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EN
This study aimed to examine and explain the spatial distribution of total phosphorus in sediments and orthophosphates in interstitial water in four Polish dam reservoirs with varying hydrological and geochemical characteristics. The results are linked to physicochemical parameters of sediments: organic matter and calcium carbonates content, pH, redox potential and conductivity. In two of the studied reservoirs hydrological dynamics were a driving force in phosphorus circulation, despite the big difference in their mean water retention times, and interactions with Ca and Fe were of secondary importance In other reservoirs with complicated shorelines and reservoir beds, due to water flow disturbance the hydrological impact was not as pronounced. Geochemical processes, such as precipitation of phosphorus associated with Ca^+2, Fe(III) or in complexed with humic substances became more significant.
EN
Benthic fluxes of phosphate and phosphorus distribution in sediments from the southern Baltic Sea were investigated in spring and autumn in 2005 and 2007–2010. Strong spatial variability of phosphate fluxes was observed across the sediment–water interface. The highest values of phosphate flux from sediment (up to 37 μmol m-2 h-1), resulting from the high mineralization rate of organic matter and rapid phosphorus turnover due to macrofaunal activity and hydrodynamic conditions, were observed in the shallow area at depths ranging from 50 to 69 m. The rate of phosphate exchange in the transportation and accumulation bottom area with the water depth .72 m was several times lower (2.12 – 6.22 μmol m-2 h-1). In continuously hypoxic or anoxic sediments, phosphorus was preserved in the refractory organic form, and sediments were depleted of redox-dependent phosphorus forms. In shallow area with well oxygenated near-bottom water, phosphorus was present mainly in the calcium-bound form.
EN
Species diversity of gastrotrich communities on elodeids and in bottom sediments of lakes of different trophic status was compared. Thirty-eight species of Gastrotricha (34 in bottom sediment and 21 on elodeids) were found, which belong to the only family of Chaetonotidae Zelinka, 1889. Species diversity of both habitats was reflected in the diversity indices ranging from 2.02 (a dystrophic lake) to 2.67 (a strongly eutrophic lake) for bottom sediment, and from 2.01 (a mesotrophic lake) to 2.54 (a strongly eutrophic lake) for elodeids. The similarity of gastrotrich fauna from the two habitats was low, and varied from 17% (a mesotrophic lake) to 38% (a strongly eutrophic lake). Low similarity of elodeid fauna from lakes of different trophic status was also found, in spite of similar plant species composition. The lowest similarity in elodeid fauna (23%) was recorded for dystrophic and mesotrophic lakes, whereas the highest one (68%) was observed for eutrophic and strongly eutrophic lakes. That allows to conclude that the diversity of epiphytic fauna is affected by trophic status rather than by vegetation type. The comparison of the gastrotrich fauna from elodeids and bottom sediments in lakes of different trophic status provides additional autoecological characteristics of Heterolepidoderma ocellatum (Mečnikow, 1865) and allows to recognize this species as belonging to a group of species closely related to macrophytes.
EN
Nutrients, pH, and organic matter were determined in water samples collected from the Raba River above Dobczyce Reservoir (meso-eutrophic), from the Dunajec River above Czorsztyn Reservoir (mesotrophic), and Rożnów Reservoir (eutrophic), and in the bottom sediments of the reservoirs. The river waters were alkaline (pH 7.2–9.2). In the Raba River and Dunajec River, the ranges of nutrients and organic matter contents were similar (without significant differences) (in mg dm^-3; N-NO_3 0.5–2.5, N-NH_4 0.2–2.0, N-NO_2 0.004–0.040, N-tot 1.1–5.6, PO4 0.02–0.58, P-tot 0.03–1.9, while BOD5 1.6–9.9 mg dm-3 O2, COD 2.1–30.4 mg dm^-3 O_2). The pH of reservoir sediments was from neutral to slightly alkaline (6.9–7.6). The sediments were mineral and were characterized by a low amount of nutrients (N-tot 0.04–0.36%, P-tot 0.007–0.185%) and organic matter (expressed as LOI 3.0–10.6%, TOC 0.9–3.3%). Nutrient (except P-tot) and organic matter contents in the sediments of three reservoirs were similar (without significant differences) and did not reflect the trophic state of the reservoirs.
