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EN
The year 2022 was marked by economic risks with potentially very sensitive impacts for countries in the Black Sea region. Given the limited capacity of Ukrainian ports, as well as the sanctions imposed on Russia, due to ongoing conflict, it was necessary to identify new destinations capable of taking over the flow of goods that normally went to the countries involved in this conflict. In addition to the risks specific to maritime transport, the risk of armed conflict comes with new challenges that can also materialize in the form of environmental impact. To analyze this potential impact, the study is being focused mainly on the analysis of the pollution risk generated by the emissions caused by the vessels calling the container terminal CSCT, located in Constanța harbor, and the emissions generated by the vehicles moving in the terminal. As estimated from the start all levels of pollution have increased, with the level of CO2 increasing from 11072.7 tons in 2021 to 11915.7 tons in 2022. The NOx emissions have a similar trend, as well as the other emission level measured and calculated.
EN
Nowadays managers and decision-makers around the world seek every opportunity to lower costs of the ship’s mooring time at seaports. In this article, main operations taking place at maritime container terminals are first disaggregated in several elementary activities. Then the vessel cycle time is analysed while separately investigating the STS (Ship to Shore) crane cycle time, the RTG (Rubber-Tyred Gantry) crane work cycle time and the IMV (Internal Movement Vehicle) transfer time. A triangular distribution describes times of each of the container handling stages while the PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) method is used to estimate the total time for all reloading activities. The paper demonstrates the proposed method effectiveness with data of Baltic Container Terminal (BCT) Gdynia. The use of formulas developed for the calculation of times of individual operations that affect the reloading of a container at maritime container terminals enables an in-depth assessment of the effectiveness of the reloading processes. Thus, the proposed tool gives terminal managers opportunity to track which stage of the container reloading consumes most time and generates biggest costs.
EN
The paper studies two different types of container strategy: the traditional one, which involves container allocation into positions with a minimum stack height; and the “temperature” one, which considers the positions with a minimum “temperature” for the containers in the stack below. The “temperature” in this case means a metric which is connected to the storage (dwell) time of the containers. Particularly, this value can be represented by container selection probability or number of days stored in the container yard. Utilization of different metrics results in significantly different numbers of moves. Therefore, the authors compare two container stacking strategies: the traditional one and the temperature strategy with different metrics. It is stated that these strategies can be compared only by simulation modelling. The paper describes the main algorithms used to provide simulation modelling. The results of the research show that the temperature strategy with container dwell time as temperature metrics can save 6% of the total moves necessary to maintain the container flow.
4
Content available Evaluation of sinking effect in container stack
EN
The container yard is the key element of any modern container terminal. The huge amount of boxes dwelling on the operational areas of the terminals could occupy a lot of space, since one-time storage capacity of the container mega terminal handling over one million TEUs annually is something around 20 000 TEUs. The ecological pressure imposed on modern container terminal does not permit to allocate for this storage large land areas, thus forcing the box stacks grow high. The selection of the individual boxes becomes a complex and time-consuming procedure, demanding a lot of technological resources and deteriorating the service quality. The predicted combinatorial growth of redundant moves needed to clear the access to the individual container is aggravated by the well-known and widely discussed ‘sinking effect’, when containers arrived earlier are gradually covered by the ones arriving afterwards. While the random selection could be adequately assessed by combinatorial methods, the ‘sinking effect’ allows neither intuitive consideration, nor any traditional mathematical means. The only practical way to treat this problem today is in simulation, but the simulation itself causes yet another problem: the problem of model adequacy. This study deals with one possible approach to the problem designated to prove its validity and adequacy, without which the simulation has naught gnoseological value.
