for the final acceleration phase of each throw. Results: In all three disciplines studied, we found an average energy loss of 1.63 J/kg generated from shoulder to wrist. The value of generated energy from ankle to torso initially increased in all disciplines, followed by a descent – with the exception of the javelin throw, where there was an average 27% decrease in both hip joints. We found strong correlations between relative amplitude values of energy and the athlete’s personal performance records: –0.8226 (shot put), 0.6008 (discus) and 0.7273 (javelin). Conclusions: Measuring the transfer of mechanical energy between body segments offers a useful method for evaluating the technique of ballistic movements and for monitoring training progress.
EN
Vertical jump height is recognised as a determinant factor in elite volleyball performance. In previous studies there are different opinions on whether vertical jump height performance improves during maturation or not. The aim of this study was to assess the differences in jumping abilities in two different age groups of female volleyball players and to determine the take-off efficiency during repeated jumps. Methods: Seventeen female volleyball players from two different age categories – adults and under 16 years – participated in this study. Quattro Jump 9290BA force platform (Kistler, Winterthur, Switzerland) was used to assess the jumping performance during squat jumps, counter movement jumps, and 45-second continuous jumps. Results: Jumping performance did not differ significantly between the two groups. The main efficiency of the conversion of mechanical work into mechanical energy was only 24% and it decreased during the test. Conclusions: The influence of age on the jumping performance in a group of female volleyball players was not confirmed. Take-off efficiency was in both groups quite low and it did not improve during the test.
EN
The objective of the work was to determine biomechanical parameters influencing loads affecting the musculoskeletal system and shock absorption during the landing phase in Grand Jeté, Entrelacé and Ballonné. Methods: Motion kinematics measurements of the landing phase in GrandJeté, Entrelacé and Ballonné were carried out using the optical APAS system, and measurements of the GRF components – using Kistler platform. The research was carried out for three professional dancers. Kinematic and kinetic parameters of the landing were analysed. Results: The mean maximum GRF value in relation to the classical dancer amounted to 8.16 ± 1.37 N/BW. During landing, the joints of the lower limb are affected by external force moments of high values (ankle – 3.04 ± 0.54 [Nm/BW], knee – 7.56 ± 5.53 [Nm/BW], hip – 10.97 ± 6.80 [Nm/BW]). The maximum value of the external force moments in the joint were strongly negatively correlated with the value of the angle in the hip joint at the moment of the first contact with the ground. It was noticed that the obtainment of maxGRF was preceded by a decrease in kinetic energy of approximately 50%. Conclusions: Factors affecting loads present in the musculoskeletal system during the shock absorption of a leap are: GRF values, the values of external force generated inside the joints and a change in the value of kinetic energy. The safe shock absorption after landing is influenced by properly positioned limb at the moment of the first contact, a greater range of movements in the joints and longer time from the moment of the first contact to the obtainment of maxGRF.
EN
The study aim was determining gender-related differences of underwater undulatory swimming (UUS) kinematic indicators and their impact on UUS velocity. Methods: The study included 18 girls (F: age 16.71 ± 0.64 years, FINA points 551 ± 68) and 23 boys (M: age 16.79 ± 0.57 years, FINA points 533 ± 66) training swimming. After marking characteristic anatomical points, subjects performed approximately 7 meters of UUS. A filming device placed behind the underwater window registered the trial. Recordings were analysed using the SkillSpector programme. Results: Boys swam faster (F: 1.24 m/s, M: 1.35 m/s), overcame a greater distance during one cycle (F: 0.67 m, M: 0.74 m), performed movements with higher toes amplitude (F: 0.58 m, M: 0.63 m), obtained higher amplitude and frequency product (F: 1.05, M: 1.15) and smaller ankle joint range of motion (F: 64°, M: 57°). In both groups, relationships between velocity and: maximal ankle joint extension, distance covered during one cycle and backward toes shift during downward movement were found. The results were statistically significant ( p < 0.05). Conclusions: Girls and boys differed in kinematic indicator level, but UUS velocity depends on identical kinematic variables, meaning UUS technical training can be performed without gender-division.
