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EN
A key element in ensuring the safety of the port of Świnoujście against oil spills is to ensure combat units are properly equipped with oil spill collecting equipment, and that they have the ability to effectively use the existing resources. All of this should be properly reflected in the port’s contingency plans. It is also important to develop tactics for oil spill combat action that take into account both local conditions and worst case scenarios with parallel checking of these scenarios during the exercise and the table-top exercises. The use of computer simulation to forecast oil spill behaviour allows for better arrangement and more efficient use of resources and the optimum development of antipollution action and tactics. The specific location of the Świnoujście harbour, its breakwaters shape, and that shipping traffic is allowed only on the approaching waterway, may lead one to the conclusion that the port of Świnoujście is completely safe from any possible petroleum pollution after a ships’ collision and the antipollution action should focus only on maximising the protection of the coast. To verify this assumption, simulations of an oil spill spreading after a vessels’ collision were carried out. The purpose of the simulations was to determine the most unfavourable weather conditions which would lead to the port of Świnoujście being polluted, and to define the best tactics for conducting oil spill combat actions under such conditions. The simulations clearly indicated that, with a particular combination of weather conditions, pollution could occur inside the port. It could result in vessel traffic suspension and huge financial losses. Simulations were conducted using the PISCES II oil spill simulator.
EN
At present, providing a clear presentation of the navigational situation around a navigator’s own ship (OS) is one of the most important issues facing device manufacturers. Integration of navigational devices on the bridge has made it possible to transfer information and present it in the form chosen by the navigator screen. However, this may cause a decrease in the clarity of information and hamper its interpretation. The ability to select the best information, and that which is most needed at a given moment, depends on navigator proficiency. Vectors are still the basic form of the graphic presentation of radar-tracked object data. However, the ability to track more objects at the same time in crowded areas results in a decrease in readability and can cause errors. This article introduces the possibility of presenting information about collision danger in the form of Dangerous Courses Sectors (DCS) together with an analysis of changes in these during typical ship encounter situations. DCS are calculated on the base of Dangerous Passing Areas (DPA) as bearings on the marginal points of these areas.
EN
Guarantee of the ship safety is the primary task posed for modern navigation systems. This concerns monitoring the proper ship position as well as providing accurate information about the collision threat. The proper interpretation of this information belongs to the navigator. He must take into account many variables affecting the assessment of the situation and then make the right decision regarding anti-collision manoeuvres. This assessment could be made easier for him with use some form of graphic target data presentation methods other than currently required and described in IMO performance standards. Other possible graphic presentation methods of collision information are described in the article along with the concept of their usage.
PL
Podstawowym zadaniem stawianym przed nowoczesnymi systemami nawigacyjnymi jest zapewnienie bezpieczeństwa statku. Dotyczy to zarówno konieczności właściwej kontroli pozycji statku jak i dostarczenia rzetelnej informacji o zagrożeniu kolizyjnym. Właściwa interpretacja tej informacji należy do nawigatora. Musi on uwzględnić wiele zmiennych czynników mających wpływ na ocenę sytuacji, a następnie podjąć właściwą decyzję odnośnie podejmowanych manewrów antykolizyjnych. Możliwość zastosowania innej formy graficznej prezentacji informacji niż wymagana obecnie przez przepisy może ułatwić mu taka ocenę. W artykule przedstawione zostały inne sposoby graficznej prezentacji informacji kolizyjnej wraz z koncepcją ich wykorzystania.
EN
The ability to use computer simulation to predict the behavior of oil spills at sea enables better use of available personnel and resources to combat such spills. The use of oil collecting equipment properly selected to suit the conditions is essential for the operation to be effective. Therefore, an attempt is made to verify the influence of weather conditions on the efficiency of oil recovery. Three types of spilled crude oil were simulated. A relevant experiment was conducted on a PISCES II oil spill simulator.
