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1
Content available Rules of artillery employment in combat operations
EN
The article presents evolution and formation of rules of artillery employment in combat operations. The first part of the article addresses a process of shaping the rules of artillery employment over hundreds of years of its development. The second part is devoted to a doctrinal approach currently adopted by the Missile Forces and Artillery. In the final section, the author proposes adopting new rules shaped during recent armed conflicts and still have a significant impact on combat effectiveness of artillery.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono ewolucję i kształtowanie się zasad użycia artylerii w działaniach bojowych. W pierwszej części opisano proces kształtowania się zasad użycia artylerii na przestrzeni setek lat jej rozwoju. Druga cześć poświęcona jest ujęciu doktrynalnemu przyjętemu współcześnie w Wojskach Rakietowych i Artylerii. W ostatniej części Autor proponuje przyjęcie nowych zasad, które ukształtowały się w ostatnich konfliktach zbrojnych i mają duży wpływ na skuteczność bojową artylerii.
PL
Jednym z istotnych zadań realizowanych przez pododdziały wojsk inżynieryjnych w ramach zabezpieczenia działań bojowych jest przeprawa przez przeszkody wodne. Możliwość przeprawienia sprzętu i uzbrojenia na przeciwległy brzeg przeszkody wodnej z marszu, z utrzymaniem dużego tempa przeprawy, decyduje o powodzeniu działań zbrojnych. Dla potrzeb przeprowadzenia takiego manewru niezbędne są pływające środki transportowe o dużej pojemności. Obecnie w ramach tych działań wykorzystywane są transportery pływające PTS, których konstrukcja i układ napędowy są już przestarzałe, a resursy użytkowania dobiegają końca. Dlatego zasadnym wydaje się podjecie problematyki budowy nowego środka przeprawowego o dużej pojemności transportowej zarówno dla potrzeb zabezpieczenia działań bojowych, jak również sytuacji kryzysowych ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem powodzi. W referacie określono parametry takiego środka z punktu widzenia zarówno pojemności transportowej, wynikającej z potrzeby przeprawiania pojazdów znajdujących się na wyposażeniu Sił Zbrojnych RP, jak również z punktu widzenia mobilności terenowej i uzyskiwanych prędkości roboczych platformy.
EN
One of the most significant tasks carried out by engineer armed forces within a framework of support in combat operations is crossing the water obstacles. The possibility to do a hasty crossing of the equipment and armament to the opposite bank of a water obstacle, especially when it is conducted at a fast pace, determine the success of military operations. For this purpose it is necessary to have at engineer units’ disposal the amphibian means of transport with large carring capacity. Currently, amphibian tracked transporter PTS is used, but its construction and drive system are outdated and what is more, its service-life is nearing to an end. Hence, it is advisable to undertake the issue of designing a new amphibian mean of transport with large carring capacity intended for support in combat operations as well as crisis situations with special emphasis on the flood. In this paper the parameters of such a mean of transport concerning its carring capacity resulting from the need to transport vehicles used in Polish Armed Forces, its terrain mobility and operating speed are described.
EN
The authors of the article points out the impact of technology development on security systems. The information which plays the independent factor role in the operational environment gradually becomes the main link of each conflict which influences the ability of the security system in the conducted operations; thus, decreasing or increasing the combat opportunities. Such applications as sensors, multi-sensor systems provide another dimension of military operations. The obtained experience (Iraq or Afghanistan) indicate that in the asymmetrical operations environment, the key to victory is most of all the possession of informational advantage. The development of technology enables to link automated information systems and command systems with guidance systems in order to interrogate the combat system environment. The automated supervision systems for the operational region enable the detection, location and classification of main goals (targets) in the operational zone.
PL
Autorzy artykułu zwracają szczególną uwagę na wpływ rozwoju technologii na systemy bezpieczeństwa. Informacje , które odgrywają rolę czynnika niezależnego w środowisku operacyjnym stopniowo stają się głównym ogniwem każdego konfliktu , który wpływa na zdolność systemu bezpieczeństwa w prowadzonej działalności , a zatem zmniejszenie lub zwiększenie możliwości bojowych . Takie zastosowania jak systemy sensorów wieloczujnikowych dają inny wymiar operacji wojskowych. Zdobyte doświadczenia (Irak i Afganistan) wskazują, że w środowisku operacyjnym asymetrycznym, kluczem do zwycięstwa jest przede wszystkim posiadanie przewagi informacyjnej. Rozwój technologii pozwala połączyć zautomatyzowane systemy informacyjne i systemy dowodzenia z systemami kierowania w celu połączenia środowiska z systemem walki. Zautomatyzowane systemy nadzoru w strefie operacyjnej umożliwiają wykrywanie, lokalizację i klasyfikację głównych celów.
