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1
EN
Purpose: Improving the quality of medical services is one of the key focus areas of hospital management. The search for opportunities for improvement, addressing real problems and meeting the needs of customers becomes particularly important in the face of such challenges as technological, especially the development of digitization and e-medicine, demographic changes, including, among others, aging societies, political and financial. The study was conducted to identify and analyze staff attributes that determine the achievement of a level of patient satisfaction with the quality of hospital services. Design/methodology/approach: Based on desk research and interviews with patients of a sample hospital, six key staff attributes important for achieving satisfaction with the quality of hospital services were identified. These attributes were subjected to empirical studies conducted in accordance with the methodology of the Kano model (first stage) and the survey method (second stage). The results of the studies made it possible to identify gaps between the highest desired degree of satisfaction and the level resulting from the patients' actual evaluation. Subsequently, the authors formulated their own recommendations for strengthening human capital for increasing the quality of hospital services. Findings: Based on the research, the map of key staff attributes affecting patient satisfaction with the quality of hospital services was developed. The attributes with the greatest importance and strength of influence on the quality of services, characteristic of the three professional groups studied, were then identified. Among them were: professionalism, kindness and politeness towards the patient and his family members, individualized approach to the patient. Recognizing the opinions of patients of a particular hospital, the attributes that were important but at the same time rated lowest were identified. On this basis, gaps between the expected and actual state were identified, and suggestions were made for improvement in the areas of knowledge, communication and cooperation. Research limitations/implications: Some limitations were recognized in the research process, primarily due to the size of the research sample and the scope and scale of empirical research. It seems desirable to expand the research field to include the international environment. Conclusions made against the background of other cultural or systemic conditions of health care in a given country could enrich the conducted comparative analysis with interesting insights. In addition, the study of correlations between an expanded set of factors influencing the quality of hospital services and the level of patient satisfaction could provide a direction for further research. Practical implications: The results of the study may be of interest to stakeholders in the health care industry. Identifying the key personnel attributes of greatest importance and power to influence service quality seems important for designing changes that strengthen a hospital's human capital. The presented suggestions for improvement in the areas of knowledge, communication and cooperation based on the results of patient satisfaction surveys of a specific hospital have application value. Social implications: Implementation of changes designed on the basis of the research results presented and suggestions for improvement in the areas of knowledge, communication and cooperation can realistically improve patient satisfaction with the quality of hospital services. In addition, hospitals' interest in improving the quality of services in response to patients' needs and expectations demonstrates social responsibility. Originality/value: The paper identifies key staff attributes important for achieving patient satisfaction with the quality of hospital services. It also provides practical recommendations for improvement in the areas of knowledge, communication and cooperation. The article is dedicated to academic and healthcare professionals, including hospital managers, as well as local government administration.
EN
Purpose: The aim of the article was to analyse the pro-environmental approach to products improvement by SMEs from the Visegrad Group (V4) countries. Design/methodology/approach: The research was survey. The survey research was carried out in traditional (paper) and electronic form (MS FORMS). The survey was directed at electronic industries (machinery processing) belonging to small and medium enterprises (SMEs) from V4 countries. The results presented in the article refer to sample size of 379 SMEs, obtained between March and September 2023. Results were analysed in statistical way, i.e.: ANOVA test and Mann Whitney U test by significance level equal to a = 0.05. Findings: SMEs in V4 countries have a similar approach to pro-environmental improving of products. It was shown that pro-environmental activities of SMEs from the V4 countries, the lowest consistency of assessments occurs in the following countries: Poland and Slovakia, Poland and Hungary, Slovakia and Hungary. Practical implications: The research results may contribute to more effective and coherent development activities of SMEs in the V4 countries as part of their sustainable development, and also to take appropriate actions that will be supporting qualitative and environmental products. Social implications: The results can help SME entrepreneurs improve their products to protect the natural environment. In addition, they can be the basis for the development of SMEs from the V4 countries and their unidirectional development, which includes not only improving the quality of products, but also caring for the environment. Originality/value: The originality of the research is the determination of the current pro-environmental approach to product improvement in SMEs in the V4 countries. The novelty is the provision of current data on the importance of improving pro-environmental products in SMEs from the V4 countries and their comparison between companies in the electrical machinery industry.
