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EN
Purpose: The purpose of the article is to make a detailed characterization of the cybernetic system of man-machine-environment in the context of maintaining occupational health and safety. Design/methodology/approach: Data for the study was collected using participant observation. Subsequently, any information obtained is presented in this paper as a case study. Findings: The results of the study indicate that occupational health and safety management in the era of building society 5.0 is highly dependent on the proper cooperation of man and machine in a turbulent work environment. Research limitations/implications: The survey is limited to employees of one manufacturing company. Therefore, it would be extremely valuable to observe whether work safety in other companies also depends primarily on the proper preparation of workers to work with machinery. Practical implications: The study provides guidance for human resource management to implement effective practices to enhance employee safety in the era of building society 5.0. Social implications: This study offers support to the employees of a manufacturing company, providing insight into how the work environment can be improved, thereby increasing health and safety. Originality/value: This is a study that aims to provide insight into how, in the era of building a 5.0 society, it is important to take care to prepare the employee to be a designer of a safe work environment in which people and machines work together to achieve the best work result.
EN
Workplace design is an essential process for the manufacturing industry to realize a low manufacturing cost with high productivity and competitive advantage, as well as high employee performance and well-being. Although research on workplace design in the Indonesian manufacturing industry began more than 20 years ago, workplace conditions in the manufacturing industry, especially in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Indonesia, have remained subpar, with high material handling costs. This review article aims to evaluate recent research on workplace design in the Indonesian man-ufacturing SMEs and explore possible directions for further research. The results of this review indi-cate that the research on workplace design in Indonesian manufacturing SMEs is mostly focused on the department area (micro-level), using systematic layout planning methods to improve material han-dling activities. Even though environmental conditions are unfavorable with low levels of occupational safety and health, research that consider these two in the process of designing workplace in Indonesian manufacturing SMEs is still limited. This review also shows the possibility of developing an integrated workplace design by involving environmental ergonomics and occupational safety and health in man-ufacturing SMEs.
EN
In manufacturing environments, health and safety in the workplace is very important for all employees to work efficiently and productively. Ergonomic risk factors can have a negative impact on workers when performing their tasks at work. And generate costs for enterprises due to sickness absence, reduced quality. Therefore, ergonomic assessments of workstations should be widely used. The paper presents an ergonomic risk assessment using computer modeling and simulation based on a palletizing station as a case study. The palletizing station was modeled in a virtual environment using DHM Process Simulate Human. The DHM was used to perform an ergonomic assessment of the worker’s posture using the RULA method. The Picking activity was qualified to action category 3, while Placing on a pallet - to the fourth action category. The Ishikawa diagram was used to diagnose the causes of ergonomic risk to musculoskeletal disorders, which allowed for the formulation of recommendations. Recommendations relating to changes in the layout of the workplace were applied in DHM. The ergonomic assessment of the operator working postures after the ergonomic intervention showed an ergonomic risk reduction. The Picking and Placing on the pallet activities were classified to action category 2.
EN
This article presents the results of a pilot survey of 300 transport operators, such as drivers, train drivers, and rescue workers. The surveys were conducted online using a Google form based on the Computer-Assisted Web Interview (CAWI) method. The following research objectives were set: to identify and compare the most relevant factors affecting the health and wellbeing of transport vehicle operators and to identify the key risks associated with their work. The findings were presented using descriptive statistics and correlation and principal component analyses. Descriptive characteristics indicated which quantitative characteristics were associated with exposure and discomfort. On the other hand, the results of correlation analyses showed, among other things, that “level of rest” as a function of “fatigue” showed a decreasing relationship and that “pain in arms, legs, lower back or neck” depended on “work position,” “use of excessive force,” and “work severity.” The results of the principal component analysis confirmed that the data cluster under the form of factors and that there are factors whose information values are insignificant. A similar conclusion applies to the input data (i.e., the answers to the test questions). The analysis showed that only the answers to 15 of 50 questions exceeded the threshold of 2% of the information entered in the test. This could lead to the conclusion that if the test could be repeated in the future, the correct result might be obtained with slightly fewer test questions.