EN
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in recent (0-10 cm) sediments from the Gulf of Gdańsk during 2003-07 and correlated with environmental parameters. Located in the south-eastern part of the Baltic and receiving the waters of the River Wisła (Vistula), this area of negligible tides and strong anthropogenic stress, highly eutrophic as a consequence, is an exceptional model basin for studying the fate of hydrophobic organic contaminants introduced to the sea. Environmental conditions determine the distribution and composition patterns of parent PAHs in Gulf of Gdańsk sediments. PAHs were associated mainly with fine particle sediments, rich in organic carbon, with hypoxia/anoxia near the bottom. The highest PAH contents were found in the Gdańsk Deep (ca 110 m), where the mean concentration of Σ12PAHs was ∼3600 ng g-1, and no distinct temporal trend was observed. Lighter PAHs were found to be depleted in deeper regions. It was estimated that the Wisła discharges ∼50% of the total PAH load deposited in recent Gulf sediments.
EN
This work determined the solid-water distribution coefficient Kd, the Freundlich constant KF and the organic carbon normalized coefficient Koc of ibuprofen in natural, aquifer sediments. They are characterized as silt sediments with different clay and sand fraction contents varied in specific surface areas. Content of organic carbon and pH are on the same level. For determining sorption coefficients values of ibuprofen in sediments, its concentration was measured in the aqueous and calculated in the solid phase. Batch tests were conducted following OECD Guideline 106. The resulting Kd values ranged between 1.14 and 2.29 L/kg, KF between 0.25 and 5.48 and KOC between 1.22 and 2.53 for ibuprofen in sediments S1 and S2, respectively. These experiments proved that the presence of clay minerals beside organic carbon and pH might be relevant in sorption of ibuprofen in sediments. A comparison of experimentally determined Koc with modelled Koc calculated on the base of octanol-water partitioning coefficient KOow shows that the prediction of sorption behaviour cannot be based only on Kow. This is probably due to the fact that these approaches well describe hydrophobic interactions, but fail to predict sorption of polar and ionic compounds.
PL
W niniejszej pracy oszacowano stopień sorpcji ibuprofenu na sedymentach pobranych ze zbiornika wody pitnej w Dobczycach poprzez wyznaczenie współczynników podziału Kd, ciało stałe-roztwór wodny, stałych Freundlicha KF oraz współczynników adsorpcji znormalizowanych względem węgla organicznego Koc. Proces sorpcji ibuprofenu badano na dwóch sedymentach (S1, S2) o zbliżonej zawartości węgla organicznego oraz pH, zróżnicowanych natomiast pod względem składu granulometrycznego i wielkości powierzchni właściwej. Analizy wykonano opierając się na wytycznych normy OECD nr 106. Eksperymentalne wartości współczynników charakteryzujących sorpcję ibuprofenu dla sedymentów S1 i S2 wynoszą odpowiednio: Kd - 1.14 i 2.29 L/kg, KF - 0.25 i 5.48 oraz Koc -1.22 i 2.53. Wykazano, iż zawartość frakcji gliniastej obok zawartości węgla organicznego i pH materiału sorpcyjnego może mieć istotny wpływ na procesy sorpcji ibuprofenu. Ponadto porównano modelową wartość współczynnika Koc obliczoną na podstawie współczynnika podziału oktanol-woda Kow z wartością eksperymentalną Koc. Wykazano, iż zdolności sorpcyjne związków nie mogą być prognozowane tylko w oparciu o wartość Kow, gdyż współczynnik ten nie opisuje sorpcji związków polarnych i jonowych.
EN
Sediment cores collected in several areas of the southern Baltic were analysed for total mercury (HgTOT) and five operationally defined mercury fractions: HgA - contained in pore waters, HgF - bound to fulvic acids, HgH - bound to humic acids, HgS - bound to sulphide, and HgR - residual. An effort was made to quantify mercury fluxes at the sediment/water interface in the study area. Net mercury input, calculated on the basis of sedimentation rate and concentration in the uppermost sediments, ranged from 1 to 5.5 ng cm-2 year-1. Mercury remobilisation from sediments due to diffusion and resuspension was calculated from the proportion of labile mercury and the velocity of near-bottom currents. The results showed that the return soluble and particulate fluxes of mercury from the sediments to the water column constitute a substantial proportion of the input (20-50%), and are slightly higher than those found in pristine areas, although they are less than the values recorded in areas with a history of mercury contamination. In addition, an index was developed to assess the methylation potential of mercury in sediments. Mercury contained in pore waters, and mercury bound to fulvic and humic acids together with Loss on Ignition were used to calculate the semi-quantitative methylation potential (Pm). Despite the simplicity of this approach, Pm correlates well with methyl mercury in fish from the study area.
