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Content available remote Modelowanie numeryczne procesu fermentacji ukierunkowanej na produkcję biowodoru
PL
Przeprowadzono symulację numeryczną bioreaktora do produkcji wodoru z ciemnej fermentacji, w której substratem były produkty zawierające glukozę. Zastosowano uśrednione równanie Naviera i Stokesa z dwufazowym przepływem uwzględniającym międzyfazowy transport masy składników z modelem kinetycznym. Symulacja złożonego procesu biologicznego za pomocą modelowania numerycznego opartego na obliczeniowej dynamice płynów pozwoliła określić i znaleźć istotne zmienne wraz z ich wzajemnym oddziaływaniem na poziomie lokalnym, dostarczając narzędzi do optymalizacji produkcji i zwiększania skali bioreaktora.
EN
Prodn. of H by dark fermentation of a glucose-contg. substrate in a bioreactor was numerically simulated basing on computational fluid dynamics. The averaged Navier-Stokes equation with a 2-phase flow was used as a kinetic model taking into account the interphase mass transport of components. The simulation allowed to identify and find significant variables with their interactions at their local levels, providing a tool for construction, optimize and scale up the bioreactor.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań właściwości fizycznych i mechanicznych odpadów wydobywczych o uziarnieniu mniejszym od 2 mm, zmodyfikowanych spoiwem wapiennym, w aspekcie wykorzystania ich jako materiału budowlanego do budowy wałów przeciwpowodziowych. Wyniki badań laboratoryjnych wskazują na poprawianie właściwości fizycznych, a przede wszystkim zmniejszenie współczynnika filtracji o 98%. Analiza wyników obliczeń MES modelu wału przeciwpowodziowego w programie MIDAS wykazała zwiększenie współczynnika stateczności do bezpiecznego poziomu.
EN
This article presents the results of tests of the physical and mechanical properties of mining waste with a grain size less than 2 mm and modified with lime binder in the context of its use as a building material for the construction of flood embankments. The results of the laboratory tests indicate the improvement of the physical properties, particularly the reduction of the filtration coefficient by 98%. The analysis of the results of FEM in the MIDAS program of the flood embankment showed an increase in the stability coefficient to a safe level.
EN
The welding process of dissimilar materials causes a lot of technological issues related to different properties of materials of joined elements. Thermal conductivity is one of most important factors influencing the deformation of the weld. The change of thermal conductivity in the function of the temperature can produce various strains that cannot be predicted during construction design. Different structures of materials appear during joining of dissimilar materials as well as different characteristic zones of the joint and its mechanical properties. The most important is the proper identification of joint zones and the size of deformation at the production stage of welded construction. This work presents the numerical analysis of physical phenomena in overlap welding of two sheets made of S355 carbon steel and 304 austenitic steel using a laser beam. A three-dimensional discrete model is developed taking into account thermophysical properties changing with temperature. Temperature distribution and the shape of the welding pool is predicted on the basis of performer computer simulations. The influence of thermal load on the formation of stress and strain fields is determined.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono kilka wybranych aspektów zastosowania modelowania numerycznego w realizacji prac naukowo-badawczych. Zaproponowane podejście i metodyka postępowania mogą być zastosowane w obliczeniach i ocenie warunków pracy rzeczywistych elementów, układów, bądź urządzeń energetycznych, a wyniki obliczeń posłużyć mogą zwłaszcza dla ułatwienia analizy bieżącej pracy, jak i optymalizacji wydajności oraz wydłużenia trwałości i czasu eksploatacji analizowanych urządzeń.
EN
Some chosen aspects associated with the application of numerical modeling for the investigation of numerous scientific and research works are presented in the current paper. The proposed approach and methodology may be used for the calculations and assessment of the operating conditions of real power generating systems or devices. The modelling results can be used especially to diagnose and facilitate the analysis of the operating conditions of the analyzed devices, as well as to optimize the efficiency and extend the durability and operation time of power generating facilities.