5
Content available Optimization strategies of container terminals
EN
One of the main tasks of operational management of modern container terminals is effective utilization of existing technological resources. The search for possible variants of terminal activity optimization requires constant analysis of transport process technology and development of technical and technological approaches to increase the effectiveness of resources utilization. One of the possible solutions provided by terminal operational systems is the application of different strategies of container stack organization and container selectivity. At the same time, the complicated character of input and output container flow makes the effectiveness of these strategies doubtful. The paper states that this particular manner of container service is different from traditional ones, i.e. FIFO and FILO. As output container flow is randomly distributed the manner of container service can be considered as First In/Random Out. The paper also considers different strategies that are applied in practice and analyzes its influence on the productivity of handling equipment. The results of these strategies simulation modeling are represented. The results prove that no strategy can provide a productivity with theoretical selectivity; any strategy provides slowed intensity of operations. At the same time, it is proved that the only optimization strategy which increases the productivity of handling equipment is the organization of terminal activity whereby containers can be selected from the stack not in requirement sequence, but in order of its position in a stack.
EN
Storage Space Allocation Problem (SSAP) is defined as the temporary assignment of unloading/loading containers to the storage blocks during a planning period with the aim of balancing the workload between the blocks. Despite the widespread literature on this topic, several previous studies neglected the practical and implementation aspect of their solutions. The aim of this paper is to formulate and solve the real-life SSAP at the Sfax seaport situated in Tunisia. A Weighted Goal Programming (WGP) based-methodology is proposed as a multi-objective resolution approach. In this proposed approach, three objectives have been accorded including: (i) the balance between the containers unloaded in the blocks, (ii) the balance between the containers unloaded and loaded simultaneously, and (iii) the minimization of the storage cost of the loading/unloading containers for each period. Experimental results show that the proposed approach provides good results and can be effective and practical for the studied Sfax seaport case study.
EN
The issue of the impact of seaports on their direct vicinity has been repeatedly addressed in the academic literature. The developed merits of their impact is mainly related to employment in the port/port cluster, the seaport’s share of the municipality’s labour market, and the added value produced by the port/port cluster or the volume and structure of uncompensated flows into the municipality’s budget on account of the port’s operations. This article is aimed at providing an answer to the question of how to evaluate the impact of a new investment project in a seaport on its direct vicinity in a situation of low unemployment in the port’s municipality and the dominating tourism function in its economy. The research methodology was based on a single case study of the city of Świnoujście and the seaport in Świnoujście; the dominating economic function of this municipality is tourism. Moreover, it is the location of one of the four seaports with primary significance for the national economy. The development plans for the Szczecin & Świnoujście Seaports Authority include the construction of a deepwater container hub terminal. The investment will have an impact on the local social environment. The results of the conducted research studies are presented in the article both in a traditional approach enumerating the benefits of such an investment project for the local environment, as well as proposing a new approach to the evaluation of its benefits (inter alia, providing employment opportunities for people who so far have been forced to look for jobs outside the municipality and the long-term unemployed, preventing young and educated people from moving out of the municipality, attracting new inhabitants, improving the employment-to-population ratio, and stopping the city’s population ageing).
PL
Celem artykułu jest określić czy działalność Portu Zewnętrznego przyczyni się do zwiększenia wolumenu kontenerów przeładowywanych w polskich portach. Na wstępie przedstawiono powód, dla którego podjęto decyzję o budowie Portu Zewnętrznego. W pierwszym rozdziale zaprezentowano historię konteneryzacji oraz obecne realia towarzyszące przewozom kontenerowym w Polsce i na świecie. Następnie zdefiniowano czym jest port i terminal kontenerowy. Określono rolę terminali kontenerowych we współczesnym handlu światowym oraz sposób ich współdziałania. Opisano inwestycje, które mają lub prawdopodobnie będą mieć miejsce w Porcie Gdynia. Na koniec poddano analizie projekt budowy Portu Zewnętrznego pod kątem przeładunku kontenerów.
EN
The aim of the article is to determine if activity of the External Port will contribute to increase the numer of containers passing through the Polish ports. The introduction shows the reason why decision of building the External Port was made. First chapter shows the history of containerization and present-day reality of container transport in Poland and the world. Then it is define what is a port and container terminal. Next, the role of container terminals in modern world trade and the way of their cooperation was determined. The article describes the investments that take, or probably will take place, in the Port of Gdynia. In the end project of building the External Port was analyzed in terms of containers flow.