EN
The objectives of this research were to 1) measure the concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs in sediments from two reservoirs located in Central Poland, 2) illustrate the pollution level, and 3) identify sources affecting these contaminations. Sediment samples were collected during spring period of 2007 from Barycz Reservoir situated on the Grabią River and Lower Pond located on the Sokolówka River. Almost all of analy/ed liomo-logues were identified, except for two the most toxic congeners: 2,3,7,8-TCDD and 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, which were not observed. The total concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs were 213.727 pg-g^-1 d.w. for Barycz Reservoir and 536.266 pg-^-1 d.w. for Lower Pond, with dominant OCDD congener. WHO-TEQ concentrations based on TEF values ranged from 2.323 to 7.984 pg-g^-1 for lBarycz Reservoir and Lower Pond, respectively
PL
Celem niniejszych badań było: 1) zmierzenie stężeń PCDD/DF w osadach dennych dwóch zbiorników zaporowych zlokalizowanych w Polsce Centralnej, 2) zilustrowanie poziomu zanieczyszczenia powyższymi związkami oraz 3) identyfikacja źródeł wpływających na istniejący stan. Osady denne pobrano w sezonie wiosennym 2007 r. ze Zbiornika Barycz usytuowanego na rzece Grabi i Stawu Rolnego zlokalizowanego na rzece Sokołówce. Niemal wszystkie spośród 17 analizowanych kongenerów PCDD/DF zidentyfikowano w badanych próbach, wyjątkiem były dwa najbardziej toksyczne związki: 2,3,7,8-TCDD i 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, których nie wykryto. Całkowite stężenie PCDD/DF w Zbiorniku Barycz wynosiło 213,727 pg-g^-1 s.m. oraz 536,266 pg-^-1 s.m. w Stawie Dolnym, z dominującym stężeniem kongeneru OCDD. Stężenie mierzone jako WHO-TEQ wynosiło 2,323 i 7,984 pg-g^-1 s.m., odpowiednio dla Zbiornika Barycz i Stawu Dolnego.
9
Content available remote Effects of gneiss mining on water quality
EN
70 Mg/day of fine grained waste gneiss in slurry condition, together with 700 m^3/day of water from the wet benefication plant How from the Mikleuska gneiss quarry (Croatia) into the Kamenjaća stream. The stream Hows between two gneiss quarries, originating in the northern catchment area of which approximately 15 km: is predominantly covered by forest. The quality of water in the Kamenjaća permanent stream should be protected from any contamination due to the activities in the Mikleuska quarry. The paper describes the aspects of sustainable technical, environmental and economical protection of the water quality in Kamenjaća regarding gneiss mining
EN
Interaction between continental and marine end-members gives rise to the natural biogeochemical processes in Sharm Al-Kharrar, a lagoon in the arid Red Sea region. Twenty-nine surface sediment samples were collected from the area and their mud fraction analysed for grain size, OC, CaCO3, mineralogy and elemental composition. The mud fraction consisted of a mixture of siliciclastic/calcareous materials, dominated by silt size materials and characterised by low OC (average 0.71% š0.13); CaCO3 varied widely, with an average of 45% š18. Concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, Cr, V and Ba showed a wide range of variation throughout the Sharm. The results were normalised to Al and subjected to cluster analysis in order to examine the relations between the mineralogy and the elemental composition. The contents of Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, Cr, V and Ba appeared to be influenced by the mixing of the two end-members in addition to the physiochemical processes associated with the mixing between episodic freshwater flooding and seawater. Zn was the single element that showed a slight departure from the mixing model.