EN
The COV ID-19 pandemic has accelerated digitisation processes, improvedremote communication systems and revolutionised office work systems. It ishighly probable that all of these changes will convert office areas and officemanagement in the near future. Remote work has brought employers attentionto their employees’ health and wellbeing, as they have been proven to be themain driving force in their companies. Additionally, there is a growing interestin certifying buildings according to the principles of the WELL Building Standard,a system that focuses on evaluating those design and organisational aspectsthat have a direct impact on the wellbeing of building users. This publicationis intended as a review, and the aim of this article is to analyse if following WELLcertification rules can help to design a modern office that suits a post-pandemic society.
PL
Pracownicy są istotną częścią systemu produkcyjnego i wykonują różnorodne prace i zadania. Pracy wykonywanej przez operatorów towarzyszy ergonomiczne ryzyko wystąpienia zaburzeń mięśniowo-szkieletowych (ZMSz). ZMSz u pracowników w związku z wykonywaną pracą zawodową są nadal powszechnym zjawiskiem w przemyśle. ZMSz prowadzą do zakłóceń w procesach produkcji, absencji chorobowej oraz generują dodatkowe koszty dla przedsiębiorstw. W artykule przedstawiono ergonomiczną analizę ryzyka narażenia operatora na ZMSz w oparciu o studium przypadku. Do oceny ryzyka zastosowano metodę OWAS. Ocenę wykonano na stanowisku wykrawania arkuszy blach. Praca posiadała charakter powtarzalny i charakteryzowała się cyklem czasowym operatora. Wyniki pokazały, że operator ponad 28% efektywnego czasu pracy przebywa w szkodliwych i bardzo szkodliwych pozycjach pracy, z dużym oraz bardzo dużym ryzykiem powstania zaburzeń w układzie mięśniowo-szkieletowym. Sformułowano rekomendacje obejmujące zmiany w strukturze przestrzennej stanowiska pracy, przeprowadzenie szkoleń pracowników z podstaw ergonomii stanowiska pracy oraz prawidłowych pozycji podczas pracy.
EN
Workers are an essential part of the production system and perform a variety of jobs and tasks. The work performed by operators is accompanied by an ergonomic risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). MSDs are still common phenomenon in industry. And MSDs lead to disruptions in production processes, sickness absence and additional costs for businesses. The article presents an ergonomic risk analysis of operator exposure to MSDs based on a case study. The OWAS method was used for risk assessment. The evaluation was performed at the sheet metal punching station. The task was repetitive and characterized by the operator's work cycle. The results showed that the operator spends more than 28% of the effective working time in harmful and very harmful working postures, with a high and very high risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders. Recommendations were formulated, including changes in the layout of the workplace, training employees on the principles of ergonomics and correct working postures.
EN
People spend most of their adult lives in the workplace and at work. It is therefore essential to create an environment and working conditions that positively affect their work performance and well-being at work. Ergonomics is the science that studies the relationship between people and the environment that surrounds them on a daily basis. It is not only about achieving optimum work performance, but for companies ergonomics can save costs associated with health problems and physical and psychological illnesses of employees due to poor quality of life in the workplace. Even today, with the implementa-tion of Industry 4.0 and increasing levels of automation and robotization, technological developments are enabling efficient production processes and bringing about changes in human work. With this comes the emergence of new threats to employee well-being and challenging their existing skills and knowledge. It is therefore essential to provide quality workplaces for the workforce that will be work-ing in the changed environment. The aim of this paper is to present how ergonomic rationalisation can be used to influence the quality of life in the workplace so that employees are able to perform optimally at work without negatively impacting on their health.
PL
Tematem opracowania jest analiza potencjalnego wpływu powszechnej implementacji hybrydowego modelu pracy biurowej na środowisko naturalne. Obejmuje ona między innymi symulacje oszczędności zużycia energii i paliw, a także potencjalnego wstrzymania realizacji nowych obiektów biurowych, pod warunkiem wprowadzenia w Polsce powszechnego systemu pracy hybrydowej dla pracowników sektora usług.
EN
The subject of this study is an analysis of the potential environmental impact of the widespread implementation of a hybrid office working model. It includes, among other things, simulations of energy and fuel consumption savings, as well as the potential halt in the construction of new office buildings, conditional on the introduction of a universal hybrid working system for service sector employees in Poland.
