Background: The aim of the article is to examine the determinants of the digital transformation of the supply chains (DSCs) of companies. The presented research covers the stages of digital supply chain transformation, applied key technologies, and the results of implementation of DSC transformation. Methods: The research covered 235 randomly selected Polish companies of all sizes, focusing on transport and warehouse management companies (33.6%), industrial processing (15.7%), other services (11.4%) and wholesale and retail trade (11.1%). Data were acquired by the CAWI method in 2022. For statistical calculation, Pearson correlation and factor analysis were used. Results: The results of this paper indicate that the DSC transformation process is implemented with rather similar and moderate degree of intensity (mean 3.61 on a scale from 1 to 5). The transformation process of DSC is based on several interdependencies, that is, between integration of company’s technology base and other entities of the supply chain as well as with scale and improve the solutions for DSC. Moreover, DSC transformation is positive related with all of the performance measures (profit, sales, market share, ROI, and competitive advantage), while the greatest increase is noticed for ROI. Furthermore, the factor analysis confirm that a systematic and comprehensive approach to the transformation of DSC raises company performance. Conclusions: The presented research allows for a better understanding of analysed variables and the context that determines DSC transformation for both managers and practitioners. Thus, it enable building a strategy and roadmaps for the digital transformation of enterprises and mitigate associated risks.