EN
Short sediment cores from the eastern Gotland Basin were investigated using a multi-proxy approach in order to reconstruct the environmental conditions of the area during the past 1000 years. Sediment data and facies were discussed in relation to hydrographic features (salinity, oxygen) and climate change. During the medieval warm period (MWP), from about 900 to 1250 AD, the hydrographic and environmental conditions were similar to those of the present time (modern warm period, since about 1850): a temporally stable halocline, caused by regular saline water inflows from the North Sea, prevents vertical mixing and leads to bottom water anoxia and the deposition of laminated, organic-rich sapropels. During the period from about 1250 to 1850, referred to as the cold phase (including the Little Ice Age), the environmental conditions of the central Baltic Sea were distinctly different: the lower salinity, resulting from reduced North Sea water inflows, allowed vertical convection of the water column and long-term stable ventilation of the sea bed (oxic stage). Both the productivity of the planktonic ecosystem as well as the preservation of organic matter in the sediments improved during the warm periods. The anthropogenic impact can be identified within the recent laminated sequence by a temporal reconstruction of pollutant deposition. Our findings imply a climate-change driven shift in the environmental conditions and the ecosystem of the Baltic from the north to the south and back to the north.
12
Content available remote Sediment samples from the dobczyce dam reservoir (Southern Poland)
EN
In the study we have focused on the distribution of several metals (Cr, As, Pb) and anions (Cl", NO3", SO42') and their partition between pore (interstitial) waters and sediments sampled at three stations at the Dobczyce Reservoir which supplies the drinking water to inhabitants from the city of Kraków and its agglomeration. The results show considerable increase in concentrations of Pb and As in pore water samples, when compared to the bottom waters. Meaningful alternations in concentration were observed in case of pore water samples (Pb, As) and sediments (Cr, Pb, As), coming from three stations and their lateral sections. The possible relations between this phenomenon and the sediment characteristic as well as the Fe and Ca content, has been studied. Some comments on the seasonal variations of anion contents in water and pore water samples, are also provided. It was found that nitrates and sulphates show considerable variations.
13
Content available remote Binding form of trace elements in sediment of a meromictic lake
EN
Speciation of trace elements in the sediment of a meromiclic Piaseczno Lake (inundated opencast sulphur mine, southern Poland) with permanently anoxic monimolimnion was studied. A 6-step sequential extraction procedure was applied to determine operationally defined phases: exchangeable (F1), carbonate (F2), easily reducible (F3), moderately reducible (F4), organic/sulphides (F5), and residual (F6) in the sediment. The differences in trace elements (except Mn) speciation in the littoral sediment with the respect of lake depths were not found. Considerable difference in the trace elements speciation between the littoral sediment and permanently anoxic profundal one was found.
PL
Badano specjację metali ciężkich w osadzie meromiktyeznego jeziora Piaseczno (zatopiona kopalnia siarki, południowa Polska) ze stale beztlenowym hypolimnionem. Wykorzystano sześciostopniową ekstrakcję sekwencyjną w celu oznaczenia operacyjnie zdefiniowanych faz: jonowymienną (Fl), węglanową (F2), łatwo redukowalną (F3), średnio redukowalną (F4), organiczno-siarczkową (F5) i pozostałą (F6). Nie stwierdzono różnic w specjacji metali ciężkich (z wyjątkiem Mn) w osadzie litoralu wraz ze zwiększającą się głębokością jeziora. Stwierdzono istotne różnice w specjacji metali ciężkich pomiędzy osadem litoralu, a stale beztlenowym osadem profundalu.
EN
Sulfur cycling and the sulfurization of humic and fulvic acids were compared in recent sediments from two western European rivers (the heavily polluted River Rupel in Belgium and the pristine River Authie in northern France). The sulfurization of humic and fulvic substrates occurs in both sediments irrespective of organic loading, but the sulfur species added to the organic substrate differ. Some sulphurization of fulvic acid by oxidized S was observed in the strongly reducing sediment of the River Rupel. Humic acids were sulfurized in the sediments of both rivers in these segments with prevailing reducing conditions by reduced S.
EN
In this study psychrophilic, mesophilic and denitrifying bacterial abundances were studied seasonally (summer, autumn, winter and spring) in the water column and surface sediment layer (0-5 cm) in the post dredging pit Kuźnica II and natural areas of Puck Bay. The research was conducted between VI 2001 and III 2003. In the pit area an increase in mesophilic bacteria and a decrease in denitrifying bacteria numbers were observed, when compared to the natural areas. In the case of the mesophilic bacteria, the increase was visible in the near-bottom waters and surficial sediments during the period of well developed vegetation – in summer and autumn. In the case of denitrifying bacteria, the decrease of number concerned the sediments. Numbers of psychrophilic bacteria in both the natural and dredged areas did not differ significantly over the course of the study. These results suggest that deep dredging can cause the self-purification potential of the ecosystem to be diminished and induce strong bacteriological pollution.