PL
Możliwość wykorzystania symulacji komputerowej do prognozowania zachowania się rozlewów olejowych na morzu umożliwia lepsze wykorzystanie posiadanych sił i środków służących do ich zwalczania. Zastosowanie odpowiednio dobranego do warunków sprzętu jest istotne z punktu widzenia efektywności prowadzonej akcji. W związku z tym podjęto próbę weryfikacji wpływu warunków meteorologicznych na skuteczność usuwania powstałego zanieczyszczenia olejowego. Zasymulowano rozlewy trzech typów ropy naftowej. Eksperyment przeprowadzono w symulatorze rozlewów olejowych PISCES II. Przeprowadzone symulacje wykazały istotny wpływ rodzaju ropy na skuteczność akcji usuwania zanieczyszczeń z powierzchni morza, im lżejsza ropa tym zbieranie przebiega w mniejszym stopniu z uwagi na jej rozpraszanie i utlenianie. Ropa ciężka tworzy grubą warstwę na powierzchni wody, może ulegać emulsyfikacji, wolniej ulega procesom utleniania, co prowadzi do efektywnego jej zbierania. Doświadczenie ukazało wpływ warunków meteorologicznych na sprawność zbierania ropy, przy wysokości fali 0 i 1 m usuwanie ropy za pomocą skimmera pasowego było skuteczne, a fala o wysokości 2 m uniemożliwiała usuwanie zanieczyszczeń ropopochodnych z powierzchni wody bez względu na jej rodzaj.
EN
Closest point of approach (CPA) is a basic factor taken into consideration for risk assessment during the meeting of two ships at sea. Navigators should use radars with automatic target tracking for collision avoidance and should know the accuracy to which radar data are calculated. Basic information about these requirements can be found in IMO resolutions. The currently binding document for devices manufactured after 2008 is IMO Resolution MSC.192(79). But there are two independent requirements for relative motion. One of these refers to relative motion parameters (relative course and speed) and the other one to the value that is the result of this motion (CPA). The other important document is Standard 62388. This specifies the minimum operational and performance requirements, methods of testing and the required test results published by IEC and also refers to radar equipment. However, this standard is not so popular in different publications focusing on radar equipment, so these requirements were not analyzed in the article. The main problem described in this paper refers to the mutual consistency of IMO Resolution requirements. The results of simulations and their analysis are presented.
EN
One consideration required in the resolution concerning radar and automatic radar plotting aid (ARPA) equipment is the possibility of an automatic drift calculation being realized in the base of fixed target tracking. This information is very important to providing safe navigation, especially in restricted areas. This paper presents an analysis of the present regulations contained in IMO resolutions and the results of an experiment conducted in the ARPA simulator. The aim of the simulations was to verify the reliability of the information presented on the ARPA display and to determine the accuracy of the automatic drift calculation implemented in the simulator.
EN
Computer simulations used for predicting the behavior of oil spills at sea allow optimizing the deployment of oil spill response personnel and resources, and using the backtracking method to identify the polluter in cases where spills are sighted some time after they occurred. Predicting the direction and speed of oil slick spreading is of fundamental importance. An attempt was made to verify the influence of selected simulation parameters, related to hydrometeorological conditions, on the behavior of the resulting oil pollution. Different responses were obtained under the same simulated weather conditions, depending on the type of spilled oil. The experiment was conducted on a PISCES II oil spill simulator.
EN
The problem of the accuracy of anti-collision manoeuvres planning and executing at different radar picture stabilization methods (sea or ground stabilization) is described in the article. The analysis of performance standards elaborated for the radar equipment and the results of the simulation are presented. The obtained research results could be the base of discussion on the need to correct the radar equipment performance standards for easier and more appropriate interpretation of information. Basic radar utility use (for example trial manoeuvre) should be more clearly described in manuals for better and proper radar use.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono problem dokładności planowania i wykonania manewrów antykolizyjnych przy różnych metodach stabilizacji obrazu radarowego. Zaprezentowano analizę standardów opracowanych dla wyposażenia radarowego oraz wyniki badań symulacyjnych. Mogłyby się one stać podstawą do dyskusji na temat kierunków poprawy standardów wyposażenia radaru z zamiarem ułatwienia użycia i poprawniejszej interpretacji informacji. Wykorzystanie radaru (np. dla określenia próbnego manewru) powinno być jaśniej opisane w instrukcjach, jeśli oczekuje się jego lepszego i właściwszego zastosowania.