PL
W artykule opisano proces modelowania numerycznego kogeneracyjnego układu wodorowego zasilanego głównie energią elektryczną pochodzącą z odnawialnych źródeł energii (OZE). Zamodelowany w środowisku informatycznym układ kogeneracyjny w przyszłości – jako instalacja demonstracyjna – będzie miał za zadanie zasilać w ciepło wyodrębnioną grupę odbiorców oraz produkować energię elektryczną sprzedawaną do sieci elektroenergetycznej. Proces modelowania numerycznego obejmuje budowę, integrację i optymalizację pracy poszczególnych komponentów technologicznych, takich jak: elektrolizer, magazyn wodoru, silnik kogeneracyjny, sezonowy magazyn ciepła oraz kocioł gazowy. Do przeprowadzenia procesu modelowania numerycznego wykorzystywane jest dedykowane oprogramowanie TRNSYS. W artykule przedstawiono pierwszy etap prac badawczo-rozwojowych, które obecnie są realizowane przez Energopomiar w ramach przedsięwzięcia współfinansowanego przez Narodowe Centrum Badań i Rozwoju pod nazwą „Elektrociepłownia w lokalnym systemie energetycznym”.
EN
The paper describes the process of numerical modelling of a hydrogen-based cogeneration system powered mainly by electricity from renewable energy sources (RES). In the future, the cogeneration system modelled in the IT environment, as a demonstration installation, will supply heat to the selected group of consumers and produce electricity to be sold to the electric power grid. The numerical modelling comprises the construction, integration and optimization of operation of particular process components including an electrolyzer, hydrogen storage, an internal combustion gas engine, pit thermal energy storage and a natural gas boiler. The numerical modelling process uses the dedicated TRNSYS software. The paper presents the first phase of research and development activities currently carried out by „Energopomiar" Sp. z o.o. as part of the project, 'A combined heat and power plant in the local energy system', co-financed by the National Centre for Research and Development.
EN
In 2017, the Central Mining Institute (GIG), Jastrzębska Spółka Węglowa SA (JSW SA), the largest producer of coking coal in Europe, and JOY KOMATSU, the producer of mining machinery, signed a consortium. The project’s main goal was to reduce the costs of driving mine workings by reintroducing the rock bolt support. The works began in November 2019, and for the first time in the history of Polish coal mining, a Bolter Miner machine was used for the purpose. The paper presents the results of measuring the axial forces in rock bolts at the measurement base and their analysis with numerical modelling.
EN
Sandstone is one of the most popular building materials since the earliest times. It has various textures and colours as well as good technical parameters. Sandstones, having such wide applications, are subjected to various external factors during the period of use. So, it is of utmost importance to have a good knowledge of their strength parameters. We employed a numerical method called Discrete Element Method to examine in a non-invasive manner the mechanical strength of industrial sandstones, that are commonly used as broken stones in road construction, cladding material, paving stones, pavement tiles and so on. Various mechanical external factors were considered, such as breaking, compressional and abrasion forces or impact by external objects and vibrations. Fragmentation of the considered sandstones under compressional regime was a source of knowledge about energy storage inside the material and energy release, as well as appearance of fractures inside the matter and final sandstone fragmentation into crumbs.
EN
The mining of underground deposits causes the inflow of water to workings and the necessity of pumping them to the surface. The mining plant of KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. extracts copper ore in plant branches with different hydrogeological conditions. The inflowing water into the workings is characterised by variable mineralisation, which depends on the location of the branch. In the south-western part of the deposit, a low-mineralised stream with a relatively high flow rate can be observed, while the outflow of highly saline waters occurs in the north-eastern branch. Despite the activities undertaken that aim at using the pumped-off mine waters industrially, it is necessary to deposit them into the Odra River. Reducing the environmental impact on the Odra River is one of KGHM’s goals, which is being implemented by stabilising its salt concentration at a safe level. The paper presents the results of a 3D simulation of brine plume propagation based on a numerical model of advection-diffusion and turbulent flow. Bathymetric data from a section of the river approximately 500 m long and point data from an Odra water quality test were used to develop and validate the model. The paper discusses the types of factors that minimise the impact of brine discharge. The developed model will be used in the future to propose solutions that accelerate the mixing of mine waters with the waters of the Odra River.
EN
The paper presents results of a numerical investigation on load capacity of the mixed bench and slab shallow foundations (often used in the process of the modernization of the old, antique buildings, which are suffering from lack of the load capacity). The main trouble with use of existing analytical approaches is a non-unique foundation level of the bench and slab, they could even be founded on different geotechnical layers. Proposed analytical model based on Brinch Hansen (EC-7) approach could deal with such a problem. Results of 2D and 3D numerical modelling (ultimate load of the foundation) are compared to the obtained by using the proposed approach. Influence of the soil above the foundation level is also investigated. Different width to length ratios of the foundation are analyzed (from "short" to "long" foundations). Usability of the proposed analytical model in engineering practice is proved by numerical simulations; the obtained results are on the safe side with quite acceptable margin of additional safety.