EN
Maritime freight transport represents an effective solution, allowing to ensure a low-impact service both under an economic and a sustainable perspective. As a consequence, in the last ten years, an increasing trend of goods transported by sea has been observed. In order to improve the terminal containers’ performance, recently published scientific studies shown the applicability of the ‘lean logistic’ concept as a strategic key for ensuring a continuous improvement of the logistic chain for inter-/intra terminal containers’ activities. According to this approach, the adoption of a dry port can positively affect terminal containers’ performance, but this requires resources and investments due to inter-terminal activities (e.g. transport of the container from port to dry port and vice versa). The purpose of the study is to develop a mathematical programming optimization model to support the decision making in identifying the best containers’ handling strategy for intermodal facilities, according to lean and green perspectives. Numerical experiments shown the effectiveness of the model in identifying efficient material handling strategies under lean and green perspective.
PL
W artykule omówione zostały procesy logistyczne zachodzące wewnątrz morskiego terminala kontenerowego od momentu przyjęcia ładunku, do momentu jego wydania, zarówno w procesie eksportu, jak i importu. Zwrócono uwagę na urządzenia transportu wewnętrznego, które manipulują ładunkiem oraz na ilość koniecznych operacji od punktu przyjęcia kontenera do punktu wydania. W związku z licznymi procesami zachodzącymi wewnątrz terminala, opierającymi się na wykorzystaniu systemów teleinformatycznych, przeprowadzono charakterystykę typowego systemu do zarządzania terminalem TOS (Terminal Operating System) oraz wskazano ich liczne funkcje oraz zalety. Celem artykułu jest zaprezentowanie zalet i korzyści płynących ze stosowania systemów typu TOS.
EN
The article explains and discusses the logistic processes occuring inside a maritime container terminal. The processes relate to import as well as export of the goods. A brief characteristics of the handling equipment, such as: Automated Guided Vehicle, Rail Mounted Gantry Crane, Rubber Tyred Gantry Crane and Ship-to-shore crane has been carried out. During the internal transportation of the containers within the terminal, all the procedures must integrate together. Due to large number of processes taking place in terminals, they base on operating systems such as: Terminal Operating Systems. The characteristics of TOS operating in polish container terminals has been performed. The TOS are IT tools facilitating management of the terminal and leading to improve its efficiency and effectiveness. The purpose of the article is to highlight advantages and benefits of using systems such as TOS.
11
Content available Simulation Based Lectures for Students in Logistics
EN
Automation and digitalization in logistic processes nowadays increase the complexity of logistic systems (supply networks, terminals and warehouses) and leads to highly linked systems. Their dimensioning as well as start-up and optimization of operational processes require technical assistance today. Simulation is used for understanding the behaviour of the seaport terminal and analysing the interaction of the complex processes at the terminal. This paper will show an investigation of the usage of specific port terminal simulator in the education of logisticians at university. It will show the effects of using simulation within the lessons in respect to the understanding of port operation and port simulation.
12
Content available Simulation model for maritime container terminal
EN
For logistic chains that have a maritime component, the ports transition involves a set of specific operations inside maritime container terminals. This can be cargo handling operations from the terrestrial vehicle in the storage area of ports, from port storage area in the maritime ships, as well as storage operations in the port area and other container terminal activities. Taking into consideration the multi-flow interactions and the non-uniform arrival of vessels and in-land vehicles, discrete event simulation stands as a feasible technique for investigating berthing capacity during the initial planning stage of the terminal or for operative planning of logistic processes at the terminal. If the storage area is analysed as a queuing system, the quality serving attributes could be evaluate. When different distributions for arrival flows of the containers in the maritime container terminal are taken into consideration, the quality serving attributes are difficult to estimate. In our paper, a discrete simulation model is developed in ARENA software for case of a maritime container terminal. The estimation of the general measures of performance for the container port terminals through simulation could provide data for the implementation in the management plans by port administrations.