9
Content available LNG market trends
EN
Natural gas, being the cleanest burning fossil fuel, will play a key role in the future. Liquefying natural gas lets moving it to regions where pipeline transport is not possible, allowing end-use markets access to natural gas. LNG is more energy dense than gaseous natural gas, so there using fields are still increasing in end-use applications, e.g. different types of transportation (heavy duty vehicles, marine or rail applications). Global LNG demand is expected to grow, mostly because of new economic markets from Asia and Middle East.
EN
The following paper describes functionality of navigation systems interfaces in the newly developed shiphandling simulator for the inland navigation (called InSim) at Maritime University of Szczecin. It is based on analysis of radar interface and conning touch screen that has been designed for the simulator.
EN
Increasing of the navigation safety level, especially in difficult and heavy traffic areas, is the main reason of VTS creation. The Navi-Harbour 5000 is the one of the newest systems created for VTS system management and it fulfils requirements included in IMO Resolution A.857(20). Main system functions of the vessels traffic movement monitoring are characterized in this article. The effectiveness of the VTS operator work should be increased by proper configuration and use these functions in everyday service.
EN
The risk analysis of ships’ accidents leads to the conclusion that one of the most important and dangerous stages existing during a ship’s trip is harbour entering and leaving. The use of the modern methods of risk estimation should improve both ship/harbour safety and the economic profitability of the taken decisions. This concerns especially the harbour entering by maximum acceptable size ships for the given harbour. The analysis of the indispensable data sets and the decision model algorithm proposed for the system of Szczecin– Świnoujście ports were described in the article. The use of the decision model, taking into consideration the dynamic current data and hydro-meteorological conditions, including their changes tendency and the possible changes of ship movement parameters, should increase the decision efficiency and hold the same safety level.
13
Content available remote The Method of Optimal Allocation of Oil Spill Response in the Region of Baltic Sea
EN
This paper describes the results of a study that aimed at developing an effective anchor watch supporting system to prevent dragging anchor accidents of small domestic merchant ships. The authors performed an experimental study using a training ship in order to investigate the characteristics of the hull movement of a ship lying at single anchor, the cable tension caused by the above movement and etc. Based on the results of the study, the authors propose a standard procedure for safe anchor watch and a new anchor watch supporting system using a PC, a DGPS and an anemometer.
EN
According to the HELCOM AIS, there are about 2,000 ships in the Baltic marine area at any given moment. The main environmental effects of shipping and other activities at sea include air pollution, illegal deliberate and accidental discharges of oil, hazardous substances and other wastes, and the unintentional introduction of invasive alien organisms via ships’ ballast water or hulls. Original oil pollution model and optimal allocation of response resources was proposed in the paper.
15
EN
Simulators are useful in very wide field of current life. Very important is to know their advantages and disadvantages. One of the most important of navigational simulator using is deck officers training. Possibilities of using real collision situations for officers training can seriously improve knowledge about deck officers behavior in dangerous situations. Analysis of the possibility of using the NMS-90 simulator for ship's collision reconstruction was the aim of experiment. Some problems of recorded data accuracy and simulator possibilities influence on accident reconstruction process are described in this paper.
PL
Symulatory są obecnie szeroko wykorzystywane w wielu dziedzinach życia. W związku z tym bardzo istotną kwestią jest znajomość zarówno ich wad, jak i zalet. Jedną z dziedzin, w których wykorzystuje się symulatory nawigacyjne, jest szkolenie oficerów pokładowych. Wykorzystanie w trakcie symulacji sytuacji nawigacyjnych, w których doszło do kolizji statków, powinno znacząco wpłynąć na poznanie sposobu zachowania się nawigatorów, jak i przebiegu procesu podejmowania przez nich decyzji w trudnych sytuacjach nawigacyjnych. Istotą przeprowadzonego w symulatorze eksperymentu było sprawdzenie możliwości wykorzystania symulatora NMS-90 do rekonstrukcji wypadków morskich. W artykule przedstawione zostały wybrane problemy związane z wpływem dokładności zarejestrowanych danych źródłowych oraz możliwości samego symulatora, związanych z dokładnością rekonstrukcji sytuacji kolizyjnych.