PL
Współczesne zagrożenia dla systemu łączności ewoluują wraz z rozwojem myśli technicznej. Jest wiele zagrożeń bezpieczeństwa przekazywania informacji oraz czynników, które oddziaływują. W zależności od opracowania są różnie postrzegane. Autor skoncentrował swoją uwagę na kwestii rosnących wyzwań oraz przyjętych rozwiązań. Dziś oraz w przyszłości, czynnikiem warunkującym bezpieczeństwo informacji w systemie łączności poziomu taktycznego jest stosowanie najnowszych technologii do jej przekazywania. Zatem istotnym staje się próba odpowiedzi na pytanie, czy w przewidywanych działaniach bojowych, w erze koncepcji wojny sieciocentrycznej, informacje przekazywane w celu dowodzenia wojskami i kierowania środkami rażenia będą bezpieczne oraz czy potencjalny przeciwnik będzie mógł je zdobyć i użyć do własnych celów? W opracowaniu podjęto próbę udzielenia odpowiedzi biorąc pod uwagę obecne możliwości techniczne wojsk lądowych.
EN
Contemporarythreats to thecommunications systemevolvewith the developmentengineering.There are numeroussecurity threatsfor the transmission andfactors which interact. Depending onthe point of viewareseen differently. The authorfocusedhis attentionongrowing challengesand the practical solutions. Today and inthe nearest future, the use ofthe latest technologies totransmission is the decisive factor ininformation security of a communication system at the tactical level. Thus,it becomes essential, in the era ofthe concept ofNetwork CentricWar, attempt to answer thequestion whethertheanticipatedcombat operations, command information passed toforces,andmanagefire systemswill be safe, andif the potentialadversarywill be able tointercept themand usefor his own purposes? Thestudy is an attemptto answer these questions in the context of currentland forces technical capabilities.
EN
NATO armies still are looking for new solutions which let them improve the possibilities of the maintenance system during combat operations. The analysis of contemporary armed conflicts shows that maintenance activities are very often limited to basic actions like recovery, evacuation, expedient repair and cannibalization or destruction of broken weapon systems. The paper analyses the nature and the basic principles related to recovery, evacuation and expedient re-pair operations. It highlights the crucial role of the battle damage assessment process as the main factor which should determine further maintenance actions. The possibilities of performing expedient (temporary) repairs are analysed in the context of main weapon systems units or parts.
PL
Armie NATO stale poszukują nowych rozwiązań, które pozwolą poprawić możliwości systemu eksploatacji w warunkach działań bojowych. Analiza współczesnych konfliktów zbrojnych wskazuje, że zadania systemu eksploatacji podczas działań bojowych są bardzo często ograniczone do podstawowych działań, takich jak ratownictwo techniczne, ewakuacja, naprawy doraźne oraz ewentualna kanibalizacja lub celowe zniszczenie uszkodzonych systemów uzbrojenia. W artykule przeanalizowano charakter i istotę zadań związanych z ratownictwem technicznym, ewakuacją oraz naprawami tymczasowymi realizowanymi w trybie doraźnym. Podkreślono kluczowe znaczenie procesu oceny sytuacji technicznej (uszkodzenia) jako głównego czynnika determinującego dalsze działania. Omówiono również możliwości wykonywania napraw doraźnych podstawowych zespołów i części systemów uzbrojenia w warunkach polowych.
PL
W artykule zostały zawarte treści związane z wybranymi problemami użycia kompanii wsparcia ugrupowanej plutonami podczas realizacji zadań wsparcia ogniowego. Ponadto zwrócono uwagę na sposób ostrzału celu rażonego całością kompanii wsparcia oraz procedury określana nastaw z uwzględnieniem plutonowych stanowisk ogniowych.
EN
The article contains rudimentary information related to the use of troop-formed mortar battery deployed on firing positions. Furthermore, the authors depict the way in which the objective is fired upon by the whole mortar battery and the procedures according to which settings are determined, taking account of troop firing positions.