EN
It is well-known that the longwall mining method (with roof caving) is widely used in underground mining extraction for bedded deposits (e.g. coal) due to its numerous advantages. Generally, this method is not commonly applied for ore deposits such as copper deposit. In Poland, the longwall mining method has been tested for thin copper deposits at the Polkowice-Sieroszowice copper mine (KGHM). Various failure modes were observed during longwall operation in the 5A/1 panel. This paper aims to examine these occurred failures. To do so, an analysis has been conducted using 3D numerical modelling to investigate the failure mode and mechanism. Based on the 3D numerical modelling results with extensive in situ measurements, causes of failure are determined and practical recommendations for further copper longwall operations are presented.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki modelowania numerycznego możliwości zastosowania mieszanin materiałów zmiennofazowych do akumulacji ciepła. Mieszaniny uwzględnione w symulacjach, opracowano w ramach badań własnych. Zastosowano materiały PCM o temperaturze przemiany fazowej wyższej niż 300°C. Na potrzeby modelowania numerycznego opracowany został model matematyczny akumulatora ciepła z przemianą fazową. Badano wpływ strumienia masy pary ładującej i powietrza rozładowującego akumulator oraz temperatury powietrza rozładowującego akumulator na strumień ciepła po stronie ładowania i rozładowywania. Na podstawie przeprowadzonej analizy otrzymanych wyników badań, stwierdzono, że najkorzystniejszym materiałem do zastosowania jest PCM 1 (NaNO3) o temperaturze przemiany fazowej 308°C. W przypadku zastosowania tego materiału, jednakowy wzrost strumienia masy czynnika ładującego i rozładowującego, skutkuje takim samym wzrostem strumienia ciepła ładowania i rozładowania. Z tego wynika porównywalna wartość strumienia ciepła ładowania i rozładowania oraz czas ładowania i rozładowania. Są one zbliżone w całym zakresie strumienia masy czynnika ładującego i rozładowującego. Stąd, zastosowanie tego materiału zapewnia najlepsze możliwości skalowania i umożliwia dużą elastyczność pracy akumulatora ciepła w stosunku do pozostałych badanych materiałów zmiennofazowych.
EN
The article presents the results of numerical modelling of the possibility of application of the phase change materials for the heat storage. The mixtures taken into account in the simulations, were developed within own studies. The materials of phase change temperature over 300°C were taken into account. For the purposes of numerical modelling, a mathematical model of the heat storage unit was developed. The authors have studied the influence of charging steam stream and discharging air stream on charging and discharging thermal power. Based on performed analysis, it was indicated that the most suitable material is PCM 1 (NaNO 3 ), which is characterized by a phase change temperature equal to 308°C. In case of this material, equal increase of charging fluid stream and discharging fluid stream, results with an equal growth of charging and discharging thermal power. In consequence, both charging and discharging thermal power as well as charging and discharging time remain similar for entire range of mass stream of charging and discharging fluid. As a result, application of this material for heat storage, guarantees largest scaling capabilities and allows large flexibility of the heat storage unit operation, comparing to other tested materials.
EN
The issues related to the emission of atmospheric pollutants during the provision of energy supply services and the circulation of household waste in settlements are considered. The ways of air pollution by toxic compounds and the formation of greenhouse gases with existing methods of waste heat treatment are analyzed. The issues of reducing the content of toxic emissions in combustion products are studied on the basis of a numerical experiment by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The combustion processes in the power boiler TP-14A (E 220/100) are considered and adequate boundary conditions for the processes of aerodynamics, heat transfer and combustion of gas fuel are determined. The temperature, velocity and concentration fields in the furnace of the investigated boiler have been determined. According to the results of the calculations performed, the formation of chemical underburning and nitrogen oxides is predicted.
EN
This article is devoted to the analysis of the heat engineering characteristics of the operation of an Earth-to-Air Heat Exchanger, EAHE, with a circular cross-sectional shape, which is a component of the geothermal ventilation system. The authors analyzed literature sources devoted to the research of heat exchangers of the soil-air type of various designs and for working conditions in various soils. Much attention is paid to the issues of modeling the operation of such heat exchangers and the distinctive features of each of these models. Also important are the results of experimental studies carried out on our own experimental bench and with the help of which the numerical model was validated. The results of these studies are the basis for the development of a method for determining the optimal diameter of an EAHE under operating conditions for soil in Kyiv, Ukraine.