EN
The usage of stationary object tracking information while steering a ship along a marked waterway relies on the constant estimation of the object passing distance made by the navigator. This information is available both in the alphanumeric form (target data) and in the graphic form (relative vectors). While making decisions, the navigator has to take into consideration the limitations of ARPA devices, particularly delays in transferring information about tracked objects occurring when ships are making manoeuvres. The results of the experiment performed in the radar-navigation NMS-90 simulator, which has been conducted in order to establish the usability of the stationary object tracking information in the process of ship steering along a marked waterway are described in this article.
EN
Precision of the data obtained in the object tracking process performed by the ARPA systems, depends very much on weather conditions. Main factors resulting from bad weather conditions and having an influence on the precision of object tracking process are ship's rolling and yawing. Results of the experiment conducted in the ARPA simulator, whose objective was to define tracking errors resulting from ship yawing, are presented in this paper.
EN
Navigators` behaviour in a collision situation in open sea areas has been analyzed. This analysis constitutes a basis for the development and verification of a human behaviour model and the application of such model in an onboard decision support system. Expert research has been performed in which questionnaire and simulation methods have been used. Collision prevention and return manoeuvres for a selected ship encounter situation have been examined. Finally, conclusions have been formulated.
PL
Przeprowadzono analizę zachowań nawigatorów w sytuacjach kolizyjnych na akwenie otwartym. Stanowi to podstawę do opracowania i weryfikacji modelu zachowań człowieka oraz zastosowania modelu w systemie wspomagania decyzji na statku. Przeprowadzono badania ekspertowe, w których zastosowano metody ankietową i symulacyjną. Analizowano manewry zapobiegawczy i powrotny dla wybranej sytuacji spotkań statków. Sformułowano wnioski.
19
Content available remote Analysis of anti-collision maneuvers in an open sea area
EN
Expert research has been done on the behaviour of navigators solving collision situations of ships navigating in an open sea area. Questionnaire and simulation methods have been used. Questionnaires made it possible to collect data related to situation assessment criteria concentrated on planned CPA values. The simulation research comprised exercises in which navigators were supposed to find a solution in a collision situation using an ARPA simulator. This article presents an analysis of different method of performing anti-collision manoeuvres and their effectiveness. Finally conclusion have been formulated.
PL
Przedstawiono wyniki badań ekspertowych zachowań nawigatorów w rozwiązywaniu sytuacji kolizyjnych statków nawigujących na akwenie otwartym. W badaniach zastosowano metody ankietową i symulacyjną. Badania ankietowe pozwoliły na zebranie danych dotyczących kryteriów oceny sytuacji - planowanych wartości CPA i TCPA. Część symulacyjna obejmowała realizację ćwiczeń, polegających na rozwiązaniu sytuacji kolizyjnej z wykorzystaniem symulatora ARPA. Przeprowadzono analizę sposobów realizacji i skuteczność manewrów antykolizyjnych. Sformułowano wnioski.
PL
Podstawowym zadaniem stawianym przed urządzeniami umożliwiającymi automatyczne śledzenie obiektów jest zapewnienie obserwatorowi możliwości właściwej oceny sytuacji panującej wokół statku własnego, włączając w to możliwość zaplanowania skutecznego i bezpiecznego manewru zapobiegawczego. W artykule przedstawiono wyniki eksperymentu przeprowadzonego w symulatorze nawigacyjnoradarowym, którego celem była weryfikacja dokładności planowania akcji zapobiegawczej z użyciem funkcji TRIAL.
EN
The main goal of tracking systems is providing the observer with a proper safety assessment, including a possibility of proper and effective trial manoeuvre planning. For the trial manoeuvre accuracy examination, some typical scenarios were simulated in a radar simulator. The research results of trial function accuracy are presented in the article.
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