8
Content available remote Wsparcie mobilności wojsk lądowych
EN
The article focuses on the issues of forces’ mobility on land forces’ terrain, taking into consideration the need of movement on roads for air force and navy units. Discussing issues relating to troops mobility is possible after dividing the whole of operational and tactical operations into operations connected with striking the opponent (manoeuvre) and movement inside the own area or zone. The force mobility as an art of war category includes all movements and change of forces deployment. Taking into consideration the goal of force movement. three kinds of movement can be differentiated: manoeuvre, relocation and transport movement. The manoeuvre is applied by forces during operations in reference to the enemy, depending on its direction it can be preceded or finished with relocation. Relocations and transport movement are conducted within the force operations on the territory of their own country. Analysing movement as a physical category and due to the means of transport used, one can distinguish its three forms: the march, transport and redeployment. The march of troops during combat operations is usually conducted on roads. One cannot exclude free movement of vehicle traffic, especially in transport movement. From the military point of view, the category that characterises the forces' movement is their mobility. It can be treated as a feature (characteristic) of a particular element of operational (combat) group and as their capability of quick relocation from one place to another. Taking into consideration the combat operation organisation, one can distinguish the tactical and operational mobility of forces. The destruction of roads and crossings always poses an obstacle for land forces’ movement. Even using the road to detour a destroyed road causes delays in relation to the movement on the main road which was initially planned. Most forces will relocate on hard surface roads. The density of road network decides on the possibility to choose a particular number of roads for vehicle traffic in a given direction. The activities connected with rebuilding destroyed roads should be treated as a set of not very complicated works, however, they are time consuming and varied. They usually require various ways to repair the road surface by specialised engineering units, sometimes even using civil road building companies.
9
Content available remote Lotnictwo w walce z naziemnymi elementami systemu obrony powietrznej przeciwnika
EN
The article features contemporary solutions concerning aviation fight against ground elements o f air defence system and changes to be observed in the nearest future. Basing on the literature of the subject and source materials, the analysis to defeat air defence by aviation in the retrospective approach has been conducted, pointing at general regularities taking place in this area, as well as modern assumptions of conducting operations aiming at defeating ground elements of enemy’s air defence system. Moreover, changes expected in this area of aviation activity in the nearest future are presented.
EN
Experiences gained from recently conducted operations show that in order for the Joint Task Force (JTF) and Combined Joint Task Force (CJTF) to meet the broad and changing range of threats and face the global security needs, joint operations, integrated by common IT networks, are necessary. Combing the results achieved in all environments, e.g. on land, sea, airspace and cyber space, and enabling each armed forces’ unit to reach an entirely new level of the operation speed, joint forces can win against equivalent non-joint force. The integration o f forces for the joint operation needs is a complex problem which is connected with creating their appropriate sets to respond to the current situations and their proper transformation to face the needs of future challenges. It also has to be assumed that both the creation and transformation depend significantly on the way the military forces are organised. The greater progress in technology and doctrine development, the more visible the shortages in organisation are. Moreover, preparing joint task forces to conducting operations is the right response to the uncertainty of the global security environment. However, the combination of uncertainty and joint aspect requires an organisation that has a much quicker response capability that the one currently existing on the operational and tactical level.
12
Content available remote Etapy pośrednie w strukturze działań taktycznych
EN
The article reflects significant changes going on in the area of transitional phases (TPs) in military operations on the tactical level. It is observed that the topic is a subject of many changes recently. The opinions of experts who are dealing with transitional phases are presented using different approaches. What is more, the importance of TPs accomplishment in military operations seems to be unnoticed. In the author's point of view transitional phases should be recognized as a whole and should be classified as a supplementary category, an area which combines basic categories such as defence, offence and delay operations. The TPs have a temporary character, but they assert flexibility and fluency during combat, they also allow conducting operations in a proper pace. The transitional phases appear parallel to basic tactics. Also, they connect basic tactics categories with other kinds creating the military operations to be a permanent process. Thus everything what happens on the battlefield is interconnected and inseparable. That means that transitions form one to another phase of combat and can be preceded by one or more TPs. Each successive stage can end up with transitional phases. To sum it up, the author in the article presents a suggestion how transitional phases should be classified and recognized nowadays in the theory of tactics.
13
Content available remote Wybrane problemy planowania użycia artylerii w działaniach wojsk lądowych
EN
Decreasing artillery, in connection with high requirements of fire support, causes the need to look for solutions to increase the effectiveness if this kind of- forces. One area of modification is the planning process of artillery use. The article shows results of conducted research included in a research project entitled “Planning of Using Artillery in Land Forces Operations The aim of the research was to present a systemic solution to the problem of planning of using artillery on the brigade and unit level in current conditions. The publication contains the evaluation of the currently binding planning procedures and the directions how to improve them. A particular attention was drawn to basic activity areas of artillery command bodies during the planning process, such as defining the artillery content, possibilities and combat grouping, reconnaissance planning, fire planning, planning of introduction, deployment and artillery sub-units maneuvers, combat support and logistic service support planning. It was concluded that one should withdraw from binding instructions and methods which are significantly not up to date. Numerous procedures connected with artillery use planning should be simplified and adjusted to current needs, possibilities and conditions of conducting operations. One should also aim at resigning from complex ways of artillery task accomplishing that are connected with high use of means and assets.
