Exopolysaccharides fulfil protective functions and allow bacteria live in the communities, single or mixed, by facilitating adhesion to surfaces and to each other. Microbes prefer to exist in the form of a biofilm. The term biofilm was introduced in 1978 and is the group of microorganisms surrounded by extracellular, highly hydrated mucus, which allows adhesion on various surfaces and adhesion of cells to each other . The extracellular slime owes its character mainly due to the presence of exopolysaccharides. Bacteria living in biofilms, have a high resistance to external factors, such as changes in temperature, pH, humidity, oxygenation, presence of bacteriocins, antibodies or antibiotics. They may be up to 1,000 times more resistant to antibiotics than planktonic forms. They can be synthesized inside and outside bacteria cell. The structure of the bacterial exopolysaccharide is very diverse, but very often, due to the presence of uronic acid residues, or non-sugar organic acids as pyruvic acid, succinic acid, as well as residues of inorganic acids such as phosphoric acid or sulfuric acid, they are negatively charged particles. In addition, a characteristic of most of the exopolysaccharides (EPS) is their enormous molecular mass of up to several million g/mol . Thanks to its rheological properties, ease of isolation, and often biodegradable antioxidant activity extracellular polysaccharides are increasingly used in industry as a gelling agents, hardening and thickening agents, emulsifiers, food coatings and pharmaceutical products. In addition, they can be used as bandages, anti-cancer agents, cholesterol-lowering, antiulcer or immunomodulators [20–27]. This article discusses in details the selected exopolysaccharides such as xanthan, gellan, exopolysaccharides of lactic acid bacteria, dextran, bacterial cellulose, alginic acid, hyaluronic acid, mannans.