EN
Small and medium-sized enterprises play a crucial role in job creation in the wood industry. The process of employee ageing and avoidance of heavy physical effort affect the labour market contribution. The need to increase work efficiency is certainly reflected in the pressures on employees. Workplace health investigations with the Work Ability Index (WAI) is a one of several tools that take into account job requirements, the employee health status and their resources. In the conducted study, an attempt was made to assess the workability of logging workers in the private sector of small and medium-sized enterprises. Excellent work readiness was found only among harvester and forwarder operators aged 20-30. Different dynamics of WAI decline as a function of age were also observed. In general, for the study group, the WAI fluctuated at a moderate level depending on the technical equipment, age of the employees, BMI, log dimensions and quality (pulp, industry or large saw log wood) or machine productivity. The worst situation was observed during silvicultural treatments of deciduous (beech) stands using the cut-to-length (short saw log wood harvesting) method. Ageing, being overweight, deteriorating health and the mainly physical nature of work are risk factors for low (mediocre) work capacity. It can partially be modelled by increasing employee engagement through an appropriate incentive system. We often observed differences between the work demands determined by the employer's expectations and the social, physical, and health limitations of employees, which led them to seek easier jobs.
EN
Purpose: The reason for this publication was the opinions of pilots, incident investigation reports indicating problems with the ergonomics of the glider cabin, as well as the author's own experience. Design/methodology/approach: The article attempts to assess the musculoskeletal load of a pilot. The research was carried out using the SWP method, with the help of which the load assessment was performed for selected positions adopted by the pilot in flight. The method allows the identification of the load on separate body segments. Findings: The publication briefly characterizes the method and factors affecting the level of musculoskeletal load. During the study, the positions for which the greatest musculoskeletal load occurs were identified. The effect of incompatibility on operator unreliability was also considered. Based on the results, corrective measures were proposed, the implementation of which could increase pilot comfort, as well as flight safety. Originality/value: The article identifies problems related to the ergonomics of the glider's cabin. A number of corrective measures have been proposed including non-invasive measures as well as minor interventions in the construction of the glider. The recipients of the publication can be pilots, operators and designers alike.
EN
The purpose of this study was to analyse the relationship between the aspects of ergonomics and economics in the construction industry. Ergonomic cost calculation mainly as a result of down time due to accidents and incidents was evaluated. The impact of ergonomics intervention on construction economic in the logistics network was also determined. This impact was simulated using an annual total of accidents for the year 2021. Organizations, particularly businesses, must implement ergonomics diagnosis measures in order to reduce occupational hazards and accidents in their supply chain. Ergonomics measures are implemented to reduce and eliminate workplace accidents, but most manufacturing companies and employers overlook this aspect because it is seen as an expense. The case study was performed in Hexagon Steel Construction company. This is due to the fact that such a business operative is responsible for a wide range of activities in the logistical network, from manufacturing to warehousing and distribution, and finally to final structure installation on the construction site.
12
Content available Analysis of the ergonomics of e-commerce websites
EN
The following paper includes research about ergonomics of e-commerce web applications. Main purpose of experiment was to compare existing application of Morele.net shop and developed prototype of application using eyetracking examination and survey. The study carried out on a group of 40 students provided heat maps, scan paths, number of fixations and saccades, times to the first fixation in area of interest, task completion times, assessments of both applications in the form of WUP indicators. Based on the qualitative and quantitative analysis, conclusions were drawn confirming the hypothesis put forward in the work that there is an impact of ergonomic placement of navigation elements on the accessibility and usability of the application, as well as the time of performing tasks in it.