EN
Purpose: The idea of the study is to understand fluctuation in quality management depending on organizational context. The primary purpose of this article is to analyze changes in quality management in four countries grouped in V4 (The Visegrad Group) in the prism of macroeconomic crises, over the last five years. The following research question was formulated: What influences market saturation with a formal approach to quality management (ISO 9001 certificates), and when? Design/methodology/approach: The considerations are based on a systematic literature review (SLR) and an analysis of the long-term data of ISO survey – certifications. The data was compared among V4 countries and an attempt was made to relate the results to economy-wide indicators, especially in turbulent environments. Findings: The results show no clear and unidirectional relationships between the number of ISO 9001 certifications and macroeconomic data. This was identified for the V4 group as a whole and for individual countries, as well. Implementation of the QMS is an individual decision of each organization, depending on closely related microeconomic factors. Research limitations/implications: Research findings always represent a slice of a larger reality. In that research paper limitations concern: the period of analysis, literature review in English and supplemented locally in the native languages, focusing on the V4 area. Findings implicate quality management’s perceptions need to adjust the lens to understand macro numbers of certificates by the circumstances and adjust micro decisions in organizations in the QM area depending on the crisis phase on the market.Originality/value: The article analyses certification data in previously unpresented form. Results were compared between V4 countries in the prism of times of crisis with an indication of certificate saturation rates and an attempt to explain macroeconomic fluctuations. The research results are helpful for researchers exploring quality management issues, and all organizations that can relativize the importance of quality management.
EN
Success in growing an agricultural crop is considered to be the maximum realisation of the potential of a variety, as well as a stable level of its yield over the years. In the article, the results of studies, conducted with the narrow-leaved lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.) on the grey forest soil under the Forest-Steppe conditions were analysed. The peculiarities of the influence of hydrothermal conditions upon the duration of the period from sowing to the emergence of seedlings, interphase periods and the growing season, on the whole, were shown. An analysis of the influence of weather conditions over the years of the research and agrotechnical measures upon the generative development of the plants, the formation of the crop grain yield, as well as its quality upon the variant, recommended for production, in comparison with the control variant, was presented. The weather conditions that developed during the period from sowing to full ripeness of the narrow-leaved lupine plants differed significantly over the years of research, influenced the duration of the period from sowing to germination (from 7 to 15 days), the growing season of the crop, on the whole, (from 79 to 101 days), growth and development of plants, and – as a result– on the level of the yield. The seed yield in the experiment was unstable over the years even in the recommended production variant – from 3.28 to 2.10 t∙ha–1, that is, with a difference in the most favourable and unfavourable years of 1.18 t∙ha–1. The most favourable conditions for the formation of the crop were in 2016 on the variant, recommended for the production, and it provided for the application of N68P48K66, sowing lupine of the “Pobeditel” variety with an inter-row spacing of 45 cm, a seeding rate of 1.2 million germinating seeds t∙ha–1, treated with a bioinoculant with a bioprotectant, and also foliar top dressing with microfertiliser at the IV stage of plant organogenesis. The year 2020 turned out to be the most unfavourable, as evidenced by the minimum yield level of 2.10 t∙ha–1 and the index of the conditions of the year –0.51.
EN
A unified calculating approach is needed for public passenger transportation. All public transport companies and other stakeholders would have additional opportunities to create a transport offer if the unified methodology was made available to them and if calculations and calculation criteria were harmonized. Thus, the main goal – improving citizen mobility – would be accomplished. For this reason, in the study, we suggested the hybrid fuzzy methods for evaluating and improving the quality of public transport service. Unreliable responses of survey participants often distort group decision-making regarding the problem of public services, negatively affecting the end of the calculation procedure. Fuzzy multicriteria decision-making approach has been used. The suggested technique has the advantage of taking into account the degree of fuzzification of respondents' judgments about the choice scenario, while also using two MCDM models to eliminate bias in the responses.