PL
W artykule przybliżono czytelnikowi problemy związane z obliczeniami statycznymi podczas projektowania wielkopowierzchniowych obiektów o nietypowej geometrii. Zawarto w nim podstawowe informacje na temat technologii BIM oraz możliwości wymiany informacji między programami branżowymi na przykładzie przedstawionej koncepcji obiektu z pracy dyplomowej magisterskiej. Podjęto temat numerycznego wyznaczania obciążeń wiatrem przy użyciu dostępnego oprogramowania oraz potencjalnego wpływu zjawisk reologicznych podczas wznoszenia obiektu. Przedstawiono podejście do kształtowania dylatacji podczas tworzenia modelu obliczeniowego, a także w jaki sposób generować siatkę MES w sekcjach narażonych na niestabilności obliczeniowe.
EN
The article introduces the reader to the problems related to static calculations when designing large-area objects with atypical geometry. It contains basic information on BIM technology and the possibility of exchanging information between industry programs on the example of the presented concept of an object from the master’s thesis. The subject of numerical determination of wind loads using the available software and the potential impact of rheological phenomena during the construction of the object was discussed. An approach to shaping dilatation while creating a computational model is presented, as well as how to generate a FEM mesh in sections exposed to computational instabilities.
EN
In this paper, the numerical model of solidification process with the motion of the liquid phase is presented. The mathematical description of the considered problem is based on the heat conduction equation with convective term and the Navier-Stokes equations with continuity equation. The numerical model uses the Finite Element Method (FEM). The simulations of the solidification process with or without the fluid motion effect are presented and discussed.
EN
No numerical model has thus far addressed seismites, even though seismites are frequently used for the conditions which have to be fulfilled for the development of seismites have also been estimated only empirically. The present contribution is a first attempt to model numerically the soft-sediment deformation structures caused by the passage of S-waves through near-surface sedimentary layers. The simulations are based on the so-reconstruction of seismic events in the geological past. This is the more remarkable since the boundary called pressure tube model and the iSALE2D program. We modelled a seismic S-wave with six different vertical velocities, ranging from 1.6 to 2.6 m · s-1, passing through sediments with different densities and porosities in a sedimentary succession from the surface down to a depth of 10 m. The modelled soft-sediment deformation structures (load casts, flame structures, injection structures and sedimentary volcanoes) show similar geometries and sizes as those known from laboratory experiments and field studies. The geometry, size and type of these structures depend on the sediment properties and on the initial pressure used as a trigger mechanism, rather than on S-wave velocity. In contrast, the depth of the seismites appears to depend strongly on the S-wave velocity.
EN
This paper aims to study the behaviour of a circular footing resting on two granular layers, i.e., a dense sand layer resting on loose sand strata, subjected to a vertical and an inclined loading (α=0°, 10°, 20°, 30°) using the finite element (FE) software PLAXIS-3D. The Mohr-Coulomb criterion is employed for the analysis of the model, in which two parameters are considered to vary significantly; (1) thickness of the top layer (dense layer) and (2) friction angle (ф) of both the layers. In the circular footing, the bearing capacity on the layered soil profile is assessed using the mechanism of punching shear failure following the desired area approach. The punching shear failure mechanism formed in dense sand has a parabolic shape at the ultimate load when the maximum mobilization of shear force through the failure surface is taken into account, otherwise, the punching failure is the actual failure while punching in the lower layer continues to a greater extent, depending on the interface load. Bearing pressure decreases as the inclination increases with respect to the vertical, along with bearing pressure increasing as the thickness of the dense sand layer increases. The software results compare well with data available from the literature.