EN
The level of education of seafarers currently depends among other things on the use of simulators in the training process. The reliability of the computer simulation depends on several factors such as own ship models or virtual training areas. Currently available software on the market allows you to edit and create virtual areas for specific manoeuvring trials. Having a faithful copy of a real basin is an important element of harbour pilots courses or in carrying out a wide range of navigational analyses. In this paper the authors describe the process of creating Container Terminal T2 at DCT Gdańsk in the simulator environment.
14
Content available Simulation Model of Container Land Terminals
EN
The simulation as a tool for the design of port and terminals has emerged as an answer for the demand to enhance the quality and reliability of the project results. Very high costs of the project solution implementation and practically total lack of liquidity of transport infrastructure objects always induced the immense commercial risks in the terminal business. Lately these risks have multiplied significantly due to rapid changes on the global and regional markets of transport services. Today, many experts come to see this volatility as an indicator of the next phase in development of the global trade system and the derivative cargo transportation system, specifically the state of temporal saturation. The shift of the global goods volumes from quick and steady growth to relatively small fluctuations around constant values causes quick oscillations in re-distribution of demand over the oversized supply. This new business and economic environment seriously affected the paradigm of transport terminal design and development techniques. The new operational environment of terminals put a request for the designers to arrange the results not in terms of “point”, but in terms of “functions”. Eventually it resulted in development of the modern object-oriented model approach. The wide spread of this approach witnesses the objective demand for this discipline, while in many aspects it remains in the intuitive (pre-paradigmal) phase of its development. The main reason for it is in the problem definition itself, which usually is formulated as the simulation of a given terminal. At the same time, the task is to assess the operational characteristics of the terminal engaged in processing of a given combination of cargo flows. Consequently, it is not the terminal that should be simulated, but the processes of cargo flows handling performed by this terminal under investigation. Another problem that restricts the practical spread of simulation is in the model adequacy. A model which adequacy is not proved has no gnoseological value at all. The paper describes the approach aimed at development of the models with the features discussed above.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono propozycję wykorzystania teorii masowej obsługi i jej metod analitycznych do badania prakseologicznego systemu działania, którym jest morski port handlowy, traktowany jako wielokanałowy system masowej obsługi. We wstępie zaprezentowano założenia metodologiczne i podstawowe narzędzia badawcze teorii masowej obsługi, ukierunkowane na analizę morskiego portu handlowego. W dalszej części został przedstawiony wielokanałowy model morskiego portu handlowego, obejmujący 5 terminali portowych. Wybrany terminal kontenerowy posłużył do szczegółowych badań analitycznych za pomocą metod teorii masowej obsługi.
EN
The paper presents a proposal to use the theory of mass service and its analytical methods to study the praxeological operating system, which is a commercial sea port, treated as a multi-channel mass service system. The introduction presents the methodological assumptions and basic research tools of mass service theory focused on the analysis of the commercial sea port. In the next part, a multi-channel model of the commercial sea port was presented, covering 5 port terminals. The selected container terminal was used for detailed analytical research using the methods of mass service theory.
PL
W referacie poruszono kluczowe zagadnienia, odnoszące się do organizacji i dynamiki rozwoju przewozów kontenerowych w polskich portach morskich na tle zjawisk zachodzących w gospodarce, w tym w systemach transportowych. Wskazano też czynniki traktowane w kontekście szans oraz ograniczeń determinujących tempo rozwoju polskich terminali kontenerowych, a także osiągnięte przez nie wyniki przeładunkowe.
EN
The paper discusses key issues related to the organization and dynamics of container terminal development in Polish seaports in the context of phenomena occurring in the economy, including transport systems. Factors treated in the context of opportunities and constraints determining their pace of development and their transhipment results have been also discussed.