EN
The aim of this study was to compare the activity of upper limb muscles during hand rim wheelchair propulsion and lever wheelchair propulsion at two different velocity levels. Methods: Twenty male volunteers with physical impairments participated in this study. Their task was to push a lever wheelchair and a hand rim wheelchair on a mechanical wheelchair treadmill for 4 minutes at a speed of 3.5 km/h and 4.5 km/h in a flat race setting (conditions of moving over flat terrain). During these trials, activity of eight muscles of upper limbs were examined using surface electromyography. Results: The range of motion in the elbow joint was significantly higher in lever wheelchair propulsion (59.8 ± 2.43°) than in hand rim wheelchair propulsion (43.9 ± 0.26°). Such values of kinematics resulted in a different activity of muscles. All the muscles were more active during lever wheelchair propulsion at both velocity levels. The only exceptions were extensor and flexor carpi muscles which were more active during hand rim wheelchair propulsion due to the specificity of a grip. In turn, the examined change in the velocity (by 1 km/h) while moving over flat terrain also caused a different EMG timing of muscle activation depending on the type of propulsion. Conclusions: Lever wheelchair propulsion seems to be a good alternative to hand rim wheelchair propulsion owing to a different movement technique and a different EMG timing of muscle activity. Therefore, we believe that lever wheelchair propulsion should serve as supplement to traditional propulsion.
EN
The current investigation aimed to examine the effects of different orthotic conditions on the biomechanical mechanisms linked to the aetiology of chronic pathologies using musculoskeletal simulation. Methods: 16 male and 20 females ran over an embedded force plate at 4.0 m/s, in five different conditions (medial, lateral, no-orthoses, semi-custom and off the shelf). Kinematics of the lower extremities were collected using an eight-camera motion capture system and lower extremity joint loading also explored using a musculoskeletal simulation approach. Differences between orthoses conditions were examined using 2  2 mixed ANOVA. Results: External instantaneous load rate was significantly reduced in the off the shelf orthoses (male = 1290.60 and female = 1567.10 N/kg/s), compared to the medial (male = 1480.45 and female = 1767.05 N/kg/s) and semi-custom (male = 1552.99 and female = 1704.37 N/kg/s) conditions. In addition, peak patellofemoral stress was significantly lower in the off the shelf orthoses (male = 68.55 and female = 94.91 KPa/kg) compared to the lateral condition (male = 70.49 and female = 103.22 KPa/kg). Finally, peak eversion angles were significantly attenuated in the medial orthoses (male = –6.61 and female = –7.72 deg) compared to the lateral (male = –9.61 and female = –10.32 deg), no-orthoses (male = –8.22 and female = –10.10 deg), semi-custom (male = –8.25 and female = –9.49 deg) and off the shelf (male = –7.54 and female = –8.85 deg) conditions. Conclusions: The current investigation shows that different orthotic devices/ configurations may provide distinct benefits in terms of their effectiveness in attenuating the biomechanical parameters linked to the aetiology of chronic running injuries.
15
EN
The goal of the paper is to correlate real brain deflection with its numerical model as the 3D model of a fragment of the brain and suction pipe. The model is analyzed with the Finite Element Method with use of Ansys software. The brain tissue can undergo large strains, which is why it is described by a hyperelastic material. The Mooney-Rivlin material model is used for numerical analyzes. The inverse problem is solved with use of optimization Non-Linear Programming by Quadratic Lagrangian (NLPQL).
PL
Zastosowanie modeli dynamiki w modelowaniu biomechanicznym pozwala na wyznaczenie obciążeń w układzie kostnym lub kostno-mięśniowym. Celem opracowania modelu dynamiki kończyny górnej jest wyznaczenie oraz analiza momentów działających na układ podczas wykonywania ruchu. Model matematyczny kończyny górnej o pięciu stopniach swobody został opisany przy pomocy równań Lagrange'a drugiego stopnia. Następnie, poprzez symulację zadanego ruchu rozwiązano zadane proste dynamiki. Opracowany model dynamiki został sparametryzowany na podstawie ogólnodostępnych danych antropometrycznych.
EN
Using dynamics models in the biomechanical modeling allows to determine the loads in the skeletal or bone-muscular systems. The aim of developing the dynamic model of the upper limb is to determine and analyze the torques, which appear in the system during motion. The mathematical model of the upper limb with five degrees of freedom has been described by Lagrange's equations. Next, the forward dynamics was solved by simulating a motion. The determined dynamics model was parameterized using anthropological data.