EN
The article presents selected aspects of the FEM-based analysis concerning resistance welding processes performed using multispot welding systems. The analysis was based on a three-spot welding machine used for the joining bars in the cruciform configuration. Both two and three-dimensional modelling was performed as the comparative analysis of two computing software packages, i.e. the commercial ANSYS Mechanical software package and the ARTAP software package, available on an open access basis. The research work involved the determination of current propagation in various welding process configurations as well as the identification of the percentage loss of welding current and power resulting from the bridging of current by neighbouring welds. The article discusses the effect of the method of the power supply and the earthing of the system of electrodes along with the welded material on the manner of current propagation. The analyses presented in the article were performed in relation to the DC power supply (inverter welding machine). Related calculations were performed using averaged (in terms of heat and resistance) material parameters.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wybrane aspekty analizy numerycznej MES problematyki zgrzewania rezystancyjnego w układach wielopunktowych. Analizę przeprowadzono na bazie zespołu trójpunktowej zgrzewarki prętów w konfiguracji na krzyż. Modelowanie numeryczne, przeprowadzone zarówno w 2D, jak i 3D, wykonano jako analizę porównawczą między dwoma pakietami obliczeniowymi – komercyjnym pakietem ANSYS Mechanical oraz ogólnodostępnym pakietem ARTAP. Wyznaczono rozpływy prądów w różnych konfiguracjach procesu zgrzewania oraz określono procentowy spadek prądu i mocy zgrzewania wynikający z procesu mostkowania prądu przez sąsiednie zgrzeiny. Wskazano wpływ sposobu zasilania i uziemienia zespołu elektrod wraz z materiałem zgrzewanym na sposób rozpływu prądu. Przedstawione w artykule analizy wykonano dla zasilania prądem stałym (zgrzewarka inwertorowa), a do obliczeń przyjęto, uśrednione pod względem cieplnym i rezystancyjnym, parametry materiałowe.
EN
The paper reports the results of work leading to the construction of a spatial thermo-mechanical model based on the finite element method allowing the computer simulation of physical phenomena accompanying the steel sample testing at temperatures that are characteristic for the soft-reduction process. The proposed numerical model is based upon a rigid-plastic solution for the prediction of stress and strain fields, and the Fourier-Kirchhoff equation for the prediction of temperature fields. The mushy zone that forms within the sample volume is characterized by a variable density during solidification with simultaneous deformation. In this case, the incompressibility condition applied in the classic rigid-plastic solution becomes inadequate. Therefore, in the presented solution, a modified operator equation in the optimized power functional was applied, which takes into account local density changes at the mechanical model level (the incompressibility condition was replaced with the condition of mass conservation). The study was supplemented with examples of numerical and experimental simulation results, indicating that the proposed model conditions, assumptions, and numerical models are correct.
EN
Main goal of this paper is to present results of the numerical simulations of a real-scale gabion retaining wall tests. 4.5 m high wall was loaded and unloaded with water pressure, displacements of the crest of the wall were measured. Finite Element Method was used to simulate experiment and obtained results are compared with experimental ones. Usage of homogenized Coulomb-Mohr type continuum for gabions is proposed. Strength parameters of the model (cohesion and friction angle) are estimated on the base of large scale triaxial tests of the gabions and static tensile tests of the mesh. Influence of the “cut-off” condition on obtained results is analyzed. Elastic model for gabions is used for comparison of the results. Interface elements and truss joints between the gabions are used to simulate joints between gabions with limited strength. Good correlation between displacements obtained in experiment and numerical simulations was observed, especially in loading phase, so presented methodology of numerical modelling allows to model gabion retaining walls behavior close to the reality and could be used in engineering practice.
PL
Artykuł przedstawia wyniki symulacji numerycznych testów rzeczywistego muru oporowego z gabionów. Mur o wysokości 4.5 m był obciążany ciśnieniem wody i odciążany, mierzono przemieszczenia jego korony. Metoda Elementów Skończonych została wykorzystana do zasymulowania badań laboratoryjnych, porównano uzyskane wyniki z otrzymanymi doświadczalnie. Zaproponowano wykorzystanie zhomogenizowanego ośrodka typu Coulomba - Mohra do modelowania gabionów. Parametry wytrzymałościowe (kohezję i kąt tarcia wewnętrznego) oszacowano na bazie testów trójosiowych gabionów i testów statycznego rozciągania siatki. Analizowano wpływ warunku „cut-off” (braku nośności na rozciągania) na uzyskiwane wyniki. Dla porównania wykorzystano model sprężysty gabionów. Elementy kontaktowe i łączniki kratownicowe wykorzystano do zamodelowania połączeń pomiędzy gabionami o ograniczonej wytrzymałości. Zaobserwowano dobrą zgodność obliczonych numerycznie i pomierzonych laboratoryjnie przemieszczeń (szczególnie w fazie obciążenia), tak więc zaprezentowana metodologia pozwala na bliskie rzeczywistości zamodelowanie zachowania się konstrukcji z gabionów i może być wykorzystywana w praktyce inżynierskiej.
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