PL
Niniejszy artykuł dotyczy badań związanych z ergonomią aplikacji internetowych z branży e-commerce. Głównym celem eksperymentu było porównanie istniejącej aplikacji sklepu Morele.net oraz opracowanego prototypu aplikacji z wykorzystaniem badania okulograficznego i ankiety. Z badań przeprowadzonych na grupie 40 studentów otrzymano mapy cieplne, ścieżki skanowania, liczby fiksacji, liczby sakkad, czasy do pierwszej fiksacji w obszarze zainteresowania, czasy wykonania zadań oraz oceny obu aplikacji w postaci wskaźnika WUP. Na podstawie analizy jakościowej iilościowej wyciągnięto wnioski potwierdzające postawioną w pracy hipotezę o wpływie ergonomicznego rozmieszczenia elementów nawigacyjnych na dostępność i użyteczność aplikacji oraz czas wykonywania w niej zadań
PL
Polskie kluby szermiercze korzystają z uniwersalnych sal sportowych, które nie spełniają podstawowych potrzeb szermierzy. Przeprowadzone badanie miało na celu analizę funkcjonalną sal szermierczych i wypracowanie wytycznych dla projektowania obiektów dedykowanych sportom szermierczym. W badaniu ważne było zaangażowanie sportowców, aby przeanalizować ich specyficzne potrzeby. Istotne było także odniesienie do literatury przedmiotu, aby sprawdzić, czy istnieją opracowania, które wskazują na parametry sal szermierczych określające ramy dla inwestycji budowlanych. Wykorzystano różne włączające techniki badawcze z uwzględnieniem technik internetowych, które były konieczne ze względu na ograniczenia wywołane pandemią COVID-19. Badania pokazały braki dotyczące literatury przedmiotu w zakresie projektowania ergonomicznych sal szermierczych i potrzebę wypracowania wytycznych dla nowych, planowanych inwestycji, które będą indywidualnie dostosowywane do potrzeb sportów szermierczych. Na szczególną uwagę zasługują informacje pozyskane od osób zaangażowanych oraz użytkujących sale szermiercze. Ich głos wskazuje na trudną sytuację przestrzenną i konieczność działań zwiększających komfort uprawiania szermierki.
EN
Polish fencing clubs use universal sports halls which do not meet the basic needs of fencers. The aim of the study was to carry out a functional analysis of fencing rooms and to develop guidelines for the design of facilities dedicated to fencing sports. It was important to involve athletes in the study to analyse their specific needs. It was necessary to check if there are studies that indicate the parameters of fencing halls that define the framework for building investments. Various inclusive research techniques were used with the inclusion of Internet Techniques, which were necessary due to the constraints caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The research showed the shortcomings regarding the literature on the subject and the need to develop guidelines for new planned investments that are individually adapted to the needs of fencing sports. Particularly noteworthy is the information obtained from those involved in and using fencing halls. Their voice indicates the difficult spatial situation and the need for temporary measures to improve the comfort of fencing.
EN
The importance of kitchen furniture ergonomics for people with disabilities. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the kitchen equipment for people with disabilities from the point of view of furniture ergonomics and their adaptation to the needs of this social group. Research has shown that the majority of respondents are not satisfied with the equipment of their kitchen and, having such an opportunity, would make changes to it. At the same time, the responses showed little knowledge of people with disabilities about the available design solutions for furniture available on the market.
PL
Znaczenie ergonomii mebli kuchennych przeznaczonych dla osób niepełnosprawnych. Celem artykułu była ocena wyposażenia kuchni osób niepełnosprawnych z punktu widzenia ergonomii mebli i ich dostosowania do potrzeb tej grupy społecznej. Badania wykazały, że większość ankietowanych nie jest zadowolona z wyposażenia swojej kuchni i mając taką możliwość dokonałaby w niej zmian. Odpowiedzi ankietowanych wykazały jednocześnie niewielką wiedzę osób niepełnosprawnych na temat dostępnych rozwiązań konstrukcyjnych mebli dostępnych na rynku
PL
Kopyto to narzędzie w produkcji obuwia. Dotychczas do projektowania kopyt wykorzystuje się dane uzyskane na przełomie lat 60 i 70 XX w. za pomocą pomiarów ręcznych. W ramach tej pracy przebadano przy użyciu skanera 3D grupę 461 dzieci polskich w wieku 6-10 lat. Analizowano następujące wymiary: długość stopy, szerokość i obwód przodostopia, obwód przez piętę, obwód przez podbicie. Zbadano przydatność metody skanowania stóp w badaniach populacyjnych dzieci. Uzyskane wyniki stanowią wstęp do opracowania nowego standardu dla projektowania kopyt zarówno w odniesieniu do metody przenoszenia wymiarów z badań populacyjnych na kopyto, w oparciu o dane uzyskane z badań dla wszystkich grup wielkościowych.
EN
The last is the basic tool in the production of footwear, determining the shape of the foot and the comfort of footwear. Until now, last design is based on data obtained at the turn of the 1960s and 1970s using manual measurements. A group of 461 Polish children aged 6-10 was examined using a 3D scanner. It was analyzed: foot length, forefoot width, ball girth, heel circumference, instep circumference. The obtained results are an introduction to the development of a new standard for hoof design, both in relation to the method of transferring dimensions from population studies to the last, based on data obtained from studies for all size groups.
EN
At present, there are a large number of manufacturers operating on the market, which are engaged in the production and distribution of mechatronic and robotic toys. These toys range from the cheapest and simplest to sophisticated costly models for play education. Looking at the market offer, it can be stated that mechatronic toys are being produced, which are intended for children of several months. When developing children’s and educational robotics, it is, therefore, necessary to take into account the psychomotor development of the child. Respecting or not respecting it has a major impact on the success of the toy for the consumer and the fulfillment of the educational goal for which it is intended. Last but not least, in connection with the child’s development, the question arises as to what ergonomic principles, when designing toys intended for children depending on age, need to be respected and implemented into solutions to eliminate problems related to the development of children’s and educational robotics. The subject of interest in the article is the age groups of children from birth to preschool age. The aim of the article is to identify which factors in the construction of children’s robotic toys for the youngest children up to the period of preschool age are key from the point of view of ergonomics.
EN
Maintainability is one of the design parameters (reliability, availability, maintainability, and safety (RAMS)) and maintenance is needed to keep the respective design in sustainable use. At the same time, the human is involved in the form of interface and interaction in an engineered product/system designed. Ergonomics is a multi-disciplinary science that considers human capabilities and limitations in a broader sense. The objective of this paper is to integrate ergonomics into the maintainability design process in order to facilitate maintenance operation in lesser; time, cost, easier operation as well as the well-being of human who is involved. In other words, good ergonomics lead to good economics and in a broader sense, sustainability. This investigation shows that designing comfortable workplaces and lesser workload for maintenance operators will be beneficial for the maintainability design process and also improve the meantime to repair MTTR. In order to evaluate the effect of designed workplace and workload on maintainers 3 D Static Strength Prediction Program (3D SSPP) that is commonly used as an ergonomics evaluation tool in scientific studies was applied.
18
PL
Jeszcze do niedawna komputery były urządzeniami przeznaczonymi dla procesów badawczych i militarnych, a dziś stanowią integralną część życia człowieka. Tak szybki rozwój technologii i nowych możliwości sprawia, że nauka, która zajmuje się relacjami człowieka z komputerem (HCI) ma pełno niezbadanych lub niewystarczająco przebadanych obszarów. Niniejszy artykuł na podstawie dostępnych metod badawczych HCI ma pokazać, że obecnie mocno spopularyzowana mysz komputerowa, która jest narzędziem umożliwiającym HCI, nie zawsze będzie najlepszym rozwiązaniem dla każdego użytkownika. Zestawienie myszy komputerowej z innymi dostępnymi na rynku kontrolerami i przebadanie ich w specjalnie przygotowanym środowisku testowym przez wybraną grupę badawczą, będzie najlepszym sposobem do rzetelnego stwierdzenia, że użycie myszy komputerowa nie zawsze może okazać się najlepszym wyborem.
EN
Until recently, computers were devices intended for research and military processes, and today they are an integral part of human life. Such a rapid development of technology and new possibilities means that the science that deals with human-computer relations (HCI) has a lot of unexplored or insufficiently studied areas. Based on the available HCI research methods, this article is to show that the currently highly popularized computer mouse, which is a tool that enables HCI, will not always be the best solution for every user. Comparing a computer mouse with other commercially available controllers and testing them in a specially prepared test environment by a selected research group will be the best way to reliably state that the use of a computer mouse may not always be the best choice.
EN
The presence of vapours and gases of chemical compounds in the atmospheric air contributes to mental discomfort as well as irritation of the respiratory tract and eyes. The technical solutions applied, such as collective protection measures, namely the encapsulation of processes or local ventilation equipped with appropriate air filters, are often insufficient. In such a case, respiratory protective equipment (RPE) is the basic and, in many cases, the only technical means that protects humans against the harmful effects of this type of harmful substance. The study evaluated the ergonomic and anti-odour properties of a novel filtering half-mask model with an oxygen indicator in functional workplace tests. In addition, the subjective anti-odour assessment results from functional tests were statistically compared with the results of olfactometric tests. The differences identified are attributable to the fact that the olfactometric method excludes subjects with olfactory impairments. Moreover, statistical analysis indicated significant differences in anti-odour properties between a reference half-mask and the filtering half-mask model with a nonwoven adsorbent layer (91% odour reduction). The filtering half-mask developed was found to provide high and very high levels of user comfort and exhibited excellent protective and functional properties, with a filtration performance of 96% and breathing resistance of 147 Pa. Those parameters qualify the filtering half-mask presented for protection class FFP2. In addition, the half-mask effectively absorber the vapours of malodorous substances up to 3 h and displayed oxygen concentration in the breathing zone. It should be noted that currently no such device is commercially available either in Poland or in the European Union.
PL
Obecność wonnych par i gazów w powietrzu atmosferycznym może wiązać się z występowaniem dyskomfortu psychicznego, podrażnienia układu oddechowego i oczu. Stosowane rozwiązania techniczne w postaci środków ochrony zbiorowej, czyli hermetyzowania procesów czy wentylacja miejscowa wyposażona w odpowiednie filtry powietrza, są często niewystarczające. W takim przypadku sprzęt ochrony układu oddechowego (SOUO) jest podstawowym, a w wielu przypadkach jedynym, środkiem technicznym chroniącym człowieka przed szkodliwym działaniem tego typu substancji. W artykule przedstawiono ergonomiczne i przeciwodorowe właściwości nowego modelu półmaski filtrującej ze wskaźnikiem tlenu ocenione w funkcjonalnych testach prowadzonych na wybranych stanowiskach pracy. Analiza statystyczna wykazała istotne różnice we właściwościach antyzapachowych między referencyjną półmaską a modelem półmaski filtrującej z włókninową warstwą adsorbentu (redukcja zapachu o 91%). Stwierdzono, że opracowana półmaska filtrująca zapewnia wysoki lub bardzo wysoki poziom komfortu użytkownika oraz wykazuje bardzo dobre właściwości ochronne i użytkowe przy skuteczności filtracji 96% i oporze oddychania 147 Pa. Parametry te kwalifikują prezentowaną półmaskę filtrującą do klasy ochrony FFP2. Dodatkowo półmaska skutecznie absorbuje pary substancji o nieprzyjemnym zapachu do 3 godzin i wskazuje stężenie tlenu w strefie oddychania w czasie rzeczywistym. Należy zaznaczyć, że obecnie żadne takie urządzenie nie jest dostępne na rynku ani w Polsce, ani w Unii Europejskiej.
EN
This study provides empirical indicators on the presence of alarming mental stress levels among healthcare staffs as a result of the work environment. The study uses a comprehensive survey to identify work stressors and to addresses stress symptoms and coping behaviours among the healthcare givers in Jordan as a case study. The study aims to direct management’s attention to work conditions that largely contribute to increasing mental stresses among their healthcare staffs. Moreover, the study identifies out stress symptoms that employees, team leaders and managers should not ignore to help their fellow workers cope with their stresses through legitimate coping behaviours. A total of 300 responses from 176 nurses, 45 technicians and 79 physicians from three hospitals with high patient flows were included in the statistical analyses. Results demonstrate that stressors related to high job demands, especially long working hours, have the highest impact on the development of stress among surveyed caregivers. Job-demand stressors were the most significant predictor of the symptom recurrence level with a β = 0.334. Continual tiredness and frequent headaches were the most frequent stress symptoms. Taking unprescribed medications, smoking tobacco, and faking reasons to take time off were the most common behaviours to relieve stress. This study contributes to the literature theoretically and practically. From a theoretical perspective, the study provides a comprehensive survey that captures the symptoms, relieve behaviours and work-related causes of stress. From the practical perspective, the study helps care providers and healthcare managers address and resolve work stressors and help their staff adopt healthy behaviours to relieve their stresses.
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