6
Content available Determination of the quality index of cars
EN
This article presents theoretical studies of methods for assessing car quality indicators in the operation stage. Important criteria for determining the quality indicators of cars during the operation phase are the following: functional stability, ecology, comfort, technical solutions, and traffic safety. The problem of converting a multicriteria quality assessment to a single criterion is proposed to be solved by the method of determining a quality index. The methodology for the practical and actual implementation of this research is based on the evaluation of the quality index established on the average vehicle speed then the basic methodological principles are formulated. The quality index of a car is significantly dependent on the operating conditions. This article presents the correction coefficients for the quality index of base, hybrid, and electric vehicles, depending on the operating conditions. The studies and the proposed car quality index provide timely information on the characteristics of operating conditions, creating the necessary conditions and opportunities for automakers to improve the design of cars, promote the image of car brands, and increase sales.
EN
Purpose: The purpose of the article is to present results of pilot studies from survey research of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) from the electromechanical industry of the countries of the Visegrad Group, i.e.: Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary. Design/methodology/approach: As subject of research selected SMEs from electromechanical industry. Survey research was quantitative in nature. They were conducted in a written and electronic way using the MS FORMS platform. Findings: In recent years, issues related to nature protection have become more and more priority for small and medium enterprises from the electromechanical industry of Visegrad countries. This is mainly due to the updated way of managing organisations and the increasing emphasis on the use of sustainable development tools. This pressure is exerted by competition but also by customers. It turned out that today it is not enough to ensure high quality of products, but in order to achieve the basic goals of the organisation, it is also necessary to invest in sustainable development. However, there is resistance in this area, related to awareness and costs. Research limitations/implications: The article included initial research. In the future, the next research is planned in this area. Originality/value: The article presented an analysis of the pilot survey research of approach to quality and environmental issues in SMEs. The article refers to enterprises from one industry, i.e.: the electromechanical industry of Visegrad Group - Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. The conclusions from the research are important for national SMEs and organisations that support the development of this sector.
EN
The subject of the article is the influence of filament moisture on the quality of products manufactured using the additive method using the Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) method. Three types of thermoplastic polymers were tested: ABS, PLA and PET-G. The polymers were stored in environments with different humidity. The moisture content of the filament was determined as the water content in the material expressed as a percentage by weight. To obtain the expected humidity of the samples, they were conditioned for 7 days in tightly closed containers with constant humidity of 40%, 60% and 80%. After the sample conditioning process was completed, they were removed from the container and subjected to further tests. The influence of filament humidity on selected properties of manufactured products is presented, such as: surface quality of the obtained samples, tensile strength and dimensional repeatability. To sum up, the method of storing the filament affects the moisture content of the filament. The humidity of the filament, in turn, affects the quality of products manufactured using the FDM method, including: on: mechanical properties, dimensional stability, Surface appearance. Therefore, it is important in what conditions the filament is stored before the production process begins.
PL
Transport zbiorowy jest jednym z kluczowych czynników mających wpływ na jakość życia mieszkańców miast i gmin oraz organizację gospodarki na ich obszarach. Jednym z wyzwań organizatorów transportu lokalnego staje się skuteczne konkurowanie z komunikacją indywidualną. W Myślenicach potrzeby przewozowe mieszkańców dotyczą sprawnego poruszania się na terenie miasta, ale również przejazdów do Krakowa, który jest najbliższym dużym miastem i siedzibą województwa małopolskiego. Celem artykułu jest dokonanie analizy preferencji i satysfakcji pasażerów komunikacji zbiorowej na linii Myślenice–Kraków wraz z inwentaryzacją przedsiębiorstw komunikacyjnych oferujących usługi przewozowe na tej wojewódzkiej linii. Przedstawiono również, istotne dla mieszkańców Myślenic, plany rozbudowy infrastruktury drogowej i kolejowej na odcinku z Krakowa do Myślenic.
