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Content available remote Metody teoretyczne badań naukowych
W artykule przedstawione zostały problemy, dotyczące terminologii badań naukowych (nauka, metodologia, metodyka, metoda badawcza, technika badawcza, narzędzia badawcze). Szczegółowo scharakteryzowane zostały metody badawcze stosowane podczas: opracowywania materiałów (analiza, synteza, wyłączanie i włączanie cech, indukcja i dedukcja, analogia), przetwarzania materiałów (porządkowanie, selekcja i eliminacja, klasyfikacja i segregacja, grupowanie) oraz systematyzowania materiałów (definiowanie, modelowanie, wyjaśnienie, dowodzenie, sprawdzenie, wnioskowanie). Przedstawione pojęcia nie są jednoznacznie określone, co bywa powodem wielu nieporozumień terminologicznych. Ponadto brak jest usystematyzowania metod badawczych, odnoszących się do kolejnych etapów pisania prac naukowych. Niniejszy artykuł wychodzi naprzeciw złożonym problemom, dotyczącym teoretycznych metod badań naukowych.
The paper refers to some problems of science research terminology (science, methodology, methodic, research method, research technique, research tools). There have been characterized in detail research methods during: collecting of materials (analyze, synthesis, feature excluding and including, induction and deduction, analogy), processing of materials (ordering, selection and elimination, classification and segregation, grouping) and systematizing of materials (defining, modeling, explanation, vindication, verification, concluding). The mentioned notions are not unambiguously determined, what causes terminology misunderstandings. Furthermore the research methods are not systematized on subsequent phases of writing science papers. The paper comes mentioned complicated problems, referring theoretical methods of science researches.
Content available remote Project of geodynamic investigations development in the Sudeten and adjacent areas
Satellite, gravimetric and geodetic investigations carried out in Eastern Sudetes and Fore-Sudetic Block, during the 90'ties, have shown recent mobility of sorne geological and tectonic structures. Results of geological studies, suggesting that tectonic movements in this region, with culmination in Neogene, have not yet ended, have been confirmed. These facts have also given grounds for extension of geodynamic research to the whole Sudetes and adjacent areas. Within the framework of "GEOSUD II" project four new research profiles have been selected in Central and Western Sudetes as well as neighbouring areas of Fore-Sudetic Block. In the expanded version of investigations satellite GPS, geodetic and gravimetric observations are planned. Inclusion of the Czech part of the Sudetes in this research in close International cooperation and connection to "GEOSUD" and "GEOSUD II" projects is well founded.
The project - "Installation of the long water tube tiltmeter in Książ Geophysical Observatory" was accepted to realisation by the Committee of Scientific Research of Poland (KBN). The works over a new tiltmeter were started in 1997. The long water-tube tiltmeter consists of two perpendicular tubes, 81 and 92 m length. The tubes are partially filled with water. Variations of the water level at the ends of tubes are measured with very high precision near to single nanometers with use interferometric method. The pictures of the interference rings are reading by the CCD-cameras, analysing and storing on hard disc of the PC-computer. The lack of drift of the long water tube tiltmeter permits on new investigations. We can expect that collected measurements allow to considerably improving accuracy of the tidal waves parameters determination as well as investigate the secular and long period variations of the plumb line. The phenomena of present movements of the tectonic plates, movements in Sudeten formation as well as rate of erosion processes are on the list of new investigations. The applications of a new tiltmeter also contain investigations over plumb line variations, generated in ocean and produced by " global greenhouse effect". The "greenhouse effect" is reason of long period and systematic variations of the plumb line as well as modulation of tidal waves (Chojnicki, 1989, 1991 and 1991) (Kaczorowski, 1989 and 1989). On the list of applications of a new tiltmeter there are also investigations of non-periodic effects of plumb line variations produced by atmospheric phenomena. An additional aspect of construction of the long watertube tiltmeter is possibility of initiation comparatives works between two difFerent kind tiltmeters. The comparison between long water tube and horizontal pendulums will allow determination of the instrumental drift of the quartz horizontal pendulums, working in Książ station since 30 years and increase scientific value of 30-years long, continuous series of observations, performed at the Książ station.
The Processing Centre at the Institute of Geodesy and Geodetic Astronomy, Warsaw University of Technology (IGGA WUT) was established in the early 1990s. In 1992 it started data processing of large geodetic networks, including EXTENDED SAGET frame which was observed on yearly basis over the years 1992-1998. CERGOP Processing Centre was set up in 1994. The Centre performed data processing of the successive campaigns conducted annually in the years 1992- 1997 on the CEGRN frame established within this project. Since the early 1995 tests on computation strategies were performed in cooperation with the CODE Centre in Bern. The tests were later used for the IGS pilot project on the densification of ITRF through a regional network data processing. In 1996 the WUT GPS Processing Centre became one of the European Local Analysis Centres operating within the framework of EUREF (WUT EUREF LA C). The Centre performs systematic data processing for a selected number of permanent stations, which participate in the EUREF permanent network. For several years now research and works have been conducted on continuous monitoring of the ionosphere and troposphere and on modetling geophysical phenomena for the GPS needs. The local model of deformations will be developed by combining tidal gravimetric data, regional meteorological data and a cycle of observations of the latitude changes conducted for a period of over 40 years and processed in HIPPARCOS system. This paper presents current state of the art of the Centre's activities.
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