EN
The Vistula is the second largest river in the Baltic Sea catchment area and provides one of the main inputs to the Baltic. The river and its tributaries flow through some of the major industrialized and urbanised regions of Poland, making it one of the most highly human-impacted rivers in Europe. Although the river status is monitored routinely, little is known about mercury forms in the sediments. This study examines mercury fractionation in the sediments of the lower part of the Vistula River. The results show that the cities along this stretch of river have a relatively low impact on both the mercury forms found in the sediment and its bioavailability in the floodplain soils. The mean concentration of total mercury in the sediments was 65 š14 ng g^-1 dry mass (range 54-92), calculated as the sum of mercury concentrations in the individual fractions. The most abundantly represented of these fractions were mercury bound to sulphides (68 š11%, range 55-82%) and humic matter (19 š10%, range 10-35%), with lower fractions of water-soluble mercury (6.9 š2.9%, range 5.1-13%) and organomercury compounds (6.4 š5.3%, range 0.6-13%). The least abundant fraction observed was acid-soluble mercury (0.3 š0.2%, range 0.1-0.6%). Similar concentrations and fractionation were observed in floodplain soils from Kieżmark, collected 1, 10 and 50 meters from the riverbed.
EN
Total trace element concentrations and their binding forms were studied in benthic sediments and in roach (benthivore), bream (planktivore/benthivore), and pikeperch (piscivore) in the upper and lower sections of the Dobczyce Reservoir in southern Poland. The sediment was polluted to a low degree by Cd and relatively unpolluted by Pb, Zn, Mn, and Fe. According to the index of geoaccumulation (Igeo), Cd was the most mobile element in the sediment and was bioconcentrated in fish tissues to the highest degree, especially in roach, which feeds by burrowing into the sediment. The trace element distribution in fish tissues (muscle, liver, kidney, and gills), fish species, and in fish from different locations is discussed.
EN
In the present work, results of studies concerning phosphate, ammonia and silicate in porewaters of the eastern part of the southern Baltic sediments are presented. A strong interaction was observed between the investigated compound concentrations and the sea bottom type, defined by means of the sediment water content (W) and loss on ignition (LOI) values. High concentrations and an exponential increase in concentration downwards in the sediment depth profile was observed in regions named here transport/accumulation bottom (LOI?4%, W?50%). Lower concentrations and irregular changes in concentration with depth occurred in regions designated as erosion bottom type (LOI<4, W<50%). Only in areas under strong anthropogenic influence (Vistula river mouth, the vicinity of Gdynia harbour), in the erosion type bottom concentration periodically raised to the level observed in the transport/accumulation bottom areas. The mass of nutrients accumulated in porewaters in the 10 cm thick layer of surface sediments of the Gulf of Gdańsk in September 2000 was estimated to be 910 t P-PO43-, 2780 t N-NH4+ and 5430 t DSi, while in March/April of 2001 estimated values equalled 908 t P-PO43-, 1860 t N-NH4+ and 3080 t DSi. In the erosion bottom areas, approximately 12 t, 210 t and 650 t of P-PO43-, N-NH4+ and DSi, respectively, were flushed out of the sediments during the intensive autumn-winter mixing.
EN
The aim of this work was to describe the level of pollution due to highly persistent polychlorinated contaminants in sediments from the Polish zone of the Baltic Sea and to identify trends of temporal change. Concentrations of PCBs (7 congeners), DDT and its metabolites, and isomers of HCH and HCB were determined in sediment cores from 0 to 31 cm deep. Sediments were sampled twice at eight stations during the 1996-2005 period. The measurements confirm a decline in levels of POPs pollution in sediments from the southern Baltic Sea.
EN
This study was conducted in the submontane and eutrophic Dobczyce Reservoir (southern Poland). Cadmium and lead concentrations in the water and sediment were relatively low. The partitioning coefficient (Kd) indicated that dissolved Cd and Pb dominated in the water column at depths of 1 and 15 m, and that they were present in the particulate phase in near-bottom water. The relation of dissolved Cd and Pb with physical and chemical parameters of the water is discussed. Binding forms of Cd and Pb in the sediment showed that Cd was potentially a more “mobile’ element than Pb; therefore, Cd had probably accumulated in the sediment in considerably lower amounts than Pb (K=8400 and K=33000, respectively).
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