EN
Ship stowage plan is the management connection of quae crane scheduling and yard crane scheduling. The quality of ship stowage plan affects the productivity greatly. Previous studies mainly focuses on solving stowage planning problem with online searching algorithm, efficiency of which is significantly affected by case size. In this study, a Deep Q-Learning Network (DQN) is proposed to solve ship stowage planning problem. With DQN, massive calculation and training is done in pre-training stage, while in application stage stowage plan can be made in seconds. To formulate network input, decision factors are analyzed to compose feature vector of stowage plan. States subject to constraints, available action and reward function of Q-value are designed. With these information and design, an 8-layer DQN is formulated with an evaluation function of mean square error is composed to learn stowage planning. At the end of this study, several production cases are solved with proposed DQN to validate the effectiveness and generalization ability. Result shows a good availability of DQN to solve ship stowage planning problem.
EN
The article presents the continuation of the authors’ research on the problem of the operational fluidity of cargo handling sea terminals, based on the example of the DCT. The article presents a solution based on the multiequation models and applied to analyze the operational fluidity of terminals in the transshipment and feeder relation. To provide a solution to the problem of the functioning of sea-land supply chains at the terminal, the GRETL software has been applied.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono zagadnienie przepływu komunikatów w procesie transportu na lądowym terminalu kontenerowym. Przedstawiono charakterystykę i podział terminali lądowych, oraz wyodrębniono podmioty współpracujące z terminalem w procesie przewozu intermodalnej jednostki transportowej. Omówiono usługi zachodzące w procesie transportu, które dotyczą funkcjonowania terminala kontenerowego i na podstawie wybranych usług scharakteryzowano przepływy komunikatów pomiędzy interesariuszami, zarówno pod względem treści jak i formy przekazu komunikatu.
EN
The article presents the issue of message exchange in the transport process at the inland container terminal. The characteristics and division of inland terminals were presented and the cooperating entities were identified. The services involved in the transport process that deal with the operation of the container terminal are discussed. Basing of the selected services, the flow of messages between stakeholders has been characterized, both in terms of the content and the form of communication.
EN
The combination between the design and project of container terminals and the reflect on port’s economy may be carried out through two main approaches: optimization or simulation. Although the approaches based on optimization models allow a more elegant and compact formulation of the problem, simulation models are mainly based on discrete event simulation (DES) models and help to achieve several aims: then measure this impact on port economy before and after implemented this updating overcome mathematical limitations of optimization approaches, support and make computer-generated strategies/policies more understandable, and support decision makers in daily decision processes through a “what if” approach. Several applications of DES models have been proposed and simulation results confirm that such an approach is quite effective at simulating container terminal operations. Most of the contributions in the literature develop object oriented simulation models and pursue a macroscopic approach which gathers elementary handling activities (e.g. using cranes, reach stackers, shuttles) into a few macro-activities (e.g. unloading vessels: crane-dock-reach stacker-shuttle-yard), simulate the movement of an “aggregation” of containers and therefore do not take into account the effects of container types (e.g. 20’ vs 40’, full vs empty), the incidence of different handling activities that may seem similar but show different time duration and variability/dispersion (e.g. crane unloading a container to dock or to a shuttle) and the differences within the same handling activity (e.g. stacking/loading/unloading time with respect to the tier number). Such contributions primarily focus on modeling architecture, on software implementation issues and on simulating design/real scenarios. Activity duration is often assumed to be deterministic, and those few authors that estimate specific stochastic handling equipment models do not clearly state how they were calibrated, what data were used and what the parameter Values are. Finally, no one investigates the effects of different modeling hypotheses on the simulation of container terminal performances. The focus of this paper is on the effects that different hypotheses on handling equipment models calibration may have on the simulation (discrete event) of container terminal performances. Such effects could not be negligible and should be investigated with respect to different planning horizons, such as strategic or tactical. The aim is to propose to analysts, modelers and practitioners a sort of a guideline useful to point out the strengths or weaknesses of different approaches. Drawing on the model architecture which will be affected on port economics.
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