PL
Celem niniejszej pracy było określenie czy sposób przenoszenia bagażu podręcznego wpływa na aktywność wybranych mięśni szkieletowych. W tym celu badana była aktywność tych mięśni w czasie chodu z odpowiednio dobranym sposobem obciążenia. Podczas analizy wyników zauważono, że niesymetryczne przenoszenie bagażu powoduje zwiększoną aktywność badanych mięśni oraz wzrost asymetrii w działaniu mięśni po prawej i lewej stronie ciała.
EN
The aim on this study was to determine if and how different way of carrying hand baggage influence on selected skeletal muscles. For this purpose, the activity of these muscles was studied during gait with the appropriate load method. During the analysis of the result it was noted that asymmetric hand luggage increased the activity of the examined muscles as well as asymmetry in muscular activity on the right and left side of the body.
EN
Trephination is one of the basic operations of keratoplasty, and the biomechanical mechanism of the operation can be revealed based on three-dimensional modeling and simulation of trephine cutting cornea. Methods: Based on the analysis of the physical and biomechanical characteristics of corneal trephination, a three-dimensional numerical model of corneal trephination is built, where the cornea can be simplified to two layers structure including stroma and epithelium, and the trephine cuts the cornea under the vertical motion load and the rotational motion load. A three-dimensional failure criterion of corneal material is proposed based on the yield strength theory. On this basis, trephination simulation is carried out, and the units of corneal material are removed from the model when they meet the defined failure criterion. Results: Under the given parameters including the velocity, the angle and the angular velocity, the trephine force curves, include the linear cutting force and the rotary cutting force are obtained, and show the change of the forces with displacement during the process of trephination simulation. The maps of the equivalent stress show the destruction and deformation of the cornea. Then, the experiment of robotic trephination is carried out under the same parameters and the effectiveness of the simulation is evaluated. Conclusions: Based on mechanics theory and finite element method, the process of trephine cutting cornea has been reproduced, and the interaction mechanism is revealed, which lays the foundation for the development of real-time simulation and virtual system of the corneal surgery.
EN
Purpose: Development of strength is one of essential elements of motor preparation of judo athletes. The aim this study was to examine the influence of body composition and the joint torques on successful performance of various judo techniques. Methods: Twentyfive judo athletes participated in 175 judo bouts, which were video-recorded during the All-Polish competitions. Biomechanical classification of technical actions was used. The age and athletic experience of the subjects were 18 and 8.8 years, respectively. Their body height was 179.4 cm (Martin’s type anthropometer) and body mass was 80.3 kg (Sartorius F 1505 – DZA scales). Percentage of fat (10.6%) was estimated using skinfold result measurements. BMI (24.9 kgm–2), fat-free mass index (21.9 kgm–2) and fat mass index (3.0 kgm–2) were calculated. Maximum torques measured under static conditions were evaluated 2–3 days after the tournament. Descriptive statistics and ANOVA were conducted ( p  0.05). Results: Balancing of maximum torques in the muscles of the pelvic and illiac regions caused more frequent performance of physical lever-type throwing techniques, compared to couple of force-type throwing techniques. A negative correlation was found between body fat and value of force recorded for knee flexors and between the frequency of using techniques during groundwork and torques measured in hip extensors. High correlation of fat-free mass index and relative elbow flexor torque was found. Conclusions: The relationship between body composition and frequency of techniques used in a tournament, and joint torques developed by athletes were found.
EN
The purpose of this study was to investigate soleus muscle activation during different phases of drop jump performed at submaximal levels of volitional effort and drop height magnitude. Methods: Fifteen professional volleyball players with minimum of eight years of experience in jumping activities participated in the study. Experimental protocol involved executing submaximal drop jumps at three levels of volitional effort (i.e., 65, 80 and 95% of the maximal height of jump). All submaximal drop jumps were done from three drop heights (20, 40 and 60 cm). The soleus muscle activation was monitored during four jump phases: pre-activation phase before touchdown, early contact phase upon touchdown, early and late push-off phase. Results: The results indicate that volitional effort level did not change the muscle activation during pre activation and early contact phase, but only in early and late push-off phase ( p ≤ 0.05). Conversely, it was observed that muscle activation during all phases of drop jump was adapted to the increased intensity of the external load caused by increasing of drop height magnitude ( p ≤ 0.01). Conclusions: The findings of the present study suggested that soleus muscle activation has selective responses to internal load (i.e., volitional effort level) and external load (i.e., drop height magnitude) intensities when drop jump is executing with submaximal effort.
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