14
Content available remote Wsparcie ogniowe sił lądowych, tendencje na na początku XXI wieku
EN
The article presents in a synthetic way the results of research aiming at showing the tendencies of fire support development at the threshold of the new century. The task of the research was to verify the state of fire support taking into consideration changes in military technology and experiences learned. In the first part of the article the basic research problems were presented and fire support definition was given. Then the number and role of fire support assets in last armed conflicts were described. The influence of command and reconnaissance systems modernization on the effectiveness of fire assets were shown. Also the analysis of modernization directions and development of ammunition and artillery fire systems was carried out. New aspects in tactics and the use of fire support assets were presented in the final part of the article. Close and deep fire support was briefly characterized. Also the latest problems relating to fire support coordination were discussed. The research results are fully included in the publication “Wsparcie ogniowe sił lądowych na początku XXI w. ” (“Land Forces Fire Support at the Beginning of the 21 st Century”) (research project “Tendencja - 1”, AON 2005).
15
Content available remote Istota działań sieciocentrycznych
EN
The article is an attempt to answer how the Network Centric Warfare (NCW) theory can influence the widely understood command and control matters. To achieve such an aim, the essence of NCW was explained, but from the tactical-operational and real commander’s point of view than from the typical, pure technological approach. Basic rules of military operations conducted according to the new concept were identified and described and some differences in comparison to “classic” warfare were defined. On that basis the author explained the main C2 problems drawn from a new concept, focused on two basic components of the C2 system-organization of command as well as command and control process. An important point was also the problem of command & control styles which could cover needs of new concepts.
16
Content available remote Współczesne tendencje rozwojowe w lotnictwie wojskowym
EN
The change of conditions to conduct military operations, using air forces including, significantly determines new aviation directions. Basing on the phenomena occurring in this respect, a new trend seems to appear, namely that the aviation future is directed to the development of new capabilities, and not as so far to the development of further generations of air platforms. These new capabilities relate to command, communications, reconnaissance and targeting. As far as combat application is concerned, stand-off precision weapons are further progressing, instead of developing abilities to carry out air manoeuvres at 9g. In this general possible area of contemporary military aviation development, there may be distinguished five key types of capabilities: information acquisition and management, air dominance (advantage), broadened possibilities to shape combat operation space, support of combat operations and high survivability.
EN
In the article there were discussed the transformations of views on armoured and mechanised troops used to fight against irregular forces in selected armed conflicts after World War II, i.e. Vietnam, Afghanistan and Chechnya. During the armed conflict in Vietnam the armoured and mechanised intervention and Saigon’s forces were used, among other things, to reconnoitre the probable location of Vietcong units, to carry out direct support to the infantry and airborne subunits in the anti-guerrilla operations, to reinforce defence of the bases, to defend the important transportation routes and bridges, to cover the marching troops as well as transports of different destination. In Afghanistan, the Russians, after their first failures, tried to take advantage of American experience from Vietnam, adjusting it only to the different terrain conditions. Heavy, mechanised tactical units were exchanged for the small, independently operating ones. The same strategy was applied in Chechnya. After the failures of tank attacks at Grozny, the tactics was changed. Instead using tanks in massive attacks, some small 10-100-person assault groups were created to strike at selected targets. In the conclusion, there were indicated the tendencies that appear in the tactics of using armoured and mechanised troops to fight against irregular troops.
EN
The development of contemporary combat assets limited but did not eliminate completely the influence of natural conditions on conducting combat operations. In the article, the influence of Kosovo’s geographical conditions on armed operations in the 90s of the 20th century has been discussed. The geographical configuration of Kosovo, its vegetation and climate have been presented. The aspect of conducting combat operations in mountainous areas of Kosovo has been evaluated. The structure of population and economic relations that influence military infrastructure of this area have been shown.
EN
The article presents contemporary opinions on using vehicles in land forces’ combat operations. New tendencies of armoured vehicles and cars have been shown, guiding the reader to judge which of the presented vehicles would meet the land forces’ expectations. The considerations discussed in the article lead to the following conclusions: Tanks still remain one of the basic combat assets, particularly in offensive operations; The role of light and medium armoured carriers, perceived mainly as tactical level vehicles, significantly grows; A prompt development of light wheeled armoured carries should be forecast as they are principal combat assets, able to be moved by air with the troops on large distances; Light vehicles, both on caterpillar or car chassis, will still be used as basic vehicles with special (car) bodies.
20
Content available remote Pierwsza wojna iracka 1990-1991 : doświadczenia i wnioski
EN
The author outlines the experiences resulting from the first war in the Gulf and tries to answer the questions concerning the genesis of the war, why its outbreak surprised the superpowers in spite of Hussain’s threats addressed to Iraq’s neighbours. After analysing the whole political situation and combat potentials of the two sides, the author draw a conclusion that it is entirely justified to claim that the Gulf war was the first conflict adequate to the 21st century or the first conflict of the state-of-the art technologies.
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