EN
Public transport is one of the key factors affecting the quality of life of the inhabitants of cities and communes and the organization of the economy in this area. One of the challenges for local transport organizers is to effectively compete with individual transport. In Myślenice, the transport needs of residents relate to efficient movement within the city, but also to Kraków, which is the nearest large city and the seat of the Małopolska Province. The aim of the article is to analyze the preferences and satisfaction of public transport passengers on the Myślenice–Kraków line, together with the inventory of transport companies offering transport services on this provincial line. Plans for the expansion of road and railway infrastructure on the section from Kraków to Myślenice, important for the inhabitants of Myślenice, have also been presented.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badania ankietowego przeprowadzonego wśród pasażerów Miejskiego Zakładu Komunikacyjnego w Bielsku-Białej. Respondentów pytano o preferencje i satysfakcję z wybranych 10 postulatów przewozowych dotyczących transportu zbiorowego. Ich odpowiedzi przeanalizowano w celu wyznaczenia hierarchii tych cech jakościowych i rzeczywistej luki jakościowej, które ukazują obszary wymagające interwencji ze strony przewoźnika i organizatora transportu. Poprawa jakości transportu zbiorowego w miastach jest bowiem konieczna, aby zatrzymać obecne i zachęcić nowe osoby do korzystania z tej formy transportu.
EN
The article presents the results of a survey conducted among the passengers of the Municipal Transport Company in Bielsko-Biala. Respondents were asked about their preferences and satisfaction with the selected 10 transport postulates regarding collective transport. Their answers were analyzed in order to determine the hierarchy of these qualitative features and the actual quality gap, which show the areas requiring intervention on the part of the carrier and transport organizer. Improving the quality of collective transport in cities is necessary in order to keep passengers travelling by public transport and encourage new users to this mean of transport.
11
Content available remote Military logistics as a research field of management and quality sciences
EN
The scope of cognition of military logistics encompasses a wide variety of problems, among which priority is given to issues relating to the management and achieved quality of logistics processes. Over the past several decades, this issue has received a lot of attention, and the result of ongoing, interdisciplinary research is a significant body of international and domestic publications. Their careful analysis makes it possible to identify the key research fields of military logistics, which are the main subject of cognition within the framework of ongoing scientific research. Moreover, that the scope of the publications issued, and the scientific problems addressed in them, were in the past, and still invariably remain in close correlation to the socio-military-economic situation. The aim of the article is identification and assessment of the scope of contemporary cognition of military logistics in the area of management and quality sciences and bibliometric analysis of the phenomenon in question. The research problem taken up for solution was specified in the following form: what priority directions of scientific research dominate the development of military logistics in the area of management and quality sciences? A number of theoretical methods were used in the material, among which the leading ones were analysis and synthesis, abstraction and inference. The article identifies connections, similarities and differences between the studied constructs, and formulates conclusions for further research using advanced methods of bibliometric analysis, i.e. the method of research profiling and methods that analyse the connections between publications.
PL
Zakres poznania logistyki wojskowej obejmuje szereg różnorodnych problemów, wśród których priorytetową rolę odgrywają kwestie odnoszące się do zarządzania i osiąganej jakości procesów logistycznych. Na przestrzeni ostatnich kilkudziesięciu lat, problematyce tej poświęcono wiele uwagi, a wynikiem prowadzonych, interdyscyplinarnych badań naukowych jest znaczący zbiór międzynarodowych oraz krajowych publikacji. Ich uważna analiza pozwala zidentyfikować kluczowe pola badawcze logistyki wojskowej, które stanowią główny przedmiot poznania w ramach prowadzonych badań naukowych. Warto ponadto podkreślić, że zakres wydawanych publikacji, i podejmowanych w nich problemów naukowych był w przeszłości i wciąż niezmiennie pozostaje w ścisłej korelacji do sytuacji społeczno-militarno-gospodarczej, która miała miejsce w okresie bezpośrednio poprzedzającym ich opublikowanie. Celem artykułu jest identyfikacja i ocena zakresu współczesnego poznania logistyki wojskowej w obszarze nauk o zarządzaniu i jakości oraz analiza bibliometryczna przedmiotowego zjawiska. Podjęty do rozwiązania problem badawczy został sprecyzowany w następującej postaci: jakie priorytetowe kierunki badań naukowych dominują w rozwoju logistyki wojskowej w obszarze nauk o zarządzaniu i jakości? W materiale wykorzystano szereg metod teoretycznych, wśród których wiodące były: analiza i synteza, abstrahowanie oraz wnioskowanie. Na podstawie przeprowadzonych analiz w artykule wskazano powiązania, podobieństwa i różnice pomiędzy badanymi konstruktami oraz sformułowano wnioski do dalszych badań z wykorzystaniem zaawansowanych metod analizy bibliometrycznej, tj. metody profilowania badawczego oraz metod analizujących powiązania pomiędzy publikacjami.
EN
Sustainable development encourages companies to anticipate actions that will help reduce their negative impact on the environment, but will also be beneficial to customers in terms of meeting their expectations. Hence, the purpose was to define the actions that can be expected from SMEs from the V4 countries when improving products and minimizing the negative impact on the natural environment. The research tool was a survey, the presented results of which were obtained from March to September 2023. They included 379 SMEs from the Visegrad Group countries, i.e. Poland, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, and Hungary. The results were analyzed using statistical tests performed in STATISTICA 13.3. For this purpose, the ANOVA test (repeated measurement designs) and the Mann Whitney U test were used to analyze statistically significant differences between the test results. Analyzes were performed at the significance level of α=0.05. The analysis showed that entrepreneurs from the V4 countries expect relatively different actions from SMEs when improving products and minimizing the negative impact on the natural environment. The results from the analysis may be useful in planning sustainable activities in SMEs from the V4 countries, so that these activities contribute to improving the quality of products and at the same time minimizing the negative environmental impact.
EN
Dynamically identifying key product changes is a challenge for enterprises. It is even more complicated if companies strive for the sustainable development of their activities. Therefore, the aim of the article was to develop a method to help predict the direction of product improvement, taking into account its quality level and environmental impact during the life cycle (LCA). The method was based on the design phase of LCA and the process of obtaining and processing customer expectations. Techniques supporting the developed method were: a questionnaire, a seven-point Likert scale, a standardised list of criteria for assessing the product life cycle, the WSM method, and a scale of relative states. The product analysis was carried out according to modified criteria states, which were evaluated according to: i) customer satisfaction (quality criteria), ii) environmental impact of LCA (environmental criteria), and iii) importance of quality and environmental criteria for customers. The originality of the method is to support the product improvement process to make it environmentally friendly within LCA and, at the same time, satisfactory to customers in terms of quality. The method will be used mainly by SMEs that want to initially predict the environmental impact of a product, including taking into account customer expectations.
EN
Customer satisfaction has long been an important concern for most organizations aiming to provide and ensure excellent quality products. To offer an appropriate level of quality assurance, it is necessary to have implemented a robust quality assurance system. Nowadays, mere customer satisfaction is not sufficient for organizations to sustain a mutually beneficial relationship. There has arisen a necessary requirement to go beyond customer satisfaction, aiming primarily to achieve a level of so-called cus-tomer delight. To attain sustainable product and process quality assurance and, consequently, customer delight, we must address process capability. This includes gauges, machines, and the overall process and product capability, with a specific emphasis on the design and development process, product reali-zation, and the initial flow. This also includes data gathering from the utilization stage of product opera-tion. This article deals with the capability study during the industrialization process of a new product into serial production, using chosen Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), particularly Capability indices and their sequence, to ensure the appropriate level of quality guarantee and customer delight. The article aims to broaden the existing set of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) by incorporating crucial metrics from the quality domain, with a particular emphasis on Capability indices.
EN
In an increasingly volatile environment, the importance of agile management, which should be based on flexible procedures and agile strategy, is increasing. The purpose of the study was to analyze the trend of development, level of knowledge and implications with the application of agile methods, techniques in project, program and manufacturing process management tools, as well as to identify areas of activity of foundry companies in the context of increasing the efficiency of their operations through the use of agile project approach. The completed research indicated that the knowledge and variety of application of agile methods, tools and techniques is at a relatively low level within the framework of project, program and manufacturing process management in the surveyed foundries. Among the most commonly used instrumentation are: PDCA, Kanban, SCRUM, SCRUMBAN, Lean Development, DMAIC and XP. The research showed that the use of agile instrumentation in the areas of projects, programs and manufacturing process management allows work to be done in an orderly and transparent manner. Foundries that consistently use agile instrumentation produce high-quality and non-conformity-free products with short time-to-market. Future research directions will be to perform a comparative analysis of the level of knowledge and implications of agile instrumentation in foundries located in Poland and selected neighboring countries.
EN
The purpose of the study was to identify and typify the main qualitative-environmental aspects of the success of foundry enterprises facing economic changes. The research method developed was based on methodological triangulation. This procedure influenced the credibility of the collected data by including a significant number of sources and reducing the measurement error. The study used: surveying, face-to-face interviews, multiple case studies and content analysis. The survey made it possible to categorize the attributes of success (quality, sustainability, resources, flexibility, environment, management strategy customer relations). Assuming that the frequency of occurrence of an attribute indicates the level of its effectiveness, the following were considered the main determinants: training/courses, supervision and control, reliability and durability of products and compliance with standards and requirements, waste management and waste disposal, core and reserve capital, and customer service.
PL
Technika sous-vide, czyli metoda gotowania w opakowaniu próżniowym, z zastosowaniem łagodnej obróbki termicznej i długiego czasu gotowania, a następnie szybkiego schłodzenia i przechowywania w warunkach chłodniczych, znalazła zastosowanie w gastronomii i produkcji dań gotowych. Metoda ta stała się bardzo popularna, ponieważ zapewnia wysoką wartość odżywczą, lepszą teksturę i kruchość, pozwala zachować soczystość w wyniku obróbki w niskiej temperaturze, a także zmniejsza utlenianie lipidów, co wpływa na przedłużenie okresu trwałości i zapobiega utracie lotnych aromatów dzięki pakowaniu próżniowemu. Technika sous-vide (SV) wykorzystywana jest do różnych produktów spożywczych, takich jak owoce, warzywa, mięso, owoce morza, jaja itp. Wielu konsumentów spożywając produkty z drobiu preferuje udka niż chudą pierś, ponieważ gotowanie tradycyjne mięśni piersiowych wpływa zazwyczaj na ich twardszą i bardziej piaskową konsystencję. Aby poprawić jakość sensoryczną mięsa drobiowego, konieczne jest dokładne określenie temperatury i czasu gotowania sous-vide, ponieważ kombinacja ta jest kluczowym czynnikiem wpływającym na cechy jakościowe gotowanego mięsa kurczaka czy indyka tą metodą.
EN
Sous-vide technique, which is a method of cooking food in vacuum-sealed packaging, with application of mild heat treatment and long cooking times, followed by rapid cooling and chilled storage, has been used in restaurants, catering industry, and ready-to-eat industry. This method has came into the limelight because it provides high nutritional value, improved texture and tenderness, maintains the juiciness as a result of low-temperature cooking, also reduces lipid oxidation for an extended shelf life and prevents loss of volatile flavors because of vacuum packaging. The sous-vide (SV) technique is used for various food products such as fruits, vegetables, meat, seafood, eggs etc. Many consumers prefer thighs over lean breasts when buying or consuming poultry products, as cooking traditional breast muscles tends to result in a tougher and more crumbly texture. In order to improve the sensory quality of poultry meat, it is necessary to estimate the precise of cooking temperaturę and time of sous-vide, as this combination is a pivotal factor that influences the quality characteristics of chicken or turkey meat cooked of this method.
PL
Olej z nasion rzepaku (Brassica napus L.) jest najchętniej wybieranym w Polsce olejem roślinnym. Konsumenci cenią sobie jego uniwersalność, a także lokalne, krajowe pochodzenie. Celem pracy było zbadanie jakości oraz bezpieczeństwa oferowanych na rynku polskim 11 olejow rzepakowych tłoczonych na zimno i 11 olejów rzepakowych rafinowanych oraz porównanie tych dwóch grup olejów. Wykazano, że oleje rzepakowe charakteryzują się dobrą jakością oraz spełniają stawiane im wymagania dotyczące bezpieczeństwa. Oleje rzepakowe tłoczone na zimno oraz oleje rafinowane różnią się pod względem stopnia hydrolizy, zawartości pierwotnych i wtórnych produktów utleniania, zawartości barwników (a tym samym barwy) oraz temperatury dymienia. Nie wykazano natomiast istotnych statystycznie różnic m.in. w udziale kwasów tłuszczowych PUFA, wskaźnikach jakości żywieniowej, zawartości związków polarnych czy stabilności oksydacyjnej.
EN
Rapeseed oil (Brassica napus L.) is the most popular vegetable oil in Poland. Consumers value its versatility as well as its local, national origin. The aim of the study was to investigate the quality and safety of 11 coldpressed and 11 rapeseed oils offered on the Polish market, and to compare the two groups of oils. It was shown that the rapeseed oils are of good quality and meet the safety requirements. Cold-pressed and refined rapeseed oils differ with regard to the degree of hydrolysis, the content of primary and secondary oxidation products, the content of pigments (and thus colour) and the smoke point. However, no statistically significant differences were found, among others, in the proportion of PUFA fatty acids, nutritional quality indicators, the content of polar compounds or oxidative.
PL
Opakowanie jest istotną częścią produktu spożywczego i może spełniać wiele funkcji, od ochronnej po informacyjną. Wprowadzenie substancji aktywnej umożliwia otrzymanie opakowania aktywnego, które może oddziaływać na żywność i otoczenie wewnątrz opakowania, przyczyniając się do wydłużenia przydatności do spożycia. Opakowania aktywne mogą posiadać różne właściwości, a ich cechy są zależne od zastosowanych substancji aktywnych, jak również od właściwości produktu spożywczego. Głównymi zaletami opakowań aktywnych są: utrzymanie jakości produktów (m.in. zapobieganie zmianom barwy, utracie jędrności lub migracji składników), spowolnienie procesów psucia się żywności, ochrona przed niepożądanymi zanieczyszczeniami bądź rozwojem drobnoustrojów oraz promieniowaniem UV. W pracy scharakteryzowano opakowania aktywne (w aspekcie jakości i ograniczenia marnotrawienia żywności), substancje o działaniu aktywnym w opakowaniach i zastosowanie w przemyśle spożywczym.
EN
Packaging is a crucial part of a food product and can exhibit many functions, from protective to informative. The introduction of an active substance makes it possible to obtain active packaging that can affect the food and the environment inside the packaging, contributing to extending the shelf life of the product. Active packaging may have various properties and their features depend on the active substances used, as well as on the properties of the food product. The main advantages of active packaging are maintaining the quality of products (e.g. prevention of color changes, loss of firmness or migration of ingredients), reducion of food spoilage, protection against undesirable contamination or the development of microorganisms and UV radiation. The paper characterizes active packaging in terms of quality and reduction of food waste, active substances and application in the food industry.
PL
Celem pracy była ocena parówek na podstawie składu deklarowanego na etykiecie produktu. Przeanalizowano dane obejmujące 64 asortymenty parówek. Poddano je analizie w zakresie stosowanych do produkcji surowców oraz wartości odżywczej gotowego wyrobu. Badania wykazały, że według deklaracji producentów 48,5% badanych produktów zawiera ponad 90% mięsa a 17,2% wyrobów powyżej 95%. Mięsem najczęściej wykorzystywanym do produkcji parówek jest wieprzowina i mięso z kurczaka. Według informacji zawartych na etykietach analizowanych produktów w ponad 80% wyrobów nie posiadało w składzie mięsa oddzielonego mechanicznie, a ponad 17% dodatków ujętych w unijnym wykazie dodatków do żywności. Z deklaracji wynika, że większość badanych produktów zawierała między 12% a 14% białka, 15-25% tłuszczu oraz 2,0-2,5% soli.
EN
The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of homogenized sausages based on the composition declared on the product label. Data covering 64 assortments of sausages was analysed. They were analysed in terms of raw materials used for production and nutritional value of the finished product. The research have shown that, according to producers’ declarations, 48.5% of the tested products contained more than 90% of meat, and 17.2% of the products contained more than 95% of meat. The meat most often used for the production of sausages were pork and chicken. According to producers’ declarations, in more then 80% of the tested products mechanically separated meat was not used, and over 17% of the products were free from additives included in the EU list of food additives. The majority of the tested products contained 12% to 14% of protein, 15-25% of fat and 2.0-2.5% of salt.
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