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Certain critical infrastructure networks show some interconnections, relations and interactions with other ones, most frequently when located and operating within particular areas. Failures arising within one critical infrastructure network, can then negatively impact not only on associated systems, societies and natural environment, but also on mutual critical infrastructure networks. Therefore, interdependent critical infrastructure networks can be determined as network of critical infrastructure networks (network of networks approach). The paper presents safety analysis of the network of critical infrastructure networks, taking into account interconnections, relations and interactions between particular ones. Critical infrastructures networks as multistate systems are considered, by distinguishing subsets of no-hazards safety states, and crisis situation states, and by analysing transitions between particular ones. Issues introduced in the article are based on the assumption that one key critical infrastructure network impacts on functioning of other critical infrastructure networks - can reduce their functionality and change level of their safety and inoperability, furthermore, other networks can impact each other, too. Safety characteristics of network of critical infrastructure networks: safety function, mean values and standard deviations of lifetimes in particular safety state subsets, are determined, taking into account interdependencies between particular networks. The results are related to various values of coefficients defining the significance of influence of interdependencies among networks.
Praca prezentuje metodę oceny ryzyka w zarządzaniu kryzysowym w jednostkach administracji terytorialnej. W publikacji zawarto główne założenia metody, przedstawiono etapy oceny ryzyka oraz zidentyfikowane metody wspomagające. Zaprezentowana metoda bazuje na identyfikacji systemów infrastruktury krytycznej, co umożliwia uwzględnienie wszystkich zagrożeń istotnych z punktu widzenia tych systemów. Zapełnia ona lukę poznawczą w obszarze sposobu dokonania oceny ryzyka na potrzeby zarządzania kryzysowego.
The paper presents the method of risk assessment in crisis management in territorial administrative unit. Main assumption of the methodology, the steps of risk assessment and the supportive methods are shown. The presented method is based on the identification of critical infrastructure systems, which makes it possible to take into consideration all the threats that are relevant to these systems. It fills the cognitive gap in the field of risk assessment for crisis management purposes.
Drinking Water Distribution Systems (DWDSs) play a key role in sustainable development of modern society. They are classified as critical infrastructure systems. This imposes a large set of highly demanding requirements on the DWDS operation and requires dedicated algorithms for on-line monitoring and control to tackle related problems. Requirements on DWDS availability restrict the usability of the real plant in the design phase. Thus, a proper model is crucial. Within this paper a DWDS multi-species quality model for simulation and design is derived. The model is composed of multiple highly inter-connected modules which are introduced to represent chemical and biological species and (above all) their interactions. The chemical part includes the processes of chloramine decay with additional bromine catalysis and reaction with nitrogen compounds. The biological part consists of both heterotrophic and chemo-autotrophic bacteria species. The heterotrophic bacteria are assumed to consume assimilable organic carbon. Autotrophs are ammonia oxidizing bacteria and nitrite oxidizing bacteria species which are responsible for nitrification processes. Moreover, Disinfection By-Products (DBPs) are also considered. Two numerical examples illustrate the derived model’s behaviour in normal and